variance with the sense of wh gnant to the ear of cultivated

Inflection, as a term applied

imple inflections, -the upwa

SIMPLE RISING AND FALLING INELE DEFINITIONS. Inflection, as a ter tion, signifies the inclining, or slidi either upward or downward. I I

There are two simple inflections. rising, usually denoted by the acute acce downward, or falling, marked with the cent 0.

The former occurs in the tone of a question w
admits of being answered by yes or no, or by any o
form of affirmation or negation; and the latter in t
of the answer; thus,

"Is it a difficult affair ?"_" Yès.”
“Will you go see the order of the course?”-
"Not I.
"A'rm'd, say you ?"-"" Arm'd, my lord.''

Note 1. In the tones of strong emotion, the rising
inflection runs up to a very high note, and the falling

descends to one very low. The space traversed by the voice, in such cases, is sometimes a 'third,' sometimes a 'fifth,' and sometimes an "octave,' according to the intensity of emotion.

Example 1. [The tone of indignant surprise, heightened by question and contrast]:"Shall we in your person crówn the author of the public calamities, or shall we destroy him?”. 2. “Hark!-a deep sound strikes like a rising

knell." [Earnest, agitated inquiry]:-"Did you not héarit?" (Careless and contemptuous answer) :-"No! 'twas

but the wind, Or the car rattling o'er the stony street.” 3. [Excessive impatience] :-"Must I endure all

this?" Derisive and scornful repetition):-"All this?" (Emphatic assertion) :-"Ay, mòre."

Note 2. In unempassioned language, on the contrary, the tone being comparatively moderate, the inflections rise and fall but slightly.

The following examples, in which this diminution of inflection takes place, are so arranged that the inflections are to be reduced by successive stages, till they lose entirely the point and acuteness of the tone of question, from which they are supposed to commence, and are, at last, brought down nearly to the comparative level which they acquire in conversational expression,—the form in which they are oftenest employed in a chaste and natural style of reading.

Example 1. Interrogation, when not emphatic, thus, “Shall I speak to him?

2. Contrast, when not accompanied by emotion : " They fought not for fáme but freedom.”

3. The expression of a condition or a supposition : If we would be truly happy, we must be actively useful." “ Your enemies may be formidable by their number and their power. But He who is with you is mightier than they.”

4. Comparison and correspondence: “As the beauty


body always accompanies the health of behaviour a concomitant to virtue

rion: "He shook the fragment of

of the body always ac
decency of behaviour a
5. Connexion : "Hech

And shouted, Victory!"
6. Continuance of thomol
sion, generally: "Destit
disguise." "Formed to
war, Cæsar possessed many gre
" While dangers are at a distance, and do

uance of thought, or incomplete
ally: “Destitute of resources, he
6 Formed to excel in peace, as we
ossessed nfany great and noble que

pproach us; let us not conclude that unless we use the necessary precautions a

secure, unless we use the nece
them." "To us who dwell upon its surface the
is by far the most extensive orb that our eves can
where behold.”

: DEFINITION. Circumflex, or wave. The two sin
inflections, the rising and the falling, are supersed
in the tones of keen and ironical emotion, or peculi
significance in expression, by a double turn, or slide
voice, which unites both in one continuous sound
called the circumflex, or wave.

When the double inflection thus produced, terminates
with the upward slide, it is called the rising circumflex,
which is marked thus (v); when it terminates with
the downward slide, it is called the falling circumflex,
-marked thus (1).

These inflections occur in the following passage ironical expression,-deriding the idea that Cæsar" entitled to the credit of humane feeling, because could not pass the Rubicon without a pause of mii giving: Ôh! but he păused upon the brink!”

marked thus (-). This tone belongs to emotions arising from sublimity and grandeur. It characterizes, also, the extremes of amazement and horror.

“ High on a throne of royal state, that far
Qutshone the wealth of Ormus or of Ind,
Or whēre thē gorgeous Eāst, with richest händ,
Showers on hēr kings barbaric pearl and gold,
Satan exalted sat.” *

RULES ON THE FALLING INFLECTION. Rule I. Forcible expression requires the falling inflection, as in the following instances of energetic emotion : earnest calling or shouting, abrupt and vehement exclamation, imperious or energetic command, indignant or reproachful address, challenge and defiance, swearing and adjuration, imprecation, accusation,-assertion, affirmation, or declaration,-assurance, threatening, warning, denial, contradiction, refusal,-appeal, remonstrance, and expostulation, earnest intreaty, exhortation, earnest or animated invitation, temperate command, admiration, adoration.

Examples. Calling and shouting: “Awake! arise ! or be for

ever fallen!" Abrupt exclamation: “ To drms! they come !-the

Greek, the Greek!” Imperious command: “Hènce! hòme, you idle

creatures, get you hòme !” Indignant address : “You blocks, you stones, you

worse than senseless things”— Challenge and defiance: "I dàre him to his proofs.” Swearing and adjuration: “By all the blood that

fury ever breathed, The youth says well.”

* Farther examples of this inflection occur under the Rules on Monotone.

“I do beseech you,
By all the battles wherein we have fought,
By the blood we have shed together, by the vows
We have made to endure friends, that you directly

Set me against Aufidius and his Antiates." Imprecation: “ Accurs'd may his memory blacken,

If a coward there be that would slacken" — Accusation: “ With a foul tràitor's name stuff I thy

throat.Assertion, affirmation, declaration: “We must fight,—I repeat it, sir,—we must fight.”

Assurance: “But whatever may be our fate, be assùred, be assured that this Declaration will stand.” Threatening: “Have mind upon your health, tempt

me no further.” Warning: “Lochiel, Lochiel, beware of the day." Denial : - For Gloucester's death,

I slew him not, but, to my own disgrace,

Neglected my sworn duty in that case.” Contradiction :- Brutus. I did send to you

For certain sums of gold, which you denied me
Cassius. I denied you not.
Bru. You did.

Cas. I did not”— Refusal: “Your grace shall pàrdon me, I will not back."

Appeal: “I appeal to all who hear me, for the truth of my assertion.” Remonstrance and expostulation :

“Good reverend father, make my person yours,
And tell me how you would bestow yourself.
This royal hand and mine are newly knit;-
The latest breath that gave the sound of words,
Was deep-sworn faìth, peace amity, true lóve,
Between our kingdoms, and our royal sèlves;
And shall these hands, so lately purged of blood,
So newly joined in love, so strong in both,

Unyoke this seizure and this kind regret ?” Earnest intreaty: “Let me, upon my kneè, prevail

in this !"

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