creatures, to think as well as to act, to cultivate the the sword was dropped at once by all the Italian pleasures of the mind as well as those of the body. sovereigns; while the Venetian aristocracy was jealous

The more these refined arts advance, the more of its subjects, the Florentine democracy applied sociable men become. Nor is it possible, that when itself entirely to commerce; Rome was governed by enriched with science, and possessed of a fund of con- priests, and Naples by women. War then became versation, they should be contented to remain in soli- the business of soldiers of fortune, who spared one tude, or live with their fellow-citizens in that distant another, and, to the astonishment of the world, could manner which is peculiar to ignorant and barbarous engage a whole day in what they called a battle, and nations. They flock into cities; love to receive and return at night to their camp without the least bloodcommunicate knowledge; to show their wit or their shed. breeding; their taste in conversation or living, in What has chiefly induced severe moralists to declothes or furniture. Curiosity allures the wise ; claim against refinement in the arts, is the example vanity the foolish; and pleasure both. Particular of ancient Rome, which, joining to its poverty and clubs and societies are everywhere formed; both rusticity virtue and public spirit, rose to such a sursexes meet in an easy and sociable manner; and the prising height of grandeur and liberty ; but, having tempers of men, as well as their behaviour, refine learned from its conquered provinces the Asiatic apace. So that, beside the improvements which they luxury, fell into every kind of corruption; whence receive from knowledge and the liberal arts, it is im- arose sedition and civil wars, attended at last with possible but they must feel an increase of humanity, the total loss of liberty. All the Latin classics whom from the very habit of conversing together, and con we peruse in our infancy are full of these sentiments, tributing to each other's pleasure and entertainment. and universally ascribe the ruin of their state to the Thus industry, knowledge, and humanity, are linked arts and riches imported from the East; insomuch together by an indissoluble chain, and are found, from that Sallust represents a taste for painting as a vice, experience as well as reason, to be peculiar to the no less than lewdness and drinking. And so popular more polished, and what are commonly denominated were these sentiments during the latter ages of the the more luxurious ages.

republic, that this author abounds in praises of the [After some farther arguments) Knowledge in the old rigid Roman virtue, though himself the most arts of government naturally begets mildness and egregious instance of modern luxury and corruption; moderation, by instructing men in the advantages of speaks contemptuously of the Grecian eloquence, humane maxims above rigour and severity, which though the most elegant writer in the world; nay, drive subjects into rebellion, and make the return to employs preposterous digressions and declamations to submission impracticable, by cutting off all hopes of this purpose, though a model of taste and correctness. pardon. When the tempers of men are softened, as But it would be easy to prove that these writers well as their knowledge improved, this humanity mistook the cause of the disorders in the Roman appears still more conspicuous, and is the chief cha- state, and ascribed to luxury and the arts what really racteristic which distinguishes a civilised age from proceeded from an ill-modelled government, and the times of barbarity and ignorance. Factions are then unlimited extent of conquests. Refinement on the less inveterate, revolutions less tragical, authority pleasures and conveniences of life has no natural less severe, and seditions less frequent. Even foreign tendency to beget venality and corruption. The wars abate of their cruelty; and after the field of value which all men put upon any particular pleabattle, where honour and interest steel men against sure depends on comparison and experience; nor is a compassion as well as fear, the combatants divest porter less greedy of money which he spends on bacon themselves of the brute, and resume the man. and brandy, than a courtier who purchases champagne

