ancient Irish. This apparition continued to the well-known epithet of Red-shanks. The exhibit itself for some tiine, and then vanished process is very accurately described by one with two shrieks, similar to that which had Elder (himself a Highlander) in the project first excited Lady Fanshaw's attention. In for a union between England and Scotland, the morning, with infinite terror, she com addressed to Henry VIII. We go a-hunting, municated to her host what she had witnessed, and after that we have slain red-deer, we and found him prepared not only to credit flay off the skin by-and-by, and setting of but to account for the apparition.

A near

our bare-foot on the inside thereof, for want relation of my family,' said he, "expired last of cunning shoemakers, by your grace's night in this castle. We disguised our certain pardon, we play the cobblers, compassing expectation of the event from you, lest it and measuring so much thereof as shall should throw a cloud over the cheerful reach up to our ankles, pricking the upper reception which was due to you. Now, before part thereof with holes, that the water inay such an event happens in this family and repass where it enters, and stretching it up castle, the female spectre whom you have with a strong thong of the same above our seen always is visible. She is believed to be said ankles. So, and please your noble the spirit of a woman of inferior rank, whom grace, we make our shoes. Therefore, we one of my ancestors degraded himself by using such manner of shoes, the sough hairy marrying, and whom afterwards, to expiate side outwards, in your grace's dominions of the dishonour done his family, he caused to England, we be called Roughfooted Scots.' be drowned in the castle moat.'

PINKERTON's History, vol. ii. p. 397.

-P. 232.


Whose parents in Inch-Cailliach wave
Their shadows o'er Clan-Alpine's grave.

The dismal coronach.-P. 234.

The Coronach of the Highlanders, like Inch-Cailliach, the Isle of Nuns, or of Old the Ululatus of the Romans, and the Ululoo Women, is a most beautiful island at the of the Irish, was a wild expression of lamentalower extremity of Loch Lomond. The tion, poured forth by the mourners over the church belonging to the former nunnery was

body of a departed friend. When the words long used as the place of worship for the

of it were articulate, they expressed the parish of Buchanan, but scarce any vestiges praises of the deceased, and the loss the of it now remain. The burial-ground con

clan would sustain by his death. The foltinues to be used, and contains the family lowing is a lamentation of this kind, literally places of sepulture of several neighbouring translated from the Gaelic, to sone of the clans. The monuments of the lairds of

ideas of which the text stands indebted. The Macgregor, and of o: her families, claiming

tune is so popular, that it has since become a descent from the old Scottish King Alpine, thie war-march, or Gathering of the clan. are most remarkable. The Highlanders are

Coronach on Sir Lauchlan, Chief of Maclean, as zealous of their rights of sepulture, as may be expected from a people whose whole Which of all the Senachies laws and government, if clanship. can be Can trace thy line from the root up to Paradise called so, turned upon the single principle of

But Macvuirih, the son of Fergus! family descent. “May his ashes be scattered

No sooner had thine ancient stately tree

Taken firm root in Albion, on the water,' was one of the deepest and

Than one of thy forefathers fell at Harlaw.most solemn imprecations which they used 'Twas then we lost a chief of deathless name. against an enemy: [See a detailed description of the funeral ceremonies of a Highland

Tis no base weed-no planted tree, chieftain in the Fair Maid of Perth. Waver.

Nor a seedling of last Autumn;

Nor a sapling planted at Beltain 1 ; ley Novels, vol. 43, chaps. x, and xi. Edit.

Wide, wide around were spread its lofty branches-1834.]

But the topmost bough is lowly laid !

Thou hast forsaken us before Sawaine 2.

Thy dwelling is the winter house ;

Loud, sad, sad, and mighty is thy death-song! the dun deer's hide

Oh! courteous champion of Montrose ! On fleeter foot was never tied.-P. 233. Oh! stately warrior of the Celtic Isles !

Thou shalt buckle thy harness on no more! The present brogue of the Highlanders is made of half-dried leather, with holes to

The coronach has for some years past admit and let out the water; for walking been superseded at funerals by the use of the moors dry-shod is a matter altogether the bagpipe; and that also is, like many out of the question. The ancient buskin other Highland peculiarities, falling into was still ruder, being made of undressed disuse, unless in remote districts. deer's hide, with the hair outwards; a circumstance which procured the Highlanders 1 Bell's fire, or Whitsunday.

