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original performance, which, discarding all arbitrary ing, touching, and smelling; for the latter feelings, rules of literary criticism derived from authority, seeming to exist externally at the organ of sense, are seeks for a proper set of rules in the fundamental conceived to be merely corporeal. principles of human nature itself. Dugald Stewart The pleasures of the eye and the ear being thus admits this to be the first systematic attempt to elevated above those of the other external senses, acinvestigate the metaphysical principles of the fine quire so much dignity, as to become a laudable enterarts.

tainment. They are not, however, set on a level with Lord Kames had, for many years, kept a common- the purely intellectual, being no less inferior in digplace book, into which he transcribed all anecdotes nity to intellectual pleasures, than superior to the of man, in his various nations and degrees of civili organic or corporeal: they indeed resemble the latter, sation, which occurred in the course of his reading, being, like them, produced by external objects ; but or appeared in the fugitive publications of the day. they also resemble the former, being, like them, proWhen advanced to near eighty years of age, he duced without any sensible organic impression. Their threw these together in a work entitled Sketches of mixed nature and middle place between organic and the History of Man (two vols., 4to., 1773), which intellectual pleasures qualify them to associate with shows his usual ingenuity and acuteness, and pre- both; beauty heightens all the organic feelings, as sents many curious disquisitions on society, but is well as the intellectual ; harmony, though it aspires materially reduced in value by the absence of a

to inflame devotion, disdains not to improve the relish proper authentication to many of the statements of a banquet. presented in it as illustrations. A volume, entitled The pleasures of the eye and the ear have other Loose Hints on Education, published in 1781, and in valuable properties beside those of dignity and elevawhich he anticipates some of the doctrines on that tion; being sweet and moderately exhilarating, they subject which have since been in vogue, completes are in their tone equally distant from the turbulence the list of his philosophical works.

of passion and the languor of indolence; and by that Lord Kames was also distinguished as an amateur tone are perfectly well qualified not only to revive agriculturist and improver of land, and some opera- the spirits when sunk by sensual gratification, but also tions, devised by him for clearing away a superin- suit. Here is a remedy

provided for many distresses ;

to relax them when overstrained in any violent purcumbent moss from his estate by means of water raised from a neighbouring river, help to mark the and to be convinced of its salutary effects, it will be originality and boldness of his conceptions. This sufficient to run over the following particulars. Ortaste led to his producing, in 1777, a volume entitled ganic pleasures have naturally a short duration ; when The Gentleman Farmer, which he has himself suffi- prolonged, they lose their relish ; when indulged to ciently described as an attempt to improve agricul- excess, they beget satiety and disgust; and to restore ture by subjecting it to the test of rational prin contrived than the exhilarating pleasures of the eye

a proper tone of mind, nothing can be more happily ciples.'

and ear. Lord Kames was a man of commanding aspect intellectual powers becomes painful by overstraining

On the other hand, any intense exercise of and figure, but easy and familiar manners.

He was the life and soul of every private company, and it stant relief ; it is necessary that the void be filled with

the mind; cessation from such exercise gives not inwas remarked of him that no subject seemed too great or too frivolous to derive lustre from his re- pleasure, which hath no relish but while we are in

some amusement, gently relaxing the spirits: organic marks upon it. The taste and thought of his philo- vigour, is ill qualified for that office; but the finer sophical works have now placed them out of fashion, but they contain many views and reflections from the mind, are finely qualified to restore its usual tone

pleasures of sense, which occupy, without exhausting, which modern inquirers might derive advantage.

after severe application to study or business, as well

as after satiety from sensual gratification. [Pleasures of the Eye and the Ear.]