Nor need we fear that men, by losing their ferocity, and ortolans. Riches are valuable at all times, and will lose their martial spirit, or become less un to all men, because they always purchase pleasures daunted and vigorous in defence of their country or such as men are accustomed to and desire : nor can their liberty. The arts have no such effect in ener- anything restrain or regulate the love of money but vating either the mind or body. On the contrary, a sense of honour and virtue ; which, if it be not industry, their inseparable attendant, adds new force nearly equal at all times, will naturally abound most to both. And if anger, which is said to be the whet- in ages of knowledge and refinement. stone of courage, loses somewhat of its asperity by To declaim against present times, and magnify the politeness and refinement, a sense of honour, which is virtue of remote ancestors, is a propensity almost ina stronger, more constant, and more governable prin- herent in human nature: and as the sentiments and ciple, acquires fresh vigour by that elevation of genius opinions of civilised ages alone are transmitted to which arises from knowledge and a good education. posterity, hence it is that we meet with so many Add to this, that courage can neither have any dura- severe judgments pronounced against luxury, and tion, nor be of any use, when not accompanied with even science ; and hence it is that at present we give discipline and martial skill, which are seldom found so ready an assent to them. But the fallacy is easily among a barbarous people. The ancients remarked perceived by comparing different nations that are conthat Datames was the only barbarian that ever knew temporaries; where we both judge more impartially, the art of war. And Pyrrhus, seeing the Romans and can better set in opposition those manners with marshal their army with some art and skill, said with which we are sufficiently acquainted. Treachery and surprise, These barbarians have nothing barbarous in cruelty, the most pernicious and most odious of all their discipline! It is observable that, as the old vices, seem peculiar to uncivilised ages, and by the Romans, by applying themselves solely to war, were refined Greeks and Romans were ascribed to all the almost the only uncivilised people that ever possessed barbarous nations which surrounded them. They military discipline, so the modern Italians are the might justly, therefore, have presumed that their own only civilised people, among. Europeans, that ever ancestors, so highly celebrated, possessed no greater wanted courage and a martial spirit. Those who virtue, and were as much inferior to their posterity in would ascribe this effeminacy of the Italians to honour and humanity as in taste and science. An their luxury, or politeness, or application to the arts, ancient Frank or Saxon may be highly extolled : but need but consider the French and English, whose I believe every man would think his life or fortune bravery is as incontestable as their love for the arts much less secure in the hands of a Moor or Tartar and their assiduity in commerce. The Italian his than those of a French or English gentlemen, the torians give us a more satisfactory reason for this rank of men the most civilised in the most civilised degeneracy of their countrymen. They show us how | nations.

We come now to the second position which we pro- general preferable to sloth and idleness, which would posed to illustrate, to wit, that as innocent luxury commonly succeed in its place, and are more hurtful or a refinement in the arts and conveniences of life is both to private persons and to the public. When advantageous to the public, so wherever luxury ceases sloth reigns, a mean uncultivated way of life prevails to be innocent, it also ceases to be beneficial; and amongst individuals, without society, without enjoywhen carried a degree farther, begins to be a quality ment. And if the sovereign, in such a situation, pernicious, though perhaps not the most pernicious, to demands the service of his subjects, the labour of the political society.

state suffices only to furnish the necessaries of life to Let us consider what we call vicious luxury. No the labourers, and can afford nothing to those who gratification, however sensual, can of itself be esteemed are employed in the public service. vicious. A gratification is only vicious when it engrosses all a man's expense, and leaves no ability for such acts of duty and generosity as are required by

Of the Middle Station of Life. his situation and fortune. Suppose that he correct The moral of the following fable will easily discover the vice, and employ part of his expense in the edu- itself without my explaining it. One rivulet meetcation of his children, in the support of his friends, ing another, with whom he had been 'long united in and in relieving the poor, would any prejudice result strictest amity, with noisy haughtiness and disdain to society! On the contrary, the same consumption thus bespoke him: What, brother! still in the same would arise; and that labour which at present is state! Still low and creeping! Are you not ashamed employed only in producing a slender gratification to when you behold me, who, though lately in a like one man, would relieve the necessitous, and bestow condition with you, am now become a great river, satisfaction on hundreds. The same care and toil that and shall shortly be able to rival the Danube or the raise a dish of pease at Christmas, would give bread Rhine, provided those friendly rains continue which to a whole family during six months. To say that have favoured my banks, but neglected yours ? •Very without a vicious luxury the labour would not have true,' replies the humble rivulet, 'you are now, inbeen employed at all, is only to say that there is some deed, swollen to a great size; but methinks you are other defect in human nature, such as indolence, become withal somewhat turbulent and muddy. I selfishness, inattention to others, for which luxury am contented with my low condition and my purity.' in some measure provides a remedy; as one poison Instead of commenting upon this fable, I shall take may be an antidote to another. But virtue, like occasion from it to compare the different stations of wholesome food, is better than poisons, however cor- life, and to persuade such of my readers as are placed rected.