2 Hallowe'en,

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-P. 235.



nations, capricious in their ideas concerning Benledi saw the Cross of Fire,

the obligatory power of oaths. One solemn It glanced like lightning up Strath-Ire.

mode of swearing was by kissing the dirk, imprecating upon themselves death by that,

or a similar weapon, if they broke their vow. Inspection of the provincial map of Perth But for oaths in the usual form, they are shire, or any large map of Scotland, will said to have had little respect. As for the trace the progress of the signal through the reverence due to the chief, it may be guessed small district of lakes and mountains, which, from the following odd example of a Highland in exercise of my poetical privilege, I have point of honour:subjected to the authority of my imaginary 'The clan whereto the above-mentioned chieftain, and which, at the period of my tribe belongs, is the only one I have heard romance, was really occupied by a clan who of, which is without a chief; that is, being claimed a descent from Alpine; a clan the divided into families, under several chieftains, most unfortunate, and most persecuted, but without any particular patriarch of the whole neither the least 'distinguished, least power

And this is a great reproach, as may ful, nor least brave, of the tribes of the Gael. appear from an affair that fell out at my Slioch non rioghridh duchaisach

table, in the Highlands, between one of that Bha-shios an Dun-Staiobhinish

name and a Cameron. The provocation Aig an roubh crun na Halba othus

given by the latter was, Name 'Stag a cheil duchas fast ris.'

The return of it at once was, “You are The first stage of the Fiery Cross is to a fool.” They went out next morning, but Duncraggan, a place near the Brigg of Turk, having early notice of it, I sent a small party where a short stream divides Loch Achray

of soldiers after them, which, in all proba. from Loch Vennachar. From thence, it ibility, prevented some barbarous mischief passes towards Callender, and then, turning

that might have ensued: for the chiefless to the left up the pass of Leny, is consigned Highlander, who is himself a petty chieftain, to Norman at the chapel of Saint Bride,

was going to the place appointed with a small which stood on a small and romantic knoll sword and pistol, whereas the Cameron (an in the middle of the valley, called Strath-Ire.

old man) took with him only his broadsword, Tombea and Arnandave, or Ardmandave, according to the agreement. are names of places in the vicinity. The

When all was over, and I had, at least alarm is then supposed to pass along the

seemingly, reconciled them, I was told the lake of Lubnaig, and through the various

words, of which I seemed to think but glens in the district of Balquidder, including

slightly, were, to one of the clan, the greatest the neighbouring tracts of Glenfinlas and

of all provocations.'— Letters from Scotland,

vol. ii. p. 221. Strathgartney.

your chief."

-P. 237


Not faster o'er thy heathery braes,
Balquidder, speeds the midnight blaze.

-a low and lonely cell.
By many a bard, in Celtic tongue,

Has Coir-nan-Uriskin been sung:-P. 237. It may be necessary to inform the southern reader, that the heath on the Scottish moor This is a very steep and most romantic lands is often set fire to, that the sheep may hollow in the mountain of Benvenue, over have the advantage of the young, herbage hanging the south-eastern extremity of Loch produced, in room of the tough old heather Katrine. It is surrounded with stupendous plants. Thiscustom (execrated by sportsmen) rocks, and overshadowed with birch-trees, produces occasionally the most beautiful iningled with oaks, the spontaneous pronocturnal appearances, similar almost to the duction of the mountain, even where its discharge of a volcano. This simile is not

cliffs appear denuded of soil. A dale in so new to poetry: The charge of a warrior, in wild a situation, and amid a people whose the fine ballad of Hardyknute, is said to be genius bordered on the romantic, did not like fire to heather set.'

remain without appropriate deities.
name literally implies the Corri, or Den, of

the Wild or Shaggy men. Perhaps this, as Note XL.

conjectured by Mr. Alexander Campbell',

may have originally only implied its being No oath, but by his chieftain's hand, the haunt of a ferocious banditti. But traNo law, but Roderick Dhu's command.

dition has ascribed to the Urisk, who gives

name to the cavern, a figure between a goat The deep and implicit respect paid by the

and a man; in short, however much the Highland 'clansmen to their chief, rendered

classical reader may be startled, precisely this both a common and a solemn oath. In other respects they were like most savage 1

Fourney from Edinburgh, 1802, p. 105.