Our first perceptions are of external objects, and

our first attachments are to them. Organic pleasures That nothing external is perceived till first it make take the lead ; but the mind gradually ripening, rean impression upon the organ of sense, is an observa- lisheth more and more the pleasures of the eye and tion that holds equally in every one of the external ear, which approach the purely mental without exsenses. But there is a difference as to our knowledge hausting the spirits, and exceed the purely sensual of that impression; in touching, tasting, and smelling, without danger of satiety. The pleasures of the eye we are sensible of the impression; that, for example, and ear have accordinglý a natural aptitude to draw which is made upon the hand by a stone, upon the us from the immoderate gratification of sensual appepalate by an apricot, and upon the nostrils by a rose. tite ; and the mind, once accustomed to enjoy a variety It is otherwise in seeing and hearing; for I am not of external objects without being sensible of the organic sensible of the impression made upon my eye when I impression, is prepared for enjoying internal objects behold a tree, nor of the impression made upon my where there cannot be an organic impression. Thus ear when I listen to a song. That difference in the the Author of nature, by qualifying the human mind manner of perceiving external objects, distinguisheth for a succession of enjoyments from low to high, leads remarkably hearing and seeing from the other senses; it by gentle steps from the most grovelling corporeal and I am ready to show that it distinguisheth still pleasures, for which only it is fitted in the beginning more remarkably the feelings of the former from that of life, to those refined and sublime pleasures that are of the latter; every feeling, pleasant or painful, must suited to its maturity. be in the mind; and yet, because in tasting, touching, But we are not bound down to this succession by and smelling, we are sensible of the impression made any law of necessity: the God of nature offers it to upon the organ, we are led to place there also the us in order to advance our happiness; and it is sufipleasant or painful feeling caused by that impression; cient that he hath enabled us to carry it on in a but, with respect to seeing and hearing, being insen- natural course. Nor has he made our task either sible of the organic impression, we are not misled to disagreeable or difficult : on the contrary, the transiassign a wrong place to the pleasant or painful feel- tion is sweet and easy from corporeal pleasures to the ings caused by that impression; and therefore we more refined pleasures of sense; and no less so from naturally place them in the mind, where they really these to the exalted pleasures of morality and reliare ; upon that account they are conceived to be more gion. We stand therefore engaged in honour as well refined and spiritual than what are derived from tast- | as interest, to second the purposes of nature by culti

56

vating the pleasures of the eye and ear, those espe- Essays on Poetry, Music, &c. He also published a cially that require extraordinary culture, such as digest of his college lectures, under the title of Elearise from poetry, painting, sculpture, music, garden- ments of Moral Science. In these works, though not ing, and architecture. This especially is the duty of profoundly philosophical, the author's 'lively relish the opulent, who have leisure to improve their minds for the sublime and beautiful, his clear and elegant and their feelings. The fine arts are contrived to give style,' and his happy quotations and critical exampleasure to the eye and the ear, disregarding the in- ples, must strike every reader. ferior senses. A taste for these arts is a plant that grows naturally in many soils; but without culture,

[On the Love of Nature.) scarce to perfection in any soil: it is susceptible of much refinement, and is by proper care greatly im

(From · Beattie's Essays.'] proved. In this respect a taste in the fine arts goes Homer's beautiful description of the heavens and hand in hand with the moral sense, to which indeed earth, as they appear in a calm evening by the light of it is nearly allied : both of them discover what is right the moon and stars, concludes with this circumstance and what is wrong: fashion, temper, and education, - And the heart of the shepherd is glad.' Madame have an influence to vitiate both, or to preserve them Dacier, from the turn she gives to the passage in her pure and untainted: neither of them are arbitrary version, seems to think, and Pope, in order perhaps nor local, being rooted in human nature, and govern- to make out his couplet, insinuates, that the gladness ed by principles common to all men. The design of of the shepherd is owing to his sense of the utility of the present undertaking, which aspires not to morality, those luminaries. And this may in part be the case; is to examine the sensitive branch of human nature, but this is not in Homer ; nor is it a necessary consito trace the objects that are naturally agreeable, as deration. It is true that, in contemplating the mawell as those that are naturally disagreeable; and by terial universe, they who discern the causes and effects these means to discover, if we can, what are the genuine of things must be more rapturously entertained than principles of the fine arts. The man who aspires to those who perceive nothing but shape and size, colour be a critic in these arts must pierce still deeper ; he and motion. Yet, in the mere outside of nature's must acquire a clear perception of what objects are works (if I may so express myself), there is a splenlofty, what low, what proper or improper, what manly, dour and a magnificence to which even untutored minds and what mean or trivial ; hence a foundation for cannot attend without great delight. reasoning upon the taste of any individual, and for Not that all peasants or all philosophers are equally passing a sentence upon it: where it is conformable susceptible of these charming impressions. It is strange to principles, we can pronounce with certainty that it to observe the callousness of some men, before whom is correct; otherwise, that it is incorrect and perhaps all the glories of heaven and earth pass in daily sucwhimsical. Thus the fine arts, like morals, become a cession, without touching their hearts, elevating their rational science; and, like morals, may be cultivated fancy, or leaving any durable remembrance. Even of to a high degree of refinement.