in the middle station to be satisfied with it, as the Suppose the same number of men that are at pre- most eligible of all others. These form the most sent in Great Britain with the same soil and climate; numerous rank of men that can be supposed suscepI ask, is it not possible for them to be happier, by the tible of philosophy, and therefore all discourses of most perfect way of life that can be imagined, and by morality ought principally to be addressed to them. the greatest reformation that omnipotence itself could The great are too much immersed in pleasure, and work in their temper and disposition ? To assert that the poor too much occupied in providing for the they cannot, appears evidently ridiculous. As the necessities of life, to hearken to the calm voice of land is able to maintain more than all its present in- reason. The middle station, as it is most happy in habitants, they could never, in such a Utopian state, many respects, so particularly in this, that a man feel any other ills than those which arise from bodily placed in it can, with the greatest leisure, consider sickness, and these are not the half of human miseries. his own happiness, and reap a new enjoyment, from All other ills spring from some vice, either in our comparing his situation with that of persons above or selves or others, and even many of our diseases pro- below him. ceed from the same origin. Remove the vices, and Agur's prayer is sufficiently noted—'Two things the ills follow. You must only take care to remove have I required of thee; deny me them not before I all the vices. If you remove part, you may render die: remove far from me vanity and lies; give me the matter worse. By banishing vicious luxury, neither poverty nor riches ; feed me with food conwithout curing sloth and an indifference to others, venient for me, lest I be full and deny thee, and say, you only diminish industry in the state, and add no- who is the Lord ? or lest I be poor, and steal, and thing to men's charity or their generosity. Let us, take the name of my God in vain. The middle statherefore, rest contented with asserting that two option is here justly recommended, as affording the posite rices in a state may be more advantageous than fullest security for virtue; and I may also add, that either of them alone; but let us never pronounce vice it gives opportunity for the most ample exercise of in itself advantageous. Is it not very inconsistent for it, and furnishes employment for every good quality an author to assert in one page that moral distinctions which we can possibly be possessed of. Those who are are inventions of politicians for public interest, and placed among the lower ranks of men have little opporin the next page maintain that vice is advantageous tunity of exerting any other virtue besides those of to the public? And indeed it seems, upon any patience, resignation, industry, and integrity. Those system of morality, little less than a contradiction in who are advanced into the higher stations, have full terms to talk of a vice which is in general beneficial employment for their generosity, humanity, affability, to society.

and charity. When a man lies betwixt these two I thought this reasoning necessary, in order to give extremes, he can exert the former virtues towards his some light to a philosophical question which has been superiors, and the latter towards his inferiors. Every much disputed in England. I call it a philosophical moral quality which the human soul is susceptible question, not a political one ; for whatever may be of, may have its turn, and be called up to action ; the consequence of such a miraculous transformation and a man may, after this manner, be much more of mankind as would endow them with every species certain of his progress in virtue, than where his good of virtue, and free them from every species of vice, qualities lie dormant and without employment. this concerns not the magistrate who aims only at But there is another virtue that seems principally possibilities. He cannot cure every vice by substi- to lie among equals, and is, for that reason, chiefly tuting a virtue in its place. Very often he can only calculated for the middle station of life. This virtue cure one vice by another, and in that case he ought is friendship. I believe most men of generous temto prefer what is least pernicious to society. Luxury, pers are apt to envy the great, when they consider the when excessive, is the source of many ills, but is in large opportunities such persons have of doing good

to their fellow-creatures, and of acquiring the friend the soul must be made of still a finer mould, to shine ship and esteem of men of merit. They make no in philosophy or poetry, or in any of the higher parts advances in vain, and are not obliged to associate of learning. Courage and resolution are chiefly rewith those whom they have little kindness for, like quisite in a commander, justice and humanity in a people of inferior stations, who are subject to have statesman, but genius and capacity in a scholar. their proffers of friendship rejected even where they Great generals and great politicians are found in all would be most fond of placing their affections. But ages and countries of the world, and frequently start though the great have more facility in acquiring up at once, even amongst the greatest barbarians. friendships, they cannot be so certain of the sincerity Sweden was sunk in ignorance when it produced of them as men of a lower rank, since the favours Gustavus Ericson and Gustavus Adolphus; Muscoty they bestow may acquire them flattery, instead of when the Czar appeared; and perhaps Carthage when good will and kindness. It has been very judiciously it gave birth to Hannibal. But England must pass remarked, that we attach ourselves more by the ser- through a long gradation of its Spensers, Johnsons, vices we perform than by those we receive, and that Wallers, Drydens, before it arise at an Addison or a a man is in danger of losing his friends by obliging Pope. A happy talent for the liberal arts and them too far. I should therefore choose to lie in sciences is a kind of prodigy among men. Nature the middle way, and to have my commerce with my must afford the richest genius that comes from her friend varied both by obligations given and received. hands ; education and example must cultivate it from I have too much pride to be willing that all the the earliest infancy; and industry must concur to obligations should lie on my side, and should be carry it to any degree of perfection. No man needs afraid that, if they all lay on his, he would also have be surprised to see Kouli-Kan among the Persians ; too much pride to be entirely easy under them, or but Homer, in so early an age among the Greeks, is have a perfect complacency in my company.

