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assembly of men, women, and children ground, never respecting whether it were (invited by the report of them which first clean or soft, but dashed themselves in saw us, who as it seems, had in that time this manner on hard stones, knobby hilof purpose dispersed themselves into the locks, stocks of wood, and pricking country, to make known the news), who bushes, or whatever else lay in their way,

, came now the second time unto us, bring- iterating the same course again and again; ing with them, as before had been done,

yea, women, some nine or ten times each, feathers, and bags of tabah for presents, and others holding out till 15 or 16 times or rather indeed for sacrifices, upon this (till their strength failed them) exercised persuasion that we were gods.

this cruelty against themselves: a thing When they came to the top of the hill, more grievous for us to see or suffer, could at the bottom whereof we had built our we have helped it, than trouble to them fort, they made a stand; where one (ap- (as it seemed) to do it. This bloody sacripointed as their chief speaker) wearied fice (against our wills) being thus perboth us his hearers, and himself too, with formed, our General, with his company, a long and tedious oration; delivered with in the presence of those strangers, fell strange and violent gestures, his voice to prayers; and by signs in lifting up our being extended to the uttermost strength eyes and hands to heaven, signified unto of nature, and his words falling so thick them that that God whom we did serve, one in the neck of another, that he could and whom they ought to worship, was hardly fetch his breath again: as soon as above: beseeching God, if it were his he had concluded, all the rest, with a good pleasure, to open by some means reverent bowing of their bodies in a their blinded eyes, that they might in dreaming manner, and long producing of due time be called to the knowledge of the same) cried Oh: thereby giving their him, the true and ever-living God, and of consents that all was very true that he had Jesus Christ whom he hath sent, the salvaspoken, and that they had uttered their tion of the Gentiles. In the time of which mind by his mouth unto us; which done, prayers, singing of Psalms, and reading the men laying down their bows upon the of certain chapters in the Bible, they sat hill, and leaving their women and children very attentively: and observing the end behind them, came down with their pres- at every pause, with one voice still cried, ents; in such sort as if they had appeared Oh, greatly rejoicing in our exercises. before a God indeed, thinking themselves Yea they took such pleasure in our singing happy that they might have access unto of Psalms, that whensoever they resorted our General, but much more happy when to us, their first request was commonly they saw that he would receive at their this, gnaáh, by which they entreated that hands those things which they so willingly we would sing. had presented: and no doubt they thought Our General having now bestowed upon themselves nearest unto God when they them divers things, at their departure they sat or stood next to him. In the mean- restored them all again, none carrying with time, the women, as if they had been him anything of whatsoever he had redesperate, used unnatural violence against ceived, thinking themselves sufficiently themselves, crying and shrieking piteously, enriched and happy that they had found tearing their flesh with their nails from so free access to see us. their cheeks in a monstrous manner, the Against the end of three days more (the blood streaming down along their breasts, news having the while spread itself farther, besides despoiling the upper parts of their and as it seemed a great way up into the bodies of those single coverings they country), were assembled the greatest formerly had, and holding their hands number of people which we could reasonabove their heads that they might not ably imagine to dwell within any conrescue their breasts from harm, they venient distance round about. Amongst would with fury cast themselves upon the the rest the king himself, a man of a

goodly stature and comely personage, yet are stinted what number they shall use, attended with his guard of about 100 tall as some ten, some twelve, some twenty, and warlike men, this day, viz., June 26, and as they exceed in number of chains, came down to see us.