those who pretend to sensibility, how many are there Manifold are the advantages of criticism when thus to whom the lustre of the rising or setting sun, the studied as a rational science. In the first place, a sparkling concave of the midnight sky, the mountain thorough acquaintance with the principles of the fine forest tossing and roaring to the storm, or warbling arts redoubles the pleasure we derive from them. To with all the melodies of a summer evening; the sweet the man who resigns himself to feeling, without inter- interchange of hill and dale, shade and sunshine, posing any judgment, poetry, music, painting, are grove, lawn, and water, which an extensive landscape mere pastime. In the prime of life, indeed, they are offers to the view; the scenery of the ocean, so lovely, delightful, being supported by the force of novelty and so majestic, and so tremendous, and the many pleasthe heat of imagination; but in time they lose their ing varieties of the animal and vegetable kingdom, relish, and are generally neglected in the maturity of could never afford so much real satisfaction as the life, which disposes to more serious and more import- steams and noise of a ball-room, the insipid fiddling ant occupations. To those who deal in criticism as a and squeaking of an opera, or the vexations and regular science governed by just principles, and giving wranglings of a card-table! scope to judgment as well as to fancy, the fine arts are But some minds there are of a different make, who, a favourite entertainment, and in old age maintain even in the early part of life, receive from the conthat relish which they produce in the morning of life. templation of nature a species of delight which they

would hardly exchange for any other; and who, as

avarice and ambition are not the infirmities of that DR BEATTIE.

period, would, with equal sincerity and rapture, es

claimAmong the answerers of Hume was DR BEATTIE the poet, who, in 1770, published his Essay on the 'I care not, Fortunc, what you me deny ; Nature and Immutability of Truth, in opposition to

You cannot rob me of free nature's grace;

You cannot shut the windows of the sky, Sophistry and Scepticism. Inferior to most of the

Through which Aurora shows her brightening face; metaphysicians in logical precision, equanimity of You cannot bar my constant feet to trace temper, or patient research, Beattie brought great The woods and lawns by living stream at eve.' zeal and fervour to his task, a respectable share of Such minds have always in them the seeds of true philosophical knowledge, and a better command of taste, and frequently of imitative genius. At least, popular language and imaginative illustration than though their enthusiastic or visionary turn of mind, most of his fellow-labourers in that dry and dusty as the man of the world would call it, should not field. These qualities, joined to the pious and bene- always incline them to practise poetry or painting, we ficial tendency of his work, enabled him to produce need not scruple to affirm that, without some portion a highly popular treatise. No work of the kind was of this enthusiasm, no person ever became a true poet ever so successful. It has fallen into equal neglect or painter. For he who would imitate, the works of with other metaphysical treatises of the age, and is nature, must first accurately observe them, and accunow considered unworthy the talents of its author. rate observation is to be expected from those only who It has neither the dignity nor the acumen of the take great pleasure in it. original philosopher, and is unsuited to the ordinary To a mind thus disposed, no part of creation is in. religious reader. The best of Beattie's prose works different. In the crowded city and howling wilderare his Dissertations, Moral and Critical, and his ness, in the cultivated province and solitary isle, in

the flowery lawn and craggy mountain, in the mur- fishes sporting in the woods, and elephants walking mur of the rivulet and in the uproar of the ocean, in on the sea. Could such figures and combinations give the radiance of summer and gloom of winter, in the pleasure, or merit the appellation of sublime or beauthunder of heaven and in the whisper of the breeze, tiful? Should we hesitate to pronounce their author he still finds something to rouse or to soothe his mad! And are the absurdities of madmen proper imagination, to draw forth his affections, or to employ subjects either of amusement or of imitation to reahis understanding. And from every mental energy sonable beings ? that is not attended with pain, and even from some of those that are, as moderate terror and pity, a sound

[On Scottish Music.] mind derives satisfaction ; exercise being equally necessary to the body and the soul, and to both equally

(From the same.] productive of health and pleasure.