-P. 237

that of the Grecian Satyr. The Urisk seems the first, 'that a soldier of Allan's was
not to have inherited, with the form, the obliged, as I am now, not only to eat the
petulance of the sylvan deity of the classics : flesh from the bone, but even to tear off the
his occupation, on the contrary, resembled inner skin, or filament?' The hint was quite
those of Milton's Lubbar Fiend, or of the sufficient, and MacLean next morning, to
Scottish Brownie, though he differed from relieve his followers from such dire necessity,
both in name and appearance. "The Urisks' undertook an inroad on the mainland, the
says Dr. Graham, were a set of lubberly ravage of which altogether effaced' the
supernaturals, who, like the Brownies, could memory of his former expeditions for the like
be gained over by kind attention, to perform purpose.
the drudgery of the farm, and it was believed Our officer of Engineers, so often quoted,
that inany of the families in the Highlands has given us a distinct list of the domestic
had one of the order attached to it. They officers who, independent of Luichttach, or
were supposed to be dispersed over the gardes de corps, belonged to the establish-
Highlands, each in his own wild recess,

ment of a Highland Chief.

These are, the solemn stated meetings of the order were 1. The Henchman. See these notes, p. 287. regularly held in this Cave of Benvenue. This 2. The Bard. See pp. 280-1. 3. Bladier, or current superstition, no doubt, alludes to spokesman. 4. Gillie-more, or sword-bearer, some circumstance in the ancient history of alluded to in the text. 5. Gillie-cusflue, who this country.' –Scenery on the Southern carried the chief, if on foot, over the fords. Confines of Perthshire, p. 19, 1806. - It must 6. Gillie-comstraine, who leads the chief's be owned that the Coir, or Den, does not, in horse. 7. Gillie-Trushanarinsh, the bag. its present state, meet our ideas of a subter

gage man. 8. The piper. 9. The piper's raneous grotto, or cave, being only a sınall gillie or attendant, who carries the bagpipel. and narrow cavity, among huge fragments Although this appeared, naturally enough, of rocks rudely piled together. But such very ridiculous to an English officer, who a scene is liable to convulsions of nature, considered the master of such a retinue as which a Lowlander cannot estimate, and no more than an English gentleman of £500 which may have choked up what was a-year, yet in the circumstances of the chief, originally a cavern. At least the name and whose strength

and importance consisted in tradition warrant the author of a fictitious the number and attachinent of his followers, tale to assert its having been such at the it was of the last consequence, in point of remote period in which this scene is laid. policy, to have in his gift subordinate offices,

which called immediately round his person

those who were most devoted to him, and, NOTE XLII.

being of value in their estimation, were also

the means of rewarding them, The wild pass of Beal-nam-vo.-P. 238. Bealach-nam-bo, or the pass of cattle, is

NOTE XLIV. a most magnificent glade, overhung with aged birch-trees, a little higher up the mountain than the Coir-nan-Uriskin, treated of in

The Taghairm call'd; by which, afar, a former note. The whole composes the

Our sires foresaw the events of war. most sublime piece of scenery that imagination can conceive.

The Highlanders, like all rude people, had various superstitious modes of inqạiring into

futurity. One of the most noted was the NOTE XLIII.

Tagháirm, mentioned in the text. A person 4, single page, to bear his sword,

was wrapped up in the skin of a newly-slain Alone attended on his lord.-P. 238.

bullock, and deposited beside a waterfall, or

at the bottom of a precipice, or in some other A Highland chief, being as absolute in his strange, wild, and unusual situation, where patriarchal authority as any prince, had

the scenery around him suggested nothing a corresponding number of officers attached

but objects of horror. In this situation, he to his person. He had his body-guards,

revolved in his mind the question proposed; called Luichttach, picked from his clan for

and whatever was impressed upon him by his strength, activity, and entire devotion to his exalted imagination, passed for the inspiration person. These, according to their deserts,

of the disembodied spirits, who haunt the were sure to share abundantly in the rude

desolate recesses. In some of these Hebrides, profusion of his hospitality. It is recorded,

they attributed the same oracular power to for example, by tradition, that Allan Mac a large black stone by the sea-shore, which Lean, chief of that clan, happened upon

they approached with certain solemnities, a time to hear one of these favourite re and considered the first fancy which came tainers observe to his comrade, that their

into their own minds, after they did so, to be chief grew old. 'Whence do you infer that?' replied the other.-'When was it,' rejoined

1 Letters from Scotland, vol. ii. p. 15.

-P. 240.

the undoubted dictate of the tutelar deity of his friends answer the question; which must the stone, and, as such, to be, if possible, be the same that was proposed by the man punctually complied with. Martin has re shut up in the hide. And afterwards, a very corded the following curious modes of High- big catcomes, attended by a number of land augury, in which the Taghairm, and its lesser cats, desiring to relieve the cat turned effects upon the person who was subjected to upon the spit, and then answers the question. it, may serve to illustrate the text.