so thereby are they known to be the more Before his coming, were sent two am- honorable personages. bassadors or messengers to our General, to Next unto him that bare this scepter, signify that their hióh, that is, their king, was the king himself with his guard about was coming and at hand. They in the him; his attire upon his head was a caul delivery of their message, the one spake of knitwork, wrought upon somewhat like with a soft and low voice, prompting his the crowns, but differing much both in fellow; the other pronounced the same, fashion and perfectness of work; upon his word by word, after him with a voice more shoulders he had on a coat of the skins of audible, continuing their proclamation (for conies, reaching to his waist; his guard such it was) about half an hour. Which also had each coats of the same shape, but being ended, they by signs made request of other skins; some having cauls likewise to our General, to send something by stuck with feathers, or covered over with their hands to their hióh, or king as a a certain down, which groweth up in the token that his coming might be in peace. country upon an herb much like our letOur General willingly satisfied their desire; tuce, which exceeds any other down in the and they, glad men, made speedy return world for fineness, and being laid upon to their hióh. Neither was it long before their cauls, by no winds can be removed. their king (making as princely a show as Of such estimation is this herb amongst possibly he could) with all his train came them, that the down thereof is not lawful forward.

to be worn, but of such persons as are In their coming forwards they cried about the king (to whom also it is percontinually after a singing manner, with a mitted to wear a plume of feathers on their lusty courage.

And as they drew nearer heads, in sign of honour), and the seeds are and nearer towards us, so did they more not used but only in sacrifice to their gods. and more strive to behave themselves with After these, in their order, did follow the a certain comeliness and gravity in all their naked sort of common people, whose hair actions.

being long, was gathered into a bunch In the forefront came a man of a large behind, in which stuck plumes of feathers; body and goodly aspect, bearing the but in the forepart only single feathers scepter or royal mace, made of a certain like horns, every one pleasing himself in kind of black wood, and in length about a his own device. yard and a half, before the king. Where- This one thing was observed to be genupon hung two crowns, a bigger and a less, eral amongst them all, that every one had with three chains of a marvelous length, his face painted, some with white, some and often doubled, besides a bag of the black, and some with other colours, every herb tabáh. The crowns were made of man also bringing in his hand one thing knitwork, wrought upon most curiously or other for a gift or present. Their train with feathers of divers colours, very arti- or last part of their company consisted of ficially placed, and of a formal fashion. women and children, each woman bearing The chains seemed of a bony substance, against her breast a round basket or two, every link or part thereof being very little, having within them divers things, as bags thin, most finely burnished, with a hole of tabáh, a root which they call petáh, pierced through the middle. The number whereof they make a kind of meal, and of links going to make one chain, is in a either bake it into bread, or eat it raw; manner infinite; but of such estimation broiled fishes, like a pilchard; the seed it is amongst them, that few be the persons and down aforenamed, with such like. that are admitted to wear the same; and Their baskets were made in fashion like even they to whom it is lawful to use them, a deep bowl, and though the matter were rushes, or such other kind of stuff, yet was carriage began a song, and answerable it so cunningly handled, that the most part thereunto observed a kind of measures in of them would hold water: about the a dance: whom the king with his guard brims they were hung with pieces of the and every other sort of person following, shells of pearls, and in some places with did in like manner sing and dance, saving two or three links at a place of the chains only the women, who danced but kept aforenamed: thereby signifying that they silence. As they danced they still came were vessels wholly dedicated to the only on: and our General perceiving their use of the gods they worshipped; and be- plain and simple meaning, gave order that sides this, they were wrought upon with the they might freely enter without intermatted down of red feathers, distinguished ruption within our bulwark. Where, after into divers works and forms.

they had entered, they yet continued their In the meantime, our General having song and dance a reasonable time, their assembled his men together (as forecasting women also following them with their the danger and worst that might fall out) wassail bowls in their hands, their bodies prepared himself to stand upon sure bruised, their faces torn, their breasts, ground, that we might at all times be and other parts bespotted with blood, ready in our own defence, if anything trickling down from the wounds, which should chance otherwise than was looked with their nails they had made before for or expected.

their coming. Wherefor every man being in a warlike After that they had satisfied, or rather readiness, he marched within his fenced tired themselves in this manner, they made place, making against their approach a signs to our General to have him sit down; most warlike show (as he did also at all unto whom both the king and divers others other times of their resort), whereby if made several orations, or rather, indeed, they had been desperate enemies, they if we had understood them, supplications, could not have chosen but have conceived that he would take the province and kingterror and fear, with discouragement to dom into his hand, and become their attempt anything against us, in beholding king and patron: making signs that they of the same.