certainly matter of the highest wonder. We may also remark of the middle station of life, A man cannot show a genius for war who is not so that it is more favourable to the acquiring of wisdom fortunate as to be trusted with command ; and it seland ability, as well as of virtue, and that a man so dom happens, in any state or kingdom, that several situate has a better chance for attaining a knowledge at once are placed in that situation. How many both of men and things, than those of a more elevated Marlboroughs were there in the confederate army, who station. He enters with more familiarity into human never rose so much as to the command of a regiment ! life, and everything appears in its natural colours be- But I am persuaded there has been but one Milfore him : he has more leisure to form observations ; ton in England within these hundred years, because and has, besides, the motive of ambition to push him every one may exert the talents of poetry who is poson in his attainments, being certain that he can never sessed of them; and no one could exert them under rise to any distinction or eminence in the world with greater disadvantages than that divine poet. If no out his own industry. And here I cannot forbear man were allowed to write verses but the person who communicating a remark, which may appear some was beforehand named to be laureate, could we expect what extraordinary, namely, that it is wisely ordained a poet in ten thousand years ? by Providence that the middle station should be the Were we to distinguish the ranks of men by their most favourable to the improving our natural abilities, genius and capacity, more than by their virtue and since there is really more capacity requisite to per- usefulness to the public, great philosophers would cerform the duties of that station, than is requisite to tainly challenge the first rank, and must be placed at act in the higher spheres of life. There are more the top of mankind. So rare is this character, that natural parts, and a stronger genius requisite to make perhaps there has not as yet been above two in the a good lawyer or physician, than to make a great world who can lay a just claim to it. At least Galimonarch. For, let us take any race or succession of leo and Newton seem to me so far to excel all the kings, where birth alone gives a title to the crown ; rest, that I cannot admit any other into the same the English kings, for instance, who have not been class with them. esteemed the most shining in history. From the Con Great poets may challenge the second place; and quest to the succession of his present majesty, we may this species of genius, though rare, is yet much more reckon twenty-eight sovereigns, omitting those who frequent than the former. Of the Greek poets that died minors. Of these, eight are esteemed princes of remain, Homer alone seems to merit this character : great capacity, namely, the Conqueror, Harry II., of the Romans, Virgil, Horace, and Lucretius : of the Edward I., Edward II., Harry V. and VII., Eliza- English, Milton and Pope: Corneille, Racine, Boileau, beth, and the late King William. Now, I believe and Voltaire of the French: and Tasso and Ariosto every one will allow, that, in the common run of of the Italiang. mankind, there are not eight out of twenty-eight Great orators and historians are perhaps more rare who are fitted by nature to make a figure either on than great poets; but as the opportunities for exertthe bench or at the bar. Since Charles VII., tening the talents requisite for eloquence, or acquiring monarchs have reigned in France, omitting. Francis the knowledge requisite for writing history, depend in II. Five of those have been esteemed princes of some measure upon fortune, we cannot pronounce capacity, namely, Louis XI., XII., and XIV., Francis these productions of genius to be more extraordinary I., and Harry IV. In short, the governing of man- than the former. kind well requires a great deal of virtue, justice, and I should now return from this digression, and show humanity, but not a surprising capacity. A certain that the middle station of life is more favourable to Pope, whose name I have forgot, used to say, 'Let us happiness, as well as to virtue and wisdom; but as divert ourselves, my friends ; the world governs itself.' | the arguments that prove this seem pretty obvious, I There are, indeed, some critical times, such as those shall here forbear insisting on them. in which Harry IV. lived, that call for the utmost vigour; and a less courage and capacity than what The Hartleian theory at this time found adappeared in that great monarch must have sunk un- mirers and followers in England. DR DAVID HARTder the weight. But such circumstances are rare ; LEY, an English physician (1705-1757), having imand even then fortune does at least one half of the bibed from Locke the principles of logic and metabusiness.