If this answer proved the same that was It was an ordinary thing among the over given to the man in the hide, then it was curious to consult an invisible oracle, con taken as a confirmation of the other, which, cerning the fate of families and battles, &c. in this case, was believed infallible. This was performed three different ways : ‘Mr. Alexander Cooper, present minister the first was by a company of men, one of of North-Vist, told me, that one John Erach, whom, being detached by lot, was afterwards in the Isle of Lewis, assured him, it was his carried to a river, which was the boundary fate to have been led by his curiosity with between two villages; four of the company some who consulted this oracle, and that he laid hold on him, and, having shut his eyes, was a night within the hide, as above they took him by the legs and arms, and inentioned; during which time he felt and then, tossing him to and again, struck his heard such terrible things, that he could not hips with force against the bank. One of express them; the impression it made on them cried out, What is it you have got him was such as could never go pff, and he here? another answers, A log of birch-wood. said, for a thousand worlds he would never The other cries again, Let his invisible again be concerned in the like performance, friends appear from all quarters, and let for this had disordered him to a high degree. them relieve him by giving an answer to our He confessed it ingenuously, and with an - present demands: and in a few minutes air of great remorse, and seemed to be very after, a number of little creatures came from penitent under a just sense of so great the sea, who answered the question, and a crime: he declared this about five years disappeared suddenly. The man was then since, and is still living in the Lewis for any set at liberty, and they all returned home, to thing I know.'— Description of the Western take their ineasures according to the pre Isles, p. 110. See also PENNANT'S Scottish diction of their false prophets; but the poor Tour, vol. ii. p. 361. deluded fools were abused, for their answer was still ambiguous. This was always practised in the night, and may literally be called the works of darkness.

NOTE XLV. 'I had an account from the most intelligent and judicious men in the Isle of Skie, that The choicest of the prey we had, about sixty-two years ago, the oracle was When swept our merry-men Gallangad. thus consulted only once, and that was in

-P. 240. the parish of Kilmartin, on the east side, by a wicked and mischievous race of people, I know not if it be worth observing that who are now extinguished, both root and this passage is taken almost literally from branch,

the inouth of an old Highland Kern or 'The second way of consulting the oracle Ketteran, as they were called. He used to was by a party of men, who first retired to narrate the merry doings of the good old solitary places, remote from any house, and time when he was follower of Rob Roy there they singled out one of their number, MacGregor. This leader, on one occasion, and wrapt him in a big.cow's hide, which thought proper to make a descent upon the they folded about him ; his whole body was lower part of the Loch Lomond district, covered with it, except his head, and so left and suinmoned all the heritors and farmers in this posture all night, until his invisible to meet at the Kirk of Drymen, to pay him friends relieved him, by giving a proper black-mail, i. e. tribute for forbearance and answer to the question in hand; which

he protection. As this invitation was supported received, as he fancied, from several persons by a band of thirty or forty stout lellows, that he found about him all that time. His only one gentleman-an ancestor, if I misconsorts returned to him at the break of take not, of the present Mr. Grahame of day, and then he communicated his news to Gartmore-- ventured to decline compliance. thein ; which often proved fatal to those Rob Roy instantly swept his land of all he concerned in such unwarrantable enquiries. could drive away, and among the spoil vas

"There was a third way of consulting, a bull of the old Scottish wild breed, wliose which was a confirmation of the second ferocity occasioned great plague to the above mentioned. The same company who Ketterans. But ere we had reached the put the man into the hide, took a live cat, Row of Dennan,' said the old man, 'a child and put him on a spit; one of the number was employed to turn the spit, and one of his consorts enquired of him, What are you

1 The reader may have met with the story of the

King of the Cats,' in Lord Littleton's Letters. It is doing? he answered, I roast this cat, until well known in the Highlands as a nursery tale.

might have scratched his ears 1.' The cir Jonson, in 'The Sad Shepherd,' gives cuinstance is a minute one, but it paints the a more poetical account of the same ceretimes when the poor beeve was compelled mony :


He that undoes him, • To hoof it o'er as many weary miles,

Doth cleave the brisket bone, upon the spoon With goading pikemen hollowing at his heels,

Of which a little gristle grows-you call it--
As e'er the bravest antler of the woods.'

