The Muse-imparted tribüte claim,

Due, Theron, to thy glorious name;
This ode is likewise inscribed to Theron king of And bid me temper in their master's praise

Agrigentum, upon the occasion of another vic- The fute, the warbling lyre, and melting laysi
tory obtained by him in the chariot-race at Lo! Pisa too the song requires;
Olympia; the date of which is unknown.

Elean Pisa, that inspires
The glowing bard with eager care

His heaven-directed present to prepare:
The scholiast acquaints us, that as Theron was

celebrating the Theoxenia (a festival instituted
by Castor and Pollux in honour of ail the gods) The present offer'd to his virtuous fame,
he received the news of a victory obtained by

On whose ennobled brows
his chariot in the Olympic games: from this The righteous umpire of the sacred game,
circumstance the poet takes occasion to address

Th’ Ætolian judge, bestows this ode to those two deities and their sister The darksome olive, studious to fulfil Helena, in whose temple, the same scholiast The mighty founder's will, informs us, some people with greatest probability

Who this fair ensign of Olympic toil conjectured, it was sung, at a solemn sacrifice From distant Scythia's fruitful soil, there offered by Theron to those deities, and to And Hyperborean Ister's woody shore, Hercules, also, as may be inferred from a passage

With fair entreaties gain'd, to Grecian Elis bore in the third strophe of the translation.


STROPHE II. there is another, and a more poetical propriety The blameless servants of the Delphic god in Pindar's invoking these divinities, that is

With joy the valued gifts bestow'd; suggested in the ode itself: for, after mention

Mov'd by the friendly chief to grant, ing the occasion of his composing it, namely, the

On terms of peace, the sacred plant, Olympic victory of Theron, and saying that a

Destin'd at once to shade Jove's honour'd shrine, triumphal song was a tribute due to that person And crown heroic worth with wreaths divine. upon whom the hellenodic, or judge of the games,

For now full-orb'd the wandering Moon bestowed the sacred olive, according to the in

In plenitude of brightness shone, stitution of their first founder Hercules, he proceeds to relate the fabulous, but legendary story, Pour'd all the radiance of her golden light :

And on the spacious eye of night of that hero's having brought that plant originally from Scythia, the country of the Hyperboreans, to Olympia; having planted it there Now on Jove's altars blaz'd the hallow'd fames, near the temple of Jupiter, and ordered that the And now were fix'd the mighty games, victors to those games should, for the future, be Again, when e'er the circling Sun, crowned with the branches of this sacred tree. Four times his annual course had run, To this he adds, that Hercules, upon his being Their period to renew, and shine again removed to Heaven, appointed the twin-brothers, On Alpheus' cragsy shores and Pisa's plain : Castor and Pollux, to celebrate the Olympic But subject all the region lay games, and execute the office of bestowing the To the fierce Suu's insulting ray, olive-crown upon those who obtained the victory; While upon Pelops burning vale and now, continues Pindar, he comes a propiti- No shade arose his fury to repell. ous guest, to this sacrifice of Theron, in company with the two sons of Leda, who, to reward the piety and zeal of Theron and his family,

Then traversing the hills, whose jutting basch have given them success and glory; to the

Indents Arcadia's meads, utmost limits of which he insinuates that Theron

To where the virgin goddess of the chase is arrived, and so concludes with affirming, that

Impells her foaming steeds, it would be in vain for any man, wise or unwise,

To Scythian Ister he directs his way, to attempt to surpass him.

Doom'd by his father to obey
The rigid pleasures of Mycenæ's king,

And thence the rapid bind to bring,
Whom, sacred present for the Orthian maid,

With horns of branching gold, Täygeta array'd. THERON KING OF AGRIGENTUM.






While to the fame of Agragas I sing,

For Theron wake th' Olympic string,
And with Aonian garlands grace

His steeds unwearied in the race;
O may the hospitable twins of Jove,
And bright-hair'd Helena, the song approve !

For this the Muse bestow'd her'aid,
As in new measures I essay'd

To harmonize the tuneful words,
And set to Durian airs my sounding chords.