There is a certain style of melody peculiar to each This happy sensibility to the beauties of nature musical country, which the people of that country are should be cherished in young persons. It engages apt to prefer to every other style. That they should them to contemplate the Creator in his wonderful prefer their own, is not surprising; and that the meworks; it purifies and harmonises the soul, and pre-lody of one people should differ from that of another, pares it for moral and intellectual discipline; it sup- is not more surprising, perhaps, than that the language plies a never-failing source of amusement; it contri- of one people should differ from that of another. But butes even to bodily health ; and, as a strict analogy there is something not unworthy of notice in the parsubsists between material and moral beauty, it leads ticular expression and style that characterise the music the heart by an easy transition from the one to the of one nation or province, and distinguish it from every other, and thus recommends virtue for its transcen- other sort of music. Of this diversity Scotland supdent loveliness, and makes vice appear the object of plies a striking example. The native melody of the contempt and abomination. An intimate acquaint-Highlands and Western Isles is as different from that ance with the best descriptive poets-Spenser, Milton, of the southern part of the kingdom as the Irish or and Thomson, but above all with the divine Georgic- Erse language is different from the English or Scotch. joined to some practice in the art of drawing, will in the conclusion of a discourse on music, as it relates promote this amiable sensibility in early years; for to the mind, it will not perhaps be impertinent to then the face of nature has novelty superadded to its offer a conjecture on the cause of these peculiarities; other charms, the passions are not pre-engaged, the which, though it should not-and indeed I am satisheart is free from care, and the imagination warm and fied that it will not-fully account for any one of romantic.

them, may, however, incline the reader to think that But not to insist longer on those ardent emotions they are not unaccountable, and may also throw some that are peculiar to the enthusiastic disciple of faint light on this part of philosophy. nature, may it not be affirmed of all men without Every thought that partakes of the nature of passion exception, or at least of all the enlightened part of has a correspondent expression in the look and gesmankind, that they are gratified by the contemplation ture; and so strict is the union between the passion of things natural as opposed to unnatural ? Mon- and its outward sign, that, where the former is not in strous sights please but for a moment, if they please some degree felt, the latter can never be perfectly at all; for they derive their charm from the beholder's natural, but if assumed, becomes awkward mimicry, amazement, which is quickly over. I have read, in- instead of that genuine imitation of nature which deed, of a man of rank in Sicily who chooses to adorn draws forth the sympathy of the beholder. If therehis villa with pictures and statues of most unnatural fore there be, in the circumstances of particular deformity; but it is a singular instance; and one nations or persons, anything that gives a peculiarity Fould not be much more surprised to hear of a person to their passions and thoughts, it seems reasonable to living without food, or growing fat by the use of expect that they will also have something peculiar in poison. To say of anything that it is contrary to the expression of their countenance and even in the nature, denotes censure and disgust on the part of the form of their features. Caius Marius, Jugurtha, speaker; as the epithet natural intimates an agree- Tamerlane, and some other great warriors, are celeable quality, and seems for the most part to imply brated for a peculiar ferocity of aspect, which they that a thing is as it ought to be, suitable to our own had no doubt contracted from a perpetual and unretaste, and congenial with our own constitution. Think strained exertion of fortitude, contempt, and other with what sentiments we should peruse a poem in violent emotions. These produced in the face their which nature was totally misrepresented, and prin- correspondent expressions, which, being often repeated, ciples of thought and of operation supposed to take became at last as habitual to the features as the senplace repugnant to everything we had seen or heard timents they arose from were to the heart. Savages, of; in which, for example, avarice and coldness were whose thoughts are little inured to control, have more ascribed to youth, and prodigality and passionate of this significancy of look than those men who, being attachment to the old ; in which men were made to born and bred in civilised nations, are accustomed act at random, sometimes according to character, from their childhood to suppress every emotion that and sometimes contrary to it; in which cruelty and tends to interrupt the peace of society. And while envy were productive of love, and beneficence and the bloom of youth lasts, and the smoothness of feakind affection of hatred; in which beauty was in- ture peculiar to that period, the human face is less variably the object of dislike, and ugliness of desire; marked with any strong character than in old age. in which society was rendered happy by atheism and A peevish or surly stripling may elude the eye of the the promiscuous perpetration of crimes, and justice physiognomist ; but a wicked old man, whose visage and fortitude were held in universal contempt. Or does not betray the evil temperature of his heart, must think how we should relish & painting where no have more cunning than it would be prudent for him regard was had to the proportions, colours, or any of to acknowledge. Even by the trade or profession the the physical laws of nature; where the ears and eyes human countenance may be characterised. They who of animals were placed in their shoulders ; where the employ themselves in the nicer mechanic arts, that sky was green, and the grass crimson; where trees require the earnest attention of the artist, do genegrew with their branches in the earth, and their roots rally contract a fixedness of feature suited to that one in the air; where men were seen fighting after their uniform sentiment which engrosses them while at heads were cut off, ships sailing on the land, lions en- work. Whereas other artists, whose work requires tangled in cobwebs, sheep preying on dead carcases, I less attention, and who may ply their trade and