physics, and from a hint of Newton the doctrine Since the common professions, such as law or phy- that there were vibrations in the substance of the sic, require equal, if not superior capacity, to what are brain that might throw new light on the phenomena exerted in the higher spheres of life, it is evident that of the mind, formed a system which he developed

in his elaborate work, published in_1749, under the The philosophical doctrines of Smith are vastly title of Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, inferior in value to the language and illustrations he and his Expectations. Hartley, besides his theory of employs in enforcing them. He has been styled the vibrations in the brain, refers all the operations the most eloquent of modern moralists; and his work of the intellect to the association of ideas, and repre- is embellished with such a variety of examples, with sents that association as reducible to the single law, such true pictures of the passions, and of life and that ideas which enter the mind at the same time manners, that it may be read with pleasure and adacquire a tendency to call up each other, which is vantage by those who, like Gray the poet, cannot in direct proportion to the frequency of their having see in the darkness of metaphysics. His leading entered together. His theory of vibrations has a doctrine, that sympathy must necessarily precede our tendency to materialism, but was not designed by its moral approbation or disapprobation, has been geneingenious author to produce such an effect.

rally abandoned. “To derive our moral sentiments,' says Brown, which are as universal as the actions

of mankind that come under our review, from the DR ADAM SMITH.

occasional sympathies that warm or sadden us with DR ADAM SMITH, after an interval of a few years, own, seems to me very nearly the same sort of error

joys, and griefs, and resentments which are not our succeeded to Hutcheson as professor of moral philo

as it would be to derive the waters of an overflowsophy in Glasgow, and not only inherited his love ing stream from the sunshine or shade which may of metaphysics, but adopted some of his theories, occasionally gleam over it.' Mackintosh has also which he blended with his own views of moral pointed out the error of representing the sympathies science. Smith was born in Kirkaldy in Fifeshire in their primitive state, without undergoing any in 1723. His father held the situation of comp-transformation, as continuing exclusively to constitroller of customs, but died before the birth of his tute the moral sentiments-an error which he hap

pily compares to that of the geologist who should tell us that the layers of this planet had always been in the same state, shutting his eyes to transition states and secondary formations. As a specimen of the flowing style and moral illustrations of Smith, we give an extract on

[The Results of Misdirected and Guilty Ambition.]

To attain to this envied situation, the candidates for fortune too frequently abandon the paths of virtue; for unhappily, the road which leads to the one, and that which leads to the other, lie sometimes in very opposite directions. But the ambitious man flatters himself that, in the splendid situation to which he advances, he will have so many means of commanding the respect and admiration of mankind, and will be enabled to act with such superior propriety and grace, that the lustre of his future conduct will entirely cover or efface the foulness of the steps by which he arrived at that elevation. In many governments the candidates for the highest stations are above the law, and if they can attain the object of their ambition, they have no fear of being called to account for the means by which they acquired it. They often endeavour, therefore, not only by fraud and falsehood,

the ordinary and vulgar arts of intrigue and cabal, Dr Adam Smith.

but sometimes by the perpetration of the most enor

mous crimes, by murder and assassination, by rebelAt Glasgow university, Smith distinguished lion and civil war, to supplant and destroy those who kimself by his acquirements, and obtained a nomi, oppose or stand in the way of their greatness. They nation to Baliol college, Oxford, where he continued more frequently miscarry than succeed, and comfor seven years. His friends had designed him for monly gain nothing but the disgraceful punishment the church, but he preferred trusting to literature which is due to their crimes. But though they should and science. He gave a course of lectures in Edin- be so lucky as to attain that wished for greatness, they burgh on rhetoric and belles lettres, which, in are always most miserably disappointed in the happi1757, recommended him to the vacant chair of pro- ness which they expect to enjoy in it. It is not ease fessor of logic in Glasgow, and this situation he or pleasure, but always honour, of one kind or another, next year exchanged for the more congenial one of though frequently an honour very ill understood, that moral philosophy professor. In 1759 he published the ambitious man really pursues. But the honour his Theory of Moral Sentiments, and in 1764 he was of his exalted station appears, both in his own eyes prevailed upon to accompany the young Duke of and in those of other people, polluted and defiled by Buccleuch as travelling tutor on the continent. the baseness of the means through which he rose to They were absent two years, and on his return, it. Though by the profusion of every liberal expense, Smith retired to his native town, and pursued a though by excessive indulgence in every profligate severe system of study, which resulted in the publi- pleasure the wretched but usual resource of ruined cation, in 1776, of his great work on political eco- characters ; though by the hurry of public business, nomy, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the or by the prouder and more dazzling tumult of war, Wealth of Nations. Two years afterwards he was he may endeavour to efface, both from his own memory made one of the commissioners of customs, and his and from that of other people, the remembrance of latter days were spent in ease and opulence. He what he has done, that remembrance never fails to died in 1790.

