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DR ROBERT LOWTH-DR C. MIDDLETON-REV. W. LAW - DR ISAAC WATTS-DR RICHARD HURDDR G.
HORNE-DR JOHN JORTIN.
and purified from the grossness and pollution of their to the former), were both designed to advance the ideas.
interests of religion, and are well adapted to the The first of these allegorisers, as we learn from purpose. Various theological treatises were also Laertius, was Anaxagoras, who, with his friend Me-written by Watts. trodorus, turned Homer's mythology into a system of DR RICHARD HURD (1720-1808), a friend and ethics. Next came Hereclides Ponticus, and of the disciple of Warburton, was author of an Introduction same fables made as good a system of physics ; which, to the Study of the Prophecies, being the substance of to show us with what kind of spirit it was composed, twelve discourses delivered at Cambridge. Hurd he entitled Antirresis ton kat autou (Homerou) blas- was a man of taste and learning, author of a comphemesanton. And last of all, when the necessity mentary on Horace, and editor of Cowley's works. became more pressing, Proclus undertook to show that He rose to enjoy high church preferment, and died all Homer's fables were no other than physical, ethical, bishop of Worcester, after having declined the archiand moral allegories.
episcopal see of Canterbury.
DR GEORGE HORNE (1730-1792) was another divine whose talents and learning raised him to the bench of bishops. He wrote various works, the most important of which is a Commentary on the
Book of Psalms, which appeared in 1776 in two Dr Robert Lowth, second son of Dr William volumes quarto. It is still a text-book with theoloLowth, was born at Buriton, in Hampshire, in 1710. gical students and divines, and unites extensive He entered the church, and became successively erudition with fervent piety. bishop of St David's, Oxford, and London; he died DR JOHN JORTIN (1698-1770), a prebendary of in 1787. The works of Lowth display both genius St Paul's and archdeacon of London, was an eminent and learning. They consist of Prelections on Hebrew scholar, and an independent theologian. He wrote Poetry, a Life of William of Wykeham, a Short In- various dissertations, Remarks on Ecclesiastical Histroduction to English Grammar, and a Translation of tory, a Life of Erasmus, &c. The freedom of some Isaiah. The last is the greatest of his productions of his strictures gave offence to the high church The spirit of eastern poetry is rendered with fidelity, clergy. Of a similar character, but less orthodox in elegance, and sublimity; and the work is an ines- his tenets, was Dr John Jebb, who obtained contimable contribution to biblical criticism and learn- siderable preferment in the church, which he reing, as well as to the exalted strains of the divine signed on imbibing Socinian opinions. On quitting
the church, Jebb studied and practised as a physiDR CONYERS MIDDLETON, distinguished for his cian: he died in 1786, aged fifty. His works on admirable Life of Cicero, mixed freely and eagerly in theology and other subjects form three volumes. the religious controversies of the times. One writer, Of the other theological and devotional producDr Matthew Tindal, served as a firebrand to the tions of the established clergy of this age, there is clergy. Tindal had embraced popery in the reign only room to notice a few of the best. The disserof James II., but afterwards renounced it. Being tations of Bishop Newton on various parts of the thus, as Drummond the poet said of Ben Johnson, Bible; the Lectures on the English Church Catechism,
of either religion, as versed in both,' he set himself by Archbishop Secker ; Bishop Law's Considerations to write on theology, and published The Rights of the on the Theory of Religion, and his Reflections on the Christian Church Asserted, and Christianity as Old as Life and Character of Christ, are all works of stanthe Creation. The latter had a decided deistical dard excellence. The labours of Dr Kennicot, in tendency, and was answered by several divines, as the collection of various manuscripts of the Hebrew Dr Conybeare, Dr Foster, and Dr Waterland. Bible, are also worthy of being here mentioned as Middleton now joined in the argument, and wrote an eminent service to sacred literature. remarks on Dr Waterland's manner of vindicating Scripture against Tindal, which only increased the
GEORGE WHITEFIELD-JOHN WESLEY. confusion by adding to the elements of discord. He also published A Free Inquiry into the Miraculous Connected with the English establishment, yet Powers of the Church, which was answered by seve- ultimately separating from it, were those two reral of the high church clergy. These treatises have markable men, Whitefield and Wesley. Both were now fallen into oblivion. They were perhaps useful highly useful in their day and generation, and they in preventing