the Scripture to have proceeded from the author of profession, and at the same town, but soon saw fit nature, may well believe that the same difficulties to abandon a pursuit in which it was evident he exist in it as in the constitution of nature. Hence, could have no success. A passion for reading led Butler infers that he who denies the Scripture to Warburton in his twenty-fifth year to adopt the have come from God, on account of difficulties found in it, may, for the same reason, deny the world to have been formed by Him. Inexplicable difficulties are found in the course of nature; no sound theist can therefore be surprised to find similar difficulties in the Christian religion. If both proceed from the same author, the wonder would rather be, that, even on this inferior ground of difficulty and adaptation to the comprehension of man, there should not be found the impress of the same hand, whose works we can trace but a very little way, and whose word equally transcends on some points the feeble efforts of unassisted reason. All Butler's arguments on natural and revealed religion are marked by profound thought and sagacity. In a volume of sermons published by him, he shines equally as an ethical philosopher. In the three first, on human nature, he has laid the science of morals on a surer foundation than any previous writer. After showing that our social affections are disinterested, he proceeds to vindicate the supremacy of the moral sentiments. Man is, in his view, a law to himself; but the intimations of this law are not to be deduced from the strength or temporary predominance of any single appetite or passion. They are to be deduced from the dictates of one principle, which is evidently intended to rule over the other parts of our nature, and which issues its mandates with authority. This master principle is conscience,

Bishop Warburton. which rests upon rectitude as its object, as disinte-clerical profession. He took deacon's orders, and by restedly as the social affections rest upon their ap- a dedication to a small and obscure volume of transpropriate objects, and as naturally as the appetite of lations published in 1723, obtained a presentation to hunger is satisfied with food. The ethical system a small vicarage. He now threw himself amidst the of Butler has been adopted by Reid, Stewart, and inferior literary society of the metropolis, and sought Brown. Sir James Mackintosh (who acknowledged for subsistence and advancement by his pen. On that Bishop Butler was his father in philosophy) obtaining from a patron the rectory of Brand made an addition to it: he took the principle of Broughton, in Lincolnshire, he retired thither, and utility as a test or criterion of the rectitude or vir- devoted himself for a long series of years to reading. tue which, with Butler, he maintained to be the pro- His first work of any note was published in 1736, per object of our moral affections. The life of this under the title of Alliance between Church and State, eminent prelate affords a pleasing instance of talent which, though scarcely calculated to please either winning its way to distinction in the midst of diffi- party in the church, was extensively read, and culties. He was born in 1692, the son of a shop-brought the author into notice. In the next, The keeper at Wantage, in Berkshire. His father was Divine Legation of Moses, of which the first volume a Presbyterian, and intended his son to be a minister appeared in 1738, and the remaining four in the of the same persuasion, but the latter conformed to course of several years thereafter, the gigantic the establishment, took orders, and was successively scholarship of Warburton shone out in all its vastpreacher at the Rolls chapel, prebendary of Ro- ness. It had often been objected to the pretensions chester, clerk of the closet to the queen, bishop of of the Jewish religion, that it presented nowhere Bristol, and bishop of Durham. He owed much to any acknowledgment of the principle of a future Queen Caroline, who had a philosophical taste, and state of rewards and punishments. Warburton, who valued his talents and virtues. Butler died on the delighted in paradox, instead of attempting to deny 16th of June 1752.