Robin Hood. The raven's bone.

Now o'er head sat a raven
On a sere bough, a grown, great bird, and hoarse,

Who, all the while the deer was breaking up, NOTE XLVI.

So croak'd and cried for 't, as all the huntsmen,

Especially old Scathlock, thought it ominous.' that huge cliff, whose ample verge Tradition calls the Hero's Targe.-P. 240.

NOTE XLVIII. There is a rock so named in the Forest of

Which spills the foremost foeman's life, Glenfinlas, by which a tumultuary cataract

That party conquers in the strife.'- P. 241. takes its course. This wild place is said in former times to have afforded refuge to an

Though this be in the text described as outlaw, who was supplied with provisions by a response of the Taghairm, or Oracle of the a woman, who lowered them down from the Hide, it was of itself an augury, frequently brink of the precipice above. His water he attended to. The fate of the battle was often procured for himself, by letting down a flagon anticipated in the imagination of the com. tied to a string, into the black pool beneath batants, by observing which party first shed the fall.

blood. It is said that the Highlanders under Montrose were so deeply imbued with this

notion, that, on the morning of the battle of NOTE XLVII.

Tippermoor, they murdered a defenceless

herdsman, whom they found in the fields, Or raven on the blasted oak,

merely to secure an advantage of so much That, watching while the deer is broke, consequence to their party. His morsel claims with sullen croak?

-P. 241.

Note XLIX. Broke=quartered. Everything belonging to the chase was matter of 'solemnity

Alice Brand.-P. 243. among our ancestors; but nothing was more This little fairy tale is founded upon a very so than the mode of cutting up, or, as it was curious Danish ballad, which occurs in the technically called, breaking, the slaughtered Kæmpe Viser, a collection of heroic songs, stag. The forester had his allotted portion ; first published in 1591, and reprinted in 1695, the hounds had a certain allowance; and, to

inscribed by Anders Sofrensen, the collector inake the division as general as possible, the and editor, to Sophia Queen of Denmark. very birds had their share also. There is

I have been favoured with a literal translation a little gristle,' says Turberville, 'which is of the original, by my learned friend Mr. upon the spoone of the brisket, which we call

Robert Jamieson, whose deep knowledge of the raven's bone ;. and I have seen in some Scandinavian antiquities will, I hope, one places a raven so wont and accustomed to it, day be displayed in illustration of the history that she would never fail to croak and cry

of Scottish Ballad and Song, for which no for it all the time you were in breaking up of

man possesses more ample materials. The the deer, and would not depart till she had

story will remind the readers of the Border it.' In the very ancient metrical romance of

Minstrelsy, of the tale of Young Tamlane. Sir Tristrem, that peerless knight, who is said But this is only a solitary and not very to have been the very deviser of all rules of

marked instance of coincidence, whereas chase, did not omit the ceremony :

several of the other ballads in the same • The rauen he yaue his yiftes

collection find exact counterparts in the Sat on the fourched tre

Kæmpe Viser. Which may have been the Sir Tristrem. originals, will be a question for future anti

quaries. Mr. Jamieson, to secure the power The raven might also challenge his rights by the Book of St. Albans; for thus says

of literal translation, has adopted the old

Scottish idiom, which approaches so near to Dame Juliana Berners :

that of the Danish, as almost to give word sor Slitteth anon

word, as well as line for line, and indeed in The bely to the side, from the corbyn bone;

many verses the orthography alone is altered. That is corbyn's fee, at the death he will be.'

As Wester Haf, mentioned in the first

stanzas of the ballad, means the West Sea, 1 This anecdote was, in former editions, inaccurately in opposition to the Baltic, or East Sea, ascribed to Gregor Macgregor of Glengyle, called Ghlune Dhu, or Black-knee, a relation of Rob Roy,

Mr. Jamieson inclines to be of opinion, that but, as I have been assured, not addicted to his

the scene of the disenchantment is laid in one predatory excesses.--Note to Third Edition.

of the Orkney, or Hebride Islands. To each

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