would resign unto him their right and When they were come somewhat near title in the whole land, and become his unto us, trooping together, they gave us a vassals in themselves and their posterity: common or general salutation, observing which that they might make us indeed in the meantime a general silence. Where- believe that it was their true meaning upon, he who bare the scepter before the and intent, the king himself, with all the king, being prompted by another whom rest, with one consent and with great revthe king assigned to that office, pro- erence, joyfully singing a song, set the nounced with an audible and manly voice crown upon his head, enriched his neck what the other spoke to him in secret, with all their chains, and offering unto continuing, whether it were his oration or him many other things, honoured him by proclamation, at the least half an hour. the name of hióh. Adding thereunto At the close whereof there was a common (as it might seem) a song and dance of Amen, in sign of approbation, given by triumph; because they were not only every person: and the king himself, with visited of the gods (for so they still judged the whole number of men and women us to be), but the great and chief god was (the little children only remaining behind) now become their god, their king and came further down the hill, and as they patron, and themselves were become the came set themselves again in their former only happy and blessed people in the order.

world. And being now come to the foot of the hill and near our fort, the scepter bearer, with a composed countenance and stately

ROGER ASCHAM

in a child for learning, and of the true

difference betwixt quick and hard wits, QUEEN ELIZABETH'S LEARNING

of alluring young children by gentleness to From THE SCHOLEMASTER

love learning, and of the special care that

was to be had to keep young men from It is your shame (I speak to you all, you

licentious living, he was most earnest with young gentlemen of England) that one

me, to have me say my mind also, what I maid should go beyond you all in excel

thought concerning the fancy that many lency of learning and knowledge of divers

young gentlemen of England have to tongues. Point forth six of the best given

travel abroad, and namely to lead a long gentlemen of this Court, and all they

life in Italy. His request, both for his together show not so much goodwill, spend authority and good will toward me, was a not so much time, bestow not so many sufficient commandment unto me to satisfy hours, daily, orderly and constantly, for

his pleasure with uttering plainly my the increase of learning and knowledge as

opinion in that matter. “Sir,” quoth I, doth the Queen's Majesty herself. Yea,

“I take going thither and living ther for I believe that beside her perfect readiness

a young gentleman that doth not go under in Latin, Italian, French and Spanish,

the keep and guard of such a man, as both she readeth here now at Windsor more

by wisdom can, and authority dare rule Greek every day than some prebendary him, to be marvellous dangerous.” And of this Church doth read Latin in a whole

why I said so then, I will declare at large week.

now: which I said then privately and And that which is most praiseworthy of

write now openly, not because I do conall, within the walls of her privy chamber

temn either the knowledge of strange and she hath obtained that excellency of learn

diverse tongues, and namely the Italian ing, to understand, speak and write, both

tongue, which next to the Greek and Latin wittily with head and fair with hand, as

tongue I like and love above all other; or scarce one or two rare wits in both the

else because I do despise the learning that universities have in many years reached

is gotten, or the experience that is gathered unto. Amongst all the benefits that God

in strange countries; or for any private hath blest me withal, next the knowledge malice that I bear to Italy, which country, of Christ's true religion, I count this the and in it namely Rome I have always greatest, that it pleased God to call me to

specially honoured. Because, time was, be one poor minister in setting forward

when Italy and Rome have been, to the these excellent gifts in this most excellent

great good of us that now live, the best prince. Whose only example, if the rest

breeders and bringers up of the worthiest of our nobility would follow, then might

men, not only for wise speaking, but also England be, for learning and wisdom in

for well doing in all civil affairs, that ever nobility, a spectacle to all the world beside.

was in the world. But now, that time is But see the mishap of men : the best

gone, and though the place remain, yet the examples have never such force to move

old and present manners do differ as far as to any goodness as the bad, vain, light and

black and white, as virtue and vice. fond, have to all illness.

