Rule. . .

221 Lines to the Clock at Hampton

Position and Movement of the

Court. . G. P. R. James. 306

Arm. . . .

222 Unsuccessful Attempt to 'Raise


the Wind.' . : Dickens. 307

Rules. . . . . 232 Niagara Falls. . . . Anon. 311

South Carolina. . Haynes, 314

New England. . . Cushing. 315

PIECES FOR PRACTICE Noon. . . . Bryant. 316

in life.

Success in Li

In Reading and Declamation.

: . Anon. 318

The Past. . . . Sprague. 320

Legend of the Seven Sleepers. The Lawyer and the Politician,

Lyell. 249 (Dialogue.) . . Murphy. 321

Evening on the Ocean. .' Sonnet to an aged Beggar. . .

Montgomery. 250

Coleridge, 324

The West. . . Anonymous. 252 Sonnet to Lafayette in the Dun-

ween Great Bri- geon of Olmutz. . . . Ib. 324

tain and the United States.. National Greatness. Channing. 325

Chatham. 254 | Manufactures and Commerce con-

Bunker-Hill Monument. Webster. 255 trasted with Chivalry. . .

Death of De Argentine. Scott. 257

Št. Leger. 326

Speech against Writs of Assist Animal Happiness. • Coroper. 327

ance. . . . . . Otis. 260 Dialogue from the Triumph of

Bernardo and King Alphonso.. Lucca. . . Miss Landon. 329

Translated by Lockhart. 261 Eulogy of Washington.

Value of Decision and Intre-

Lord Brougham. 332

pidity. . . . . Walsh. 263 Reform in Parliament. ..

Election Anecdote. . . Anon. 266

Lord Grey: 334

Oregon. . Knickerbocker Mag. 268 False Eloquence.. . Anon. 336

The Gladiator. . . Jones. 270 Scene from the Lord of the Isles.

Address to the people of Meath.

Scott. 337

Henry Grattan. 272 Fate of McGregor. . Hogg. 343

The Leper. . . . Willis. 273 Speech on the Irish Disturbance

American Freedom. . Deidey. 276 Bill. . . . . O'Connell. 346

Conversation. . Corper. 277 | Former Condition of Ireland. .

Sand Storm in the Desert. Frazer. 278

Shiel. 349

Night in Venice. ... Byron. 280 Marseillese Hymn. Translation. 350

Incapability of the British Minis Heroism of the Pilgrims. Choate. 352

try of 1782. . Lord Holland. 281 Address to the Swedes.

Character of Washington. :

ustavus Vasa.' 354

Webster. 283 The Point of Honour. . .

Cataract of Lodore. Southey. 284

Shakspeare. 355

The British Constitution. . '. The Liberty of Americans. .

Sir Robert Peel. 236

Hilard. 356

King Edward's Address to his Death of Lafayette. . Everett. 353

Army.. . . Bulwer. 288 Milton's Lines to his Father. .

Warwick's Address to his Troops.

Cowper. 360

Ib. 289 Appeal for the Reform Bill.

Night among the Alps. . .

Brougham. 361

Montgomery. 290 Scene from the Rose of Arragon.

Death of the Last Constantine.

Knorolės. 363

Mrs. Hemans. 29 Speech on the Revenue Bill of

Genius and Method. . Diderot. 295 1833. .

.: . Clay. 367

Ode to an ancient Sycamore on Memorials of Washington and

the Ohio. . .' Dr. Bird, 297 Franklin. . .J. Q. Adams. 370

Address before the Society of St Prince Henry's Challenge to Hot

Patrick. . Earl Moira. 299 spur. . . . Shakspeare. 372

Dialogue from the Lady of the Washington's Preparatory Train-

. Scott. 300 ing for Public Station. .

Speech on the Government of

C. W. Upham. 375

India. . . . . . Fox. 304 Hotspur's Reply to Walter Blunt.

Shakspeare. 377


THE question has often been asked, doubtingly, whether it is possible to teach the art of reading, by the use of rules. Any art which is grounded on recognised principles, may, certainly, be taught by rules deduced from these principles. Every teacher who corrects the emphasis, the inflections, or the pauses, which his pupils use in reading, must have, in every instance, a reason for his correction. All such reasons are rules; and these it is the duty of the teacher to impart. These, in fact, are themselves the instructions which he has to give.

Every attentive teacher of reading, will endeavour to put his pupils in possession of even those less palpable principles which regulate the nicest modulations of the voice, in the most delicate tones of feeling. But, in the applications of inflection, emphasis, and pause, which determine the meaning of every sentence of audible language, a definite rule is indispensable to intelligible or effective instruction.