this or explain it away, at once acknowledged it, but asserted that therein lay the strongest argument for the divine mission of Moses. To establish this point,

he ransacked the whole domains of pagan antiquity, No literary man of this period engrossed in his and reared such a mass of curious and confounding own time a larger share of the attention of the argument, that mankind might be said to be awed learned world, not to speak of the public at large, by it into a partial concession to the author's views. than did WILLIAM WARBURTON, bishop of Glou. He never completed the work ; he became, indeed, cester (1698-1779). Prodigious powers of study weary of it; and perhaps the fallacy of the hypoand of expression, a bold and original way of think thesis was first secretly acknowledged by himself

. ing, and indomitable self-will and arrogance, were If it had been consecrated to truth, instead of parathe leading characteristics of this extraordinary dox, it would have been by far the most illustrious man, who unfortunately was too eager to astonish book of its age. As it is, we only look into it to and arrest the attention of mankind, to care for any wonder at its endless learning and mispent ingemore beneficial result from his literary exertions; nuity. and whose writings have, accordingly, after passing The merits of the author, or his worldly wisdom, like a splendid meteor across the horizon of his own brought him preferment in the church: he rose age, sunk into all but oblivion. He was the son of through the grades of prebend of Gloucester, prean attorney at Newark, and entered life in the same bend of Durham, and dean of Bristol, to be (1759)

214

BISHOP WARBURTON.

tranquillity of pastoral life. * I believe it (the at Northumberland, Pennsylvania, in 1804. As an Scottish music) took its rise among men who were experimental philosopher, Priestley was of a supereal shepherds, and who actually felt the sentiments rior class; but as a metaphysical or ethical writer, and affections whereof it is so very expressive. he can only be considered subordinate. He was a

man of intrepid spirit and of unceasing industry. DR RICHARD PRICE-ABRAHAM TUCKER—DR JOSEPH One of his critics (in the Edinburgh Review) draws PRIESTLEY.

from his writings a lively picture of that inde

fatigable activity, that bigotted vanity, that preDR RICHARD PRICE (1723-1791), & nonconfor- cipitation, cheerfulness, and sincerity, which made mist divine, published, in 1758, A Review of the up the character of this restless philosopher.' Principal Questions and Difficulties in Morals, which Robert Hall, whose feelings as a dissenter, and attracted attention as an attempt to revive the in an enemy to all religious intolerance and persecution, tellectual theory of moral obligation, which seemed to were enlisted on the side of Priestley, has thus eulohave fallen under the attacks of Butler, Hatcheson, gised him in one of his most eloquent sentences :and Hume, even before Smith.' Price, after Cud * The religious tenets of Dr Priestley appear to me worth, supports the doctrine that moral distinctions erroneous in the extreme; but I should be sorry to being perceived by reason, or the understanding, suffer any difference of sentiment to diminish my are equally immutable with all other kinds of truth. sensibility to virtue, or my admiration of genius. On the other side, it is argued that reason is but a His enlightened and active mind, his unwearied principle of our mental frame, like the principle assiduity, the extent of his researches, the light he which is the source of moral emotion, and has no has poured into almost every department of science, peculiar claim to remain unaltered in the supposed will be the admiration of that period, when the general alteration of our mental constitution. Price greater part of those who have favoured, or those was an able writer on finance and political economy, who have opposed him, will be alike forgotten. and took an active part in the political questions Distinguished merit will ever rise superior to opof the day at the time of the French Revolution: he pression, and will draw lustre from reproach. The was a republican in principle, and is attacked by vapours which gather round the rising sun, and Burke in his Reflections on the Revolution.