There as the longsome chase the chief pursued,

The spacious Scythian plains he view'd ;
A land beyond the chilling blast

And northern caves of Boreas cast:
There too the groves of olive he survey'd,
And gaz'd with rapture on the pleasing shade,

Thence by the wondering hero borne
The goals of Elis to adurn.

And now to Theron's sacred feast
With Leda's twins he comes, propitious guest !

To Leda's twins (when Hearen's divine abodes

He sought, and mingled with the gods)

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He gave th' illustrious games to hold,

as from the prayer which the poet snbjoins imAnd crown the swift, the strong, and bold. mediately to his account of the first, viz. that Then, Muse, to Theron and his house proclaim Heaven would in like manner be favourable to The joyous tidings of success and fame,

the rest of the victor's wishes; which prayer, By Leda's twins bestow'd to grace,

though it be in general words, and one freEminenides, thy pious race,

quently used by Pindar in other of his odes, yet Who, mindful of Heaven's high behests, has a peculiar beauty and propriety, if taken to With strictest zeal observe their boly feasts, relate to the other two exercises, in which

Psaumis was still to contend; and in which he As water's vital streams all things surpass,

afterwards came off victorious. That it was the As gold's all-worship’d ore

custom for a conqueror, at the time of bis being Holds amid Fortune's stores the bighest class ;

proclaimed, to be attended by a chorus, who So to that distant shore,

sung a song of triumph in honour of his victory, To where the pillars of Alcides rise,

I bave observed in the dissertation prefixed to Fame's utmost boundaries,

these odes. In the second, there are so many Theron, pursuing his successful way,

marks of its having been made to be sung at the Hath deck'd with glury's brightest ray

triumphal entry of Psaumis into his own counHis lineal virtues.-Further to attain,

try, and those so evident, that, after this hint Wise, and unwise, with me despair: th' attempt

given, the reader cannot help observing them as were vain.

he goes through the ode.

i shall therefore say nothing more of them in this place; but that they tend, by showing for what occasion this

ode was calculated, to confirm what I said reTHE FIFTH OLYMPIC ODE.

lating to the other; and jointly with that to

prove, that there is no reason to conclude from This ode is inscribed to Psaumis of Camarina (a there being two odes inscribed to the same

town in Sicily), who, in the eighty-second Olym- person, and dated in the saine Olympiad, that piad, obtained three victories; one in the race the latter is not Pindar's, especially as it apof chariots drawn by four horses; a second in pears, both in the style and spirit, altogether the race of the apené, or chariot drawn by

worthy of him. mules, and a third in the race of single horses. Some people (it seems) have doubted, whether this

oue be Pindar's, for certain reasons, which, to- The poet begins with addressing himself to Camagether with the arguments on the other side, the rina, a sea nymph, from whom the city and learned reader may find in the Oxford edition lake were both named, to bespeak a favourable and others of this author; where it is clearly reception of his ode, a present which he tells proved to be genuine. But, besides the reasons her was made to her by Psaumis, who rendered there given for doubting if this ode be Pindar's, her city illustrious at the Olympic games; there is another (though not mentioned, as I where having obtained three victories, he conknow of, by any one) which may have helped to secrated his fame to Camarina, by ordering the bias people in their judgment upon this question. herald, when he proclaimed him conqueror, to I shall therefore beg leave to consider it a little, style him of that city. This he did at Olympia; because what I shall say upon that head will but now, continues Pindar, upon his coming tend to illustrate both the meaning and the home, he is more particular, and inserts in his method of Pindar in this ode. In the Greek triumphal song the names of the principal places editions of this author there are two odes (of and rivers belonging to Camarina; from whence which this is the second) inscribed to the same the poet takes occasion to speak of the rebuildPsaumis, and dated both in the same Olympiad. ing of that city, which was done about this time, But they differ from each other in several parti- and of the state of glory, to which, out of culars, as well in the matter as the manner. her low and miserable condition, she was now In the second ode, notice is taken of three brought by the means of Psaumis, and by the victories obtained by Psaumis; in the first, of lustre cast on her by his victories; victories only one, viz. that obtained by him in the race (says he) not to be obtained without much of chariots drawn by four horses: in the second, labour and expense, the usual attendants of not only the city of Camarina, but the lake of