pursue him. He invokes in vain the dark and dismal

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powers of forgetfulness and oblivion. He remembers to the church, and obtained the living of New himself what he has done, and that remembrance tells Machar, Aberdeenshire. In 1752 he was appointed him that other people must likewise remember it. professor of moral philosophy in King's College, Amidst all the gaudy pomp of the most ostentatious Aberdeen, which he quitted in 1763 for the chair greatness, amidst the venal and vile adulation of the of moral philosophy in Glasgow. He died on the great and of the learned, amidst the more innocent | 7th of October 1796. though more foolish acclamations of the common people, amidst all the pride of conquest and the

LORD KAMES. triumph of successful war, he is still secretly pursued by the avenging furies of shame and remorse ; and

HENRY HOME (1696–1782), a Scottish lawyer and while glory seems to surround him on all sides, he judge, in which latter capacity he took, according to himself, in his own imagination, sees black and foul a custom of his country, the designation of Lord infamy fast pursuing him, and every moment ready Kames, was a conspicuous member of the literary to overtake him from behind. Even the great Cæsar, though he had the magnanimity to dismiss his guards, could not dismiss his suspicions. The remembrance of Pharsalia still haunted and pursued him. When, at the request of the senate, he had the generosity to pardon Marcellus, he told that assembly that he was not unaware of the designs which were carrying on against his life; but that, as he had lived long enough both for nature and for glory, he was contented to die, and therefore despised all conspiracies. He had, perhaps, lived long enough for nature ; but the man who felt himself the object of such deadly resentment, from those whose favour he wished to gain, and whom he still wished to consider as his friends, had certainly lived too long for real glory, or for all the happiness which he could ever hope to enjoy in the love and esteem of his equals.

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Dr Reid's Inquiry into the Human Mind, published in 1764, was an attack on the ideal theory, and on the sceptical conclusions which Hume deduced from it. The author had the candour to submit it to Hume before publication, and the latter, with his usual complacency and good nature, acknowledged the merit of the treatise. In_1785 Reid published his Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, and in 1788 those on the Active Powers. The merit of Reid as a correct reasoner and original thinker on

House of Lord Kames, Canongate, Edinburgh. moral science, free from the jargon of the schools, and philosophical society assembled in Edinburgh and basing his speculations on inductive reasoning, during the latter part of the eighteenth century. has been generally admitted. The ideal theory which During the earlier part of his life he devoted the he combated, taught that nothing is perceived but whole powers of an acute and reflective mind, and what is in the mind which perceives it; that we with an industry calling for the greatest praise, to really do not perceive things that are external, but his profession, and compilations and treatises cononly certain images and pictures of them imprinted nected with it. But the natural bent of his faculties upon the mind, which are called impressions and towards philosophical disquisition—the glory if not ideas.' This doctrine Reid had himself believed, the vice of his age and country-at length took the till

, finding it led to important consequences, he mastery, and, after reaching the bench in 1752, he asked himself the question, What evidence have I gave his leisure almost exclusively to metaphysifor this doctrine, that all the objects of my know- cal and ethical subjects. His first work of this ledge are ideas in my own mind ?' He set about an kind, Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natuinquiry, but could find no evidence for the principle, ral Religion, combats those theories of human nature he says, excepting the authority of philosophers. which deduce all actions from some single principle, Dugald Stewart says of Reid, that it is by the logic and attempts to establish several principles of accal rigour of his method of investigating metaphy- tion. He here maintained philosophical necessity, sical subjects (imperfectly understood even by the but in a connection with the duties of morality and disciples of Locke), still more than by the impor- religion, which he hoped might save him from the tance of his particular conclusions, that he stands obloquy bestowed on other defenders of that doc80 conspicuously distinguished among those who trine; an expectation in which he was partially have hitherto prosecuted analytically the study of disappointed, as he narrowly escaped a citation be

In the dedication of his 'Inquiry, Reid in- fore the General Assembly of his native church, on cidentally makes a definition which strikes us as account of this book. very happy :- The productions of imagination,' he The Introduction to the Art of Thinking, published says, 'require a genius which soars above the com- in 1761, was a small and subordinate work, consistmon rank; but the treasures of knowledge are com- ing mainly of a series of detached maxims and genemonly buried deep, and may be reached by those ral observations on human conduct, illustrated by drudges who can dig with labour and patience, anecdotes drawn from the stores of history and though they have not wings to fly.' Dr Reid was biography. In the ensuing year appeared a larger a native of Strachan, in Kincardineshire, where he work, perhaps the best of all his compositionsThe 'was born on the 26th of April 1710. He was bred | Elements of Criticism, three volumes, a bold and


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