follow in its course, seldom fail at the close of it to ABRAHAM TUCKER (1705-1774) was an English form a magnificent theatre for its reception, and to squire, who, instead of pursuing the pleasures of the invest with variegated tints, and with a softened chase, studied metaphysics at his country-seat, and effulgence, the luminary which they cannot hide. published, under the fictitious name of Edward Search, a work, entitled The Light of Nature Pur

WRITERS IN DIVINITY. sued, which Paley said contained more original thinking and observation than any other work of the kind. Without much originality (excepting in one meTucker, like Adam Smith, excelled in illustration, morable instance), there was great acuteness, conand he did not disdain the most homely subjects for troversial ability, and learning displayed in the deexamples. Mackintosh says he excels in mixed, not partment of theology. The higher dignitaries of in pure philosophy, and that his intellectual views the church of England are generally well fitted, by are of the Hartleian school. How truly, and at the education, talents, and the leisure they enjoy, for same time how beautifully, has Tucker characterised vindicating revealed religion from the attacks of all in one short sentence his own favourite metaphysical assailants; and even when the standard of duty was studies! The science of abstruse learning,' he low among the inferior clergy, there has seldom been says, 'when completely attained, is like Achilles's any want of sound polemical divines. It seems to spear, that healed the wounds it had made before be admitted that there was a decay of piety and zeal It casts no additional light upon the paths of life, in the church at the time of which we are now treatbut disperses the clouds with which it had over- ing. To animate this drooping spirit, and to place spread them ; it advances not the traveller one step revelation upon the imperishable foundations of true on his journey, but conducts him back again to the philosophy, DR JOSEPH BUTLER Published his great spot from whence he had wandered.'

work on the Analogy of Religion to the Course of In 1775 DR JOSEPH PRIESTLEY published an ex- Nature, which appeared in 1736. Without entering amination of the principles of Dr Reid and others, on the question of the miracles and prophecies, Dr designed as a refutation of the doctrine of common Butler rested his evidence on the analogies of nature : sense, said to be employed as the test of truth by he reasons from that part of the divine proceedings the Scottish metaphysicians. The doctrines of which comes under our view in the daily business Priestley are of the school of Hartley. In 1777 of life, to that larger and more comprehensive part he published a series of disquisitions on Matter of these proceedings which is beyond our view, and and Spirit, in which he openly supported the mate- which religion reveals.' His argument for a future rial system. He also wrote in support of another life, from the changes which the human body underunpopular doctrine-that of necessity. He settled goes at birth, and in its different stages of maturity; in Birmingham in 1780, and officiated as minister and from the instances of the same law of nature, of a dissenting congregation. His religious opinions in the change of worms into butterflies, and birds were originally Calvinistic, but afterwards became and insects bursting the shell, and entering into a decidedly anti-Trinitarian. His works excited so new world, furnished with new powers, is one of much opposition, that he ever after found it necessary, the most conclusive pieces of reasoning in the lanas he states, to write a pamphlet annually in their guage. The same train of argument, in support of defence! Priestley was also an active and distin- the immortality of the soul, has been followed up in guished chemist, and wrote a history of discoveries two admirable lectures in Dr T. Brown's Philosophy. relative to light and colours, a history of electricity, The work of Butler, however, extends over a wide &c. At the period of the French Revolution in field-over the whole of the leading points, both in 1791, a mob of outrageous and brutal loyalists set natural and revealed religion. The germ of his fire to his house in Birmingham, and destroyed bis treatise is contained in a passage in Origen (one of library, apparatus, and specimens. Three years the most eminent of the fathers, who died at Tyre afterwards he emigrated to America, where he con- in the year 254), which Butler quotes in his introtinued his studies in science and theology, and died duction. It is to the effect that he who believes

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