great and glorious actions, but the man who the same name, many rivers adjoining to it, and succeeded in such-like undertakings was sure some circumstances relating to the present state, to be rewarded with the love and approbation of and the rebuilding of that city (which had been his country. The poet then addresses himself destroyed by the Syracusians some years before) to Jupiter in a prayer, beseeching him to adorn are mentioned ; whereas in the first, Camarina the city and state of Camarina with virtue and is barely named, as the country of the con- glory; and tu grant to the victor Psaumis a joyqueror, and as it were out of forin: from all ful and contented old age, and the happiness of which I conclude, that these two odes were dying before his children: after which he concomposed to be sung at different times, and cludes with an exhortation to Psanmis, to be in difierent places; the first at Olympia, im- contented with his condition; which he inmediately upon Psaumis's being proclaimed sinuates was as happy as that of a mortal could conqueror in the chariot-race, and before he ob

be, and it was to no purpose for him to wish to tained his other two victories. This may with be a god. great probability be inferred, as well from no mention being there made of those two victories, " See Mr. West's Preface, p. 142.




Calm may'st thou sink to endless night, Farr Camarina, daughter of the main,

Thy children, Psaumis, weeping round. With gracious smiles this choral song receive,

And since the gods have given thee fame and

wealth, Sweet fruit of virtuous toils; whose noble strain

Join'd with that prime of earthly treasures, health,
Shall to th’ Olympic wreath new lustre give :
This Psaumis, whom on Alpheus' shore

Enjoy the blessings they to man assign,
With unabating speed

Nor fondly sigh for happiness divine.
The harness'd mules to conquest bore,

This gift to thee decreed ;
Thee, Camarina, whose well-peopled towers

Thy Psaumis render'd great in fame,

This ode is inscribed to Diagoras, the son of Da. When to the twelve Olympian powers

magetus of Rhodes, who in the seventy-ninth He fed with victims the triumphal flame.

Olympiad obtained the victory in the exercise When, the double altars round,

of the cæstus. Slaughter'd bulls bestrew'd the ground; This ode was in such esteem among the ancients, When, on five selected days,

that it was deposited in a temple of Minerva, Jove survey'd the list of praise ;

written in letters of gold.
While along the dusty course
Psaumis urg'd his straining horse,
Or beneath the social yoke
Made the well-match'd coursers smoke;

The poet begins this noble song of triumph with a
Or around th' Elean goal

simile, by which he endeavours to show his great Taught his mule-drawn car to roll.

esteem for those who obtain the victory in the Then did the victor dedicate his fame

Olympic and other gaines; as also the value of To thee, and bade the herald's voice proclaim

the present that he makes them upon that ocThy new-establish'd walls, and Acron's honour'd

casion ; a present always acceptable, because

fame and praise is that which delights all morname,

tals; wherefore the Muse, says he, is perANTISTROPHE.

petually looking about for proper objects to beBut now return'd from where the pleasant seat

stow it upon; and seeing the great actions of Once of Oenomaus and Pelops stood,

Diagoras, takes up a resolution of celebrating Thee, Civic Pallas, and thy chaste retreat, him, the Isle of Rhodes his country, and his He bids me sing, and fair Oanus' flood,

father Damagetus (according to the form obAnd Camarina's sleeping wave,

served by the herald in proclaiming the conAnd those sequester'd shores,

querors); Damagetus, and consequently DiaThrough which, the thirsty town to lare,

goras, being descended from Tlepolemus, who Smooth Aow the watery stores

led over a colony of Grecians from Argos to Of fishy Hipparis, profoundest stream,

Rhodes, where he settled, and obtained the Adown whose wood-envelop'd tide

dominion of that island. From Tlepolemus, The solid pile and lofty beam,

therefore, Pindar declares he will deduce his Materials for the future palace, glide.