The systematic practice of elocution, requires attention, in the first place, to the acquisition of correctness of enunciation, volume and pliancy of voice, vigour of organ, and purity of tone, on the scale of public reading or speaking.

The functions of the voice,-in its operations as an instrument, -having been properly regulated, the next stage of instruction and practice, regards the execution

of those sounds which constitute the melody' of speech, in successive clauses and sentences, and deter mine their character and meaning.

The act of enunciating syllables, or of pronouncing words, may be performed without reference to their signification. This forms the strictly elementary part of elocution. The utterance of clauses and sentences, implies a purpose in expression, and is founded on the relations which language bears to thought. The appropriate utterance of meaning, is the object in view in this department of elocution; and the attention of the learner, in this stage, is directed to the notes of the scale, to the relative degrees of force, and to the occasional intermissions of voice, by which reading and speaking are rendered significant. These subjects are comprehended under the technical designations of Inflections, Emphasis, and Pauses.

If we regard enunciation and pronunciation as the mechanical part of elocution ; inflection, emphasis, and pausing, may be designated as its intellectual part. The former regards, chiefly, the ear, as cognizant of audible expression; the latter regards the understanding, as addressed by intelligible utterance, and requiring the exercise of judgment, in consecutive and rational communication. This branch of the subject extends, it is true, to some of the forms of tone which give expression to feeling; but its chief offices are strictly intellectual.

A third department of elocution, embraces the consideration of tone, as adapted to the utterance of passion, or the strongest forms of emotion, and is designated by the technical name of Modulation.

Under this term are comprehended all those modifications of voice which are appropriate to empassioned expression, and the changes of tone by which the reader or speaker passes from one emotion to another. This branch of the subject includes, in detail, whatever regards 'force,' or intensity of voice, 'pitch,' or the predominating note of the scale, and movement,' or the rate of utterance, as fast or slow.

Cadence, or the appropriate modulation of the voice, at the close of a sentence, would, at first sight, appear

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to be but a mechanical modification of voice, or, at best, no more than a recommendation to the ear of refined taste. But, on closer observation, it will be found to constitute a main element of effect, in the expression of sentiment.

It is the predominance or the frequent recurrence of à peculiar cadence, which gives character to the melody of einotion, in successive sentences; and it is the judicious use of this turn of voice, which, most of all, deepens the impression of the feeling that pervades a composition, as a whole. The 'song' of bad reading, is principally caused by an erroneous cadence.

The modulation of the voice, in adaptation to different species of metrical composition, is indispensable to the appropriate or effective reading of verse. The ) purest forms of poetry, become, when deprived of this aid, nothing but awkward prose. A just and delicate observance of the effect of metre, on the other hand, is one of the surest means of imparting that inspiration of feeling, which it is the design of poetry to produce.

The subject of Gesture has too generally been regarded as one on which no instruction can be given. It is often mentioned as one of those secrets of nature, which lie beyond rule or art; and nothing, certainly, can be more preposterous than artificial and mechanical action, as an accompaniment to speech. But attentive observation will here, as elsewhere, detect principles, and enable us to trace the rules which these involve.

Pursued within the just limitations of judgment and taste, gesture becomes, perhaps, one of the most improvable of human habits; whether we regard the eradication of error, or the acquisition of true and appropriate action. The glow of earnest feeling, in address, will always bring forth action. It is a thing which, if we obey the instincts of nature, we cannot repress. Action is, in fact, a component part of speech; and the teacher's business, and the student's endeavour, in cultivation, are, properly, to trace, those principles which 'suit the action to the word,' and to embody

these in practical rules, and disciplined habits. With a view to such results, a few brief remarks on obvious errors, and a few plain directions for the formation of manner, in attitude and action, are submitted in the following pages.

At the request of teachers who wish to follow closely the mode of elementary instruction, prescribed in Dr. Rush's Philosophy of the Voice, a small volume has been prepared, to be used as an introduction to the American Elocutionist.

The work now referred to, is entitled a Manual of Vocal Culture. It contains a course of preparatory exercises for forming and training the voice, and invigorating the organs of speech. The modes of practice, prescribed for these purposes, combine the preliminary vocal discipline, recommended by Dr. Rush, the introductory methods, adopted in practical instruction, by the author of the present volume, and, in addition to these, the system of " orthophony” and vocal gymnastics, taught by Mr. J. E. Murdoch.

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