Virtue once made that country mistress

over all the world. Vice now maketh that THE ITALIANATE ENGLISHMAN

country slave to them that before were From THE SCHOLEMASTER

glad to serve it. All men seeth it: they

themselves confess it, namely such as be SIR RICHARD SACKVILLE, that worthy best and wisest amongst them. For sin, gentleman of worthy memory, as I said by lust and vanity, hath and doth breed

, in the beginning, in the queen's privy up everywhere common contempt of God's chamber at Windsor, after he had talked word, private contention in many families, with me for the right choice of a good wit open factions in every city: and so, making themselves bond to vanity and vice at tions of the scholars. And now choose home, they are content to bear the yoke you, you Italian Englishmen, whether you of serving strangers abroad. Italy now will be angry with us for calling you monis not that Italy, that it was wont to be: sters, or with the Italians for calling you and therefore now not so fit a place, as devils, or else with your own selves, that some do count it, for young men to fetch take so much pains and go so far to make either wisdom or honesty from thence. your selves both. If some yet do not well For surely, they will make other but bad understand what is an Englishman Italscholars, that be so ill masters to them- ianated, I will plainly tell him. He, that selves. . .

by living and traveling in Italy, bringeth But I am afraid that over many of our home into England out of Italy the religion, travellers into Italy do not eschew the way the learning, the policy, the experience, to Circe's court, but go, and ride, and run, the manners of Italy. That is to say, for and fly thither. They make great haste religion papistry or worse: for learning

: to come to her: they make great suit to less commonly than they carried out with serve her: yea, I could point out some them: for policy a factious heart, a diswith my finger, that never had gone out of oursing head, a mind to meddle in all England, but only to serve Circes in Italy. men's matters: for experience plenty of Vanity and vice, and any licence to ill new mischiefs never known in England living in England was counted stale and before: for manners variety of vanities, rude unto them. And so, being mules and change of filthy living. These be the and horses before they went, returned enchantments of Circes, brought out of very swine and asses home again, yet Italy to mar men's manners in England; everywhere very foxes with subtle and much by example of ill life, but more by busy heads, and, where they may, very precepts of fond books, of late translated wolves with cruel malicious hearts. A out of Italian into English, sold in every marvellous monster, which for filthiness of shop in London, commended by honest living, for dullness to learning himself, titles the sooner to corrupt honest manfor wiliness in dealing with others, for ners, dedicated over boldly to virtuous and malice in hurting without cause, should honourable personages, the easier to becarry at once in one body the belly of a guile simple and innocent wits. It is pity swine, the head of an ass, the brain of a that those which have authority and fox, the womb of a wolf. If you think charge to allow and disallow books to be we judge amiss, and write too sore against printed, be no more circumspect herein you, hear what the Italian saith of the than they are. Ten sermons at Paul's Englishman, what the master reporteth Cross do not so much good for moving of the scholar: who uttereth plainly, what men to true doctrine, as one of those books is taught by him, and what learned by do harm with enticing men to ill living. you, saying, Englese italianato, è un diavolo Yea, I say farther, those books tend not incarnato, that is to say, you remain men so much to corrupt honest living, as they in shape and fashion, but become devils do to subvert true religion. More papists in life and condition. This is not the be made, by your merry books of Italy, opinion of one for some private spite, but than by your earnest books of Louvain. the judgment of all in a common proverb, And because our great physicians do wink which riseth of that learning and those at the matter, and make no count of this manners which you gather in Italy : sore, I, though not admitted one of their good schoolhouse of wholesome doctrine fellowship, yet having been many years and worthy masters of commendable a prentice to God's true religion, and trust scholars, where the master had rather to continue a poor journey-man therein defame himself for his teaching, than not all days of my life, for the duty I owe and

Ι shame his scholar for his learning. A love I bear to true doctrine and honest good nature of the master and fair condi- living, though I have no authority to

a

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