song; which he addresses to all the Rbodians in Thus, by war's rude tempests torn,

coinmon with Diagoras, who were descended Plung'd in misery and scorn,

from Tlepolemus, or from those Grecians that Once again, with power array'd,

came over with him; that is, almost all the Camarina lifts her head,

people of Rhodes, who indeed are as much (if Gayly brightening in the blaze,

not more) interested in the greatest part of this Psaumis, of thy hard-earn'd praise.

ode, as Diagoras the conqueror. Pindar acTrouble, care, expense, attend

cordingly relates the occasion of Tlepolemus's Him who labours to ascend

coming to Rhodes, which he tells was in obediWhere, approaching to the skies,

ence to an oracle, that commanded him to seek Virtue holds the sacred prize,

out that island; which, instead of telling us its That tempts him to achieve the dangerous deed :

name, Pindar, in a more poetical manner, chaBut, if his well-concerted toils succeed, (ineed.

racterizes by relating of it some legendary stories His country's just applause shall be bis glorious

(if I may so speak) that were peculiar to the Isle E PODE.

of Rhodes; such as the Golden Shower, and the O Jove! protector of mankind !

occasion of Apollo's choosing that island for him() cloud-enthroned king of gods !

self; both which stories he relates at large with Who, on the Chronian mount reclin'd, such a fame of poetry as shows his imagination With honour crown'st the wide-stream'd to have been extremely heated and elevated foods

with his subjects. Neither does he seem to cool Of Alpheus, and the solemn gloom

in the short account that he gives, in the next Of Ida's cave! to thee I come

place, of the passion of Apollo for the nymph Thy suppliant, to soft Lydian reeds,

Rhodos, from whom the island received its Sweet breathing forth my tuneful prayer,

name, and from whom were descended its oriThat, grac'd with noble, valiant deeds,

ginal inhabitants (whom just before the poet This state may prove thy guardian care;

therefore called the sons of Apollo): and partiAnd thou, on whose victorious bruw

cularly the three brothers, Camirus, Lindus, Olympia bound the sacred bough,

and Jalysus; who divided that country into Thou whom Neptunian steeds deiight,

three kingdoms, and built the three principal With age, content, and quiet crown'd,

cities which retained their names. In this island

Tlepolemus (says the poet, returning to the story , Fair nymph, whose charms subdued the Delphic of that hero) found rest, and a period to all his

god, misfortunes, and at length grew into such esteem Fair blooming daughter of the Cyprian dame: with the Rhodians, that they worshipped him as To sing thy triumphs in th' Olympic sand, a god, appointing sacrifices to him, and insti

Where Alpheus saw thy giant-temples crown'd; tuting games in his honour. The mention of Fam'd Pythia too proclaim'd thy conquering hand, those games naturally brings back the poet to

Where sweet Castalia's mystic currents sound. Diagoras; and gives him occasion, from the two victories obtained by Diagoras in those games,

Nor Damagetus will I pass unsung, to enumerate all the prizes won by that famous

Thy sire, the friend of Justice and of Truth; conqueror in all the games of Greece: after From noble ancestors whose lineage sprung, which enumeration, he begs of Jupiter, in a

The chiefs who led to Rhodes the Argive youth. solemn prayer, to grant Diagoras the love of his There, near to Asia's wide-extended strand, country, and the admiration of all the world, as Where jutting Embolus the waves divides, a reward for the many virtues for which he and in three divisions they possess'd the land, his family had always been distinguished, and Enthron'd amid the hoarse-resounding tides. for which their country had so often triumphed: To their descendants will I tune my lyre, and then, as if he had been a witness of the

The offspring of Alcides bold and strong; extravagant transports of the Rhodians, (to which, And from Tlepolemus, their common sire, not the festival only occasioned by the triumphal Deduce the national historic song. entry of their countryman, and the glory reflected upon them by his victories, but much Tiepolemus of great Alcides came, more the flattering and extraordinary eulogiums

The fruits of fair Astydameïa's love, bestowed upon the whole nation in this ode, Jove-born Amyntor got the Argive dame : might have given birth) the poet on a sudden

So either lineage is deriv'd from Jove. changes bis hand, and checks their pride by a But wrapt in errour is the human mind, a moral reflection on the vicissitude of Fortune, And human bliss is ever insecure : with which he exhorts them to moderation, and Know we what fortune yet remains behind ? 80 concludes.

Know we how long the present shall endure?
For lo! the founder of the Rhodian state',

Who from Saturnian Jove his being drew,

While his fell bosom swell'd with vengeful hate,

The bastard-brother of Alcmena slew.
As when a father in the golden vase,
The pride and glory of his wealthy stores,

With his rude mace, in fair Tiryntha's walls, Bent his lov'd daughter's nuptial torch to grace

Tlepolemus inflicts the horrid wound: The vineyard's purple dews profusely pours;

E'en at his mother's door Licymnius falls,

Yet warm from her embrace, and bites the "Then to his lips the foaming chalice rears,

ground. With blessings hallow'd, and auspicious vows, And, mingling with the draught transporting tears, Passion may oft the wisest heart surprise : On the young bridegroom the rich gift bestows; To Delphi's oracle the hero fies,

Conscious and trembling for the murderous deed, The precious earnest of esteem sincere,

Solicitous to learn what Heaven decreed.
Of friendly union and connubial love:
The bridal train the sacred pledge revere,

Him bright-hair'd Phæbus, from his odorous fane, And round the youth in sprightly measures move.

Bade set his flying sails from Lerna's shore,

And, in the bosom of the eastern main,
He to his home the valued present bears,

That sea-girt region hasten to explore;
The grace and ornament of future feasts;
Where, as his father's bounty he declares,

That blissful island, where a wondrous cloud Wonder shall seize the gratulating guests.

Once rain'd, at Jove's command, a golden shower;

What time, assisted by the Lemnian god, Thus on the valiant, on the swift, and strong, The king of Heaven brought forth the virgin Castalia's genuine nectar I bestow;

power. And, pouring forth the Muse-descended song,

By Vulcan's art the father's teeming head Bid to their praises the rich numbers flow.

Was open'd wide, and forth impetuous sprung, Grateful to them resounds th' harmonic Ode, And shouted fierce and loud, the warrior maid:

The gift of Friendship and the pledge of Fame. Old Mother Earth and Heaven affrighted rung. Happy the mortal, whom th’ Aonian God

Then flyperion's son, pure fount of day, Cheers with the music of a glorious name!

Did to his children the strange tale reveal : The Muse her piercing glances throws around, He warn'd them straight the sacrifice to slay, And quick discovers every worthy deed :

And worship the young power with earliest zeal. And now she wakes the lyre's enchanting sound,

So would they sooth the mighty father's mind, Now fills with various strains the vocal reed :

Pleas'd with the honours to his daughter paid ; But here each instrument of song divine,

And so propitious ever would they find The vocal reed and lyre's enchanting string, Minerva, warlike, formidable maid. She tunes; and bids their harmony coinbine

On staid precaution, vigilant and wise,
Thee, and thy Rhodes, Diagoras, to sing ;

True virtue and true happiness depend;
Thee and thy country, native of the flood, (name,
Which from bright Rhodos draws her honour'd


But oft Oblivion's darkening clouds arise, JHis priests and blazing altars he surveys,

And from the destin'd scope our purpose bend. And hecatombs, that feed the odorous flame; The Rbodians, mindful of their sire's behest,

With games, memorial of his deathless praise ;

Where twice, Diagoras, unmatch'd in fame,
Straight in the citadel an altar rear'd;
But with imperfect rites the power address'd,

Twice on thy head the livid poplar shone,
And without fire their sacrifice prepar'd.

Mix'd with the darksome pine, that binds thebrows

Of Isthmian victors, and the Nemean crown,
Yet Jove, approving, o'er th' assembly spread

And every palm that Attica bestows.
A yellow cloud, that droppvd with golden dews; Diagoras th’ Arcadian vase obtain'd;
While in their opening hearts the blue-ey'd maid
Deign'd her celestial science to infuse.

Argos to him adjudg'd her brazen shield;

His mighty bands the Theban tripod gain'd,
Thence in all arts the sons of Rhodes excel,

And bore the prize from each Bæotian field.
Though best their forming hands the chissel guide; Six times in rough Ægina he prevaild;
This in each street the breathing marbles tell,

As oft Pellene's robe of honour won ;
The stranger's wonder, and the city's pride.

And still at Megara in vain assail'd,
Great praise the works of Rhodian artists find, He with his name hath fill'd the victor's stone,
Yet to their heavenly mistress much they owe;

O thou, who, high on Atabyrius thron'd,
Since art and learning cultivate the mind,

Seest from his summits all this happy isle,
And make the seeds of genius quicker grow.

By thy protection be my labours crown'd;
Some say, that when by lot th' immortal gods Vouchsafe, Saturnius, on my verse to smile!

With Jove these earthly regions did divide, And grant to him, wbose virtue is my theme,
All undiscover'd lay Phæbean Rhodes,

Wlose valiant heart th’ Olympic wreaths proWhelm'd deep beneath the salt Carpathian tide;

claim, That, absent on his course, the god of day

At home his country's favour and esteem, By all the heavenly synod was forgot,

Abroad, eternai, universal fame. Who, bis incessant labours to repay,

For well to thee Diagoras is known; Nor land nor sea to Phæbus did allot;

Ne'er to injustice have his paths declin'd:

Nor from his sires degenerates the son,
That Jove reminded would again renew
Th’ unjust partition, but the god denied;

Whose precepts and examples fire his mind,
And said, “ Beneath yon boary surge 1 view

Then from obscurity preserve a race, An isle emerging through the briny tide:

Who to their country joy and glory give ;

Their country, that in them views every grace, A region pregnant with the fertile seed

Which from their great forefathers they receive.
Of plants, and herbs, and fruits, and foodful grain;
Each verdant hill unnumber'd flocks shall feed;

Yet as the gales of Fortune various blow,
Unnumber'd men possess each fiowery plain.”

To day tempestuous, and to morrow fair,

Due bounds, ye Rhodians, let your transports know;
Then straight to Lachesis he gave command,

Perhaps to morrow comes a storm of care.
Who binds in golden cauls her jetty hair,
He bade the fatal sister stretch her liand,
And by the Stygian rivers bade her shear;

Swear to confirm the Thunderer's decree,
Which to his rule that fruitful island gave,

This ode is inscribed to Agesidamus of Locris,
When from the ouzy bottom of the sea

who, in the seventy-fourth Olympiad, obtained Her head she rear'd above the Lycian wave.

the victory in the exercise of the cæstus, and in

the class of boys. The fatal sister swore, nor swore in vain;

The preceding ode in the original is inscribed to Nor did the tongue of Delphi's prophet err; the same person; and in that we learn, that Up-sprung the blooming island through the main; Pindar had for a long time promised Agesidamus And Jove on Phoebus did the boon confer.

an ode upon his victory, which he at length paid In this fam'd isle, the radiant sire of light,

him, acknowledging himself to blame for having The god u bose reins the fiery steeds obey,

been so long in his debt. To make him some Fair Rhodos saw, and, kindling at the sight,

amends for having delayed payment so long, he Seiz'd, and by force enjoy'd the beauteous prey:

sent him by way of interest together with the

preceding ode, which is of some length, the From whose divine embraces sprung a race

short one that is here translated, and which in Of mortals, wisest of all human-kind;

the Greek title is for that reason styled Tónos or Seven sons, endow'd with every noble grace;

The noble graces of a sapient mind.
Of these lalysus and Lindus came,
Who with Camirus shar'd the Rhodian lands;

The poet, by two comparisons, with which he be

gins his ode, insinuates how acceptable to sucApart they reign'd, aud, sacred to his name,

cessful merit those songs of triumph are, which Apart each brother's royal city stands.

give stability and duration to their fame: then Here a secure retreat from all his woes

declaring that these songs are due to the Olympic Astydameia's hapless offspring found;

conquerors, he proceeds to celebrate the victory Here, like a god in undisturb'd repose,

of Agesidamus, and the praises of the Locrians, And like a god with heavenly honours crown'd, his countrymen, whom he commends for their


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