The blessed cross, and won the Holy Land.
Pleas'd with my admiration, and the fire
His speech struck from me, the old man would

His years away, and act his young encounters :
Then having showed his wounds, he'd sit him

And all the live-long day discourse of war.
To help my fancy, in the smooth green turf
He cut the figures of the marshall’d hosts;
Describ'd the motions, and explain'd the use
Of the deep column, and the lengthened line,
The square, the crescent, and the phalanx firm;
For all that Saracen or Christian knew
Of war's vast art, was to this hermit known:

2. My thoughts, I must confess, are turn'd on peace;

Already have our quarrels fill’d the world
With widows and with orphans: Scythia mourns
Our guilty wars; and earth's remotest regions
Lie half unpeopled by the feuds of Rome.
'Tis time to sheath the sword and spare mankind.
It is not Cæsar, but the gods, my fathers,
The gods declare against us, and repel
Our vain attempts. To urge the foe to battle,
(Prompted by blind revenge and wild despair,)
Were to refuse the awards of Providence,
And not to rest in Heaven's determination.
Already have we shown our love to Rome;
Now let us show submission to the gods.
We took up arins, not to revenge ourselves,
But free the commonwealth. When this end fails,
Arms have no further use. Our country's cause
That drew our swords, now wrests them from our

And bids us not delight in Roman blood
Unprofitably shed. What men could do,
Is done already. Heaven and earth will witness,

If Rome must fall, that we are innocent. 3. History is not only a valuable part of knowledge, but opens the door to many other parts of knowledge, and affords materials to most of the sciences. And,

indeed, if we consider the shortness of human life, ana our limited knowledge of what passes even in our own time, we must be sensible that we should be for ever children in understanding, were it not for this invention, which extends our experience to all past ages, and to most distant nations, making them contribute as much to our improvement in wisdom as if they had actually lain under our observation. A man acquainted with history, may, in some respect, be said to have lived from the beginning of the world, and to have been making continual additions to his stock of knowledge.


Variation : [All the preceding examples of single tones, may be used as exercises in successive tones, in the following manner. Let the pupil commence with the first example on Force, and immediately after reading it, pass to the first example of Softness or Faintness ; obserying carefully and expressing fully, the change of tone thus produced. The first example of Middle Pitch, Moderate Force and Rate, may be read next; the change being observed as before. The second example of each quality may then be read in the same manner; next the third, and so on. For further practice the order of the exercises may be inverted; and the examples may all be repeated, in order to facilitate the power of changing the tone with suddenness, and in exact adaptation to any transition of thought or emotion.]

The Sinking Ship."

Her giant form,
O’er wrathful surge, through blackening storm,
Majestically calm, would go,
Mid the deep darkness, white as snow !
But gentler now the small waves glide,
Like playful lambs o'er a mountain's side.
So stately her bearing, so proud her array,
The main she will traverse for ever and aye.

Many ports will exult at the gleam of her mast!
Hush! hush! thou vain dreamer! this hour is

her last.
10. Five hundred souls, in one instant of dread

Are hurried o'er the deck,
And fast the miserable ship
Becomes a lifeless wreck.

Her keel hath struck on a hidden rock, 15. Her planks are torn asunder,

And down come her masts with a reeling shock,
And a hideous crash like thunder.
Her sails are draggled in the brine,

That gladdened late the skies ; 20. And her pendant, that kissed the fair moonshine,

Down many a fathom lies.
Her beauteous sides, whose rainbow hues
Gleamed softly from below,

And flung a warm and sunny flush
25. O'er the wreaths of murmuring snow,

To the coral rocks are hurrying down,
To sleep amid colours as bright as their own.

Oh! many a dream was in the ship,

An hour before her death;
30. And sights of home with sighs disturb'd

The sleeper's long-drawn breath.
Instead of the murmur of the sea,
The sailor heard the humming tree,

Alive through all its leaves,
35. The hum of the spreading sycamore

That grows before his cottage-door,
And the swallow's song in the eaves.
His arms enclosed a blooming boy,

Who listened with tears of sorrow and joy 40. To the dangers his father had passed;

And his wife,-by turns she wept and smiled,
As she looked on the father of her child
Returned to her heart at last.

-He wakes at the vessel's sudden roll, 45. And the rush of waters is in his soul.

Astounded the reeling deck he paces,
Mid hurrying forms and ghastly faces;
The whole ship's crew are there.

Wailings around and overhead, 50. Brave spirits stupified or dead,

And madness and despair.
Now is the ocean's bosom bare,
Unbroken as the floating air;

The ship hath melted quite away,
55. Like a struggling dream at break of day.

No image meets my wandering eye,
But the new-risen sun and the sunny sky.
Though the night-shades are gone, yet a vapour


Bedims the waves so beautiful; 60. While a low and melancholy moan

Mourns for the glory that hath flown. The principal changes of tone, in the reading or reciting of this piece, are the following.–The commencing strain is that of admiration caused by sublimity and strength. The tone therefore is deep, and forcible, and somewhat slow. This tone pervades the first three lines ;-its peculiar qualities all increasing in degree till the close of the third.

The first change takes place in passing to the style of calm and beautiful description, in the fourth and fifth lines; the tone becoming soft, and passing into the middle pitch and moderate rate.

The tone of admiration is resumed in the sixth line, and is strengthened by the addition of that of exultation, approaching to that of vaunting or boasting. The change of voice is to low but loud and rather rapid utterance, increasing gradually in the seventh and eighth lines.

In the ninth line, there is a sudden transition to the language of solemn rebuke. The voice passes to a very low pitch, slow utterance, and suppressed force. At the middle of the same line, there is a perceptible change produced by the manner of solemn and emphatic assertion ;- the tone becoming more energetic and more slow, and falling still lower.

The commencing strain of the tenth line, is in the manner of solemn and emphatic description. The tone accordingly differs from that of the closing part of the preceding line only in raising the pitch; tho force and slowness of utterance remaining nearly as before. At the phrase, “in one instant of dread," there is a sudden change to rapidity, from the nature of the event introduced, and to low and forcible utterance from the same cause; the tone indicating the highest degree of vehement excitement, arising from the abrupt introduction of circumstances of terror and agitation. This tone continues throughout the next line, but is greatly heightened in all its characteristic qualities, by the emotion of terror, caused by the rapid consummation of the catastrophe described.

The tone of the twelfth line, is that of grief and regret. The voice, therefore, becomes slow, rises to a higher pitch than before, and is moderate in the force of utterance. The manner of emphatic description is added to this general tone in the next line; the pitch accordingly falls, and the force is much increased.

The fourteenth line introduces particular and vivid description, which is gradually heightened in the next three lines. The tone of agitation returns to some extent; and the voice deepens, and becomes more and more rapid and forcible, as it proceeds.

In the eighteenth line, the pathetic manner begins to mingle with the description; and the rate of voice becomes slow, rises to a higher strain, and has its force very much subdued. The pathetic qualities of the tone increase in the next line, and still more in the twentieth. The deeper tone and still slower utterance, but greater force, of regret, prevail in the twentyfirst line.

The pathetic tone returns in the twenty-second line, and brings back the voice to a strain rather higher in its notes, gentler in its force, and more languid in its movement. The poetic beauty of style in the next three lines, gives occasion for a still more pathetic tone, as the description expands.

The twenty-sixth line introduces a circumstance of awe in the description ; and the voice sinks to a lower note, and the utterance acquires force. The poetic beauty of the description, blending with the tone of awe in the next line, produces a slower and gentler strain of expression.

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