« 前へ次へ »
4. And when the reapers end the day,
Tired with the burning heat of noon,
And blèss thee,-lovely harvest moon. 5. Òn! on, like a cloud, through their beautiful vales,
Ye locusts of tyranny! blàsting them o'er! 6. Oh! what a tale that dreadful chilness told ? 7. Hast thou a charm to stáy the morning star
In his steep course? 8. Wèep Albyn! to death and captivity led !
In designation :
The clouds are thine : and all their magic hues
Are pencil'd by thee. 2. But I will not tire my reader's patience by pointing out all the pests of conversation : nor dwell particularly on the sensible, who pronounce dogmatically on the most trivial points, and speak in sentences; the wonderers, who are always wondering what o'clock it is, or wondering whether it will rain or no, or wondering when the moon changes; the phraseòlogists, who explain a thing by all that, or enter into particulars with this and that and tother; and lastly, the silent men, who seem afraid of opening their mouths, lest they should catch cold.
Relative emphasis : [Repeat the second and third classes of examples in the Table of Inflections, and the examples of unequal antithesis.]
1. I had rather be a dòg, and bay the moon,
Than such a Roman. , 2. Slight are the outward signs of evil thought;
Within-within-'twas there the spirit wrought! 3. Did Í, base wretch! corrupt mankind ?
The fault's in thy rapacious mind.
Jòy tunes his voice, joy elevates his wings.
Part pays, and justly, the deserving stèer. 5. It is not the scene of destruction which is before him. It is not the Tiber, diminished in his imagination to a paltry stream, flowing amid the ruins of that magnificence which it once adórned. It is not the triumph of superstition over the wreck of human greatness, and its triumphs erected on the very spot where the first honours of humanity have been gained. It is ancient Rome which fills his imagination. It is the country of Caesar, and Cicero, and Virgil, which is before him. It is the mistress of the world which he sees, and who seems to him to rise again from her tomb, to give laws to the universe.
Correspondent and antithetic emphasis : [Read the examples and exercises given under the corresponding head, in the lesson on Inflections.]
1. I have always preferred cheerfulness to mirth. The làtter I consider as an act, the former as a hábit of the mind. Mirth is short and transient, cheerfulness fixed and permanent. Mirth is like a flash of lightning, that breaks through a gloom of clouds, and glitters for a moment; cheerfulness keeps up a kind of ddylight in the mind, and fills it with a stèady and perpétual serènity. 2. The very actions which they have only réad I have pàrtly seen, and partly mysélf achieved. What they know by reading I know by action. They are pleased to slight my mèan birth; I despise their méan characters. Want of birth and fòrtune is the objection against mé, want of personal worth against thèm.
Emphatic phrases : 1. Upon the whole, I will beg leave to tell the House in a féw words what is rèally my opinion. It is, that the Stamp Act ought to be repèaled—ÀBSOLUTELYTÓTALLY—and IMMÈDIATELY.
2. And were I an Amèrican, as I am an Englishman, while a single foreign tròop remained in my country, I would never lay down my arms :-NÈVER--NÉVERNÈVER.
PAUSES. General Observations. Distinct articulation requires slowness of utterance, or that deliberate succession of sounds, which enables the hearer to distinguish them from one another, and thus to make those discriminations in sense, which render what is read or spoken intelligible. Distinctness of speech, however, and, clearness of meaning, require still further aid. It is not sufficient that the successive sounds of the voice, in letters and syllables, be kept from running into one another, and blending so as to cause confusion. A due distance must be preserved between those words which are not so closely connected in meaning, as others. The intervals of sound, or cessations of voice, thus produced, are termed pauses. Their effect on the ear, is similar to that of distance between objects in space, to the eye; aiding, by the unembarrassed action of the organ, the formation of clear and distinct conceptions in the mind. They separate, in sound, what we wish to separate in sense; and, they serve, on the other hand, by the length or shortness of their duration, and the comparative interval of sound thus produced, to give us the idea of more or less intimate connexion between the successive parts of thought, as expressed in one or more sentences.
Pauses may be viewed in another light,-as producing the effect of grouping or throwing together those words which are most closely connected in meaning. Pausing has thus a double effect,--that of parting those portions of sound which would cause confusion, if united; and, at the same time, of joining those which would produce an incorrect signification, if separated. The cessation of the voice, therefore, at proper intervals, has the same effect nearly on clauses and sentences with that of articulation on syllables, or of pronunciation on words: it serves to gather up the sounds of the voice into relative portions, and aids in preserving clearness and distinction among them. But what those elementary and organic efforts do for syllables and words,—the minor portions of speech, - pausing does for clauses, sentences, and entire discourses. The great use of pauses is to divide thought into its constituent portions, and to leave the mind opportunity of contemplating each distinctly, so as fully to comprehend and appreciate it, and, at the same time, to perceive its relation to the whole. Appropriate pauses are of vast importance, therefore, to a correct and impressive style of delivery; and without them, indeed, speech cannot be intelligible.
Pausing has, farther, a distinct office to perform in regard to the effect of feeling as conveyed by utterance. Awe and solemnity are expressed by long cessations of the voice; and grief, when it is deep, and at the same time suppressed, requires frequent and long pauses.
The general effect, however, of correct and welltimed pauses, is what most requires attention. The manner of a good reader or speaker is distinguished, in this particular, by clearness, impressiveness, and dignity, arising from the full conception of meaning, and the deliberate and distinct expression of it; while nothing is so indicative of want of attention and of self-command, and nothing is so unhappy in its effect, as haste and confusion.
DEFINITION. Pauses are the intervals produced between words, clauses, sentences, and paragraphs, by
those divisions of utterance which correspond to the portions of the sense.*
Note. The frequency with which pauses are to be introduced, cannot be regulated by the grammatical punctuation, which regards the syntactical structure of sentences, rather than the mode of pronouncing them; and which, though it is often coincident with the rhetorical or vocal pauses, is not uniformly so. Thus we have a comma or grammatical stop between the following words in writing: “No, sir”—but none in speaking ;-the phrase being pronounced nearly as one word, and producing the same sound to the ear as any word of two syllables, accented on the first. The following example, on the other hand, contains no grammatical stop; yet it requires, in appropriate reading, a long rhetorical pause between the words. “He woke *** to die.”
The length of a pause is not dependent on the value of the grammatical stops, as is commonly taught, but on the meaning of what is read or spoken, as emphatic or otherwise, and on the kind of emotion, as naturally slow or rapid in utterance, and as requiring long or short cessations of voice. In equable and calm expression, the pauses are moderate; in energetic language, when didactic or argumentative, the pauses are rendered long hy the force of emphasis preceding them; in strong and deep emotion, they run to the extremes of brevity and of length, as the tone of passion happens to be abrupt and rapid, or slow and interrupted, in utterance. We may find, accordingly, the pauses made at the same grammatical stop of very different lengths in the same passage, or even the same sentence, according to the turns of thought and feeling indicated by the language. There may be, in fact, as mentioned before, a long rhetorical pause where no grammatical stop could be used.
Vocal pauses are uniformly the result of emphasis;
* The extent to which explanation has been sometimes carried, is not owing to any intrinsic difficulty in the subject, but to the desire of attracting attention to the nature and importance of particular branches of elocution, and especially of those in which there is the greatest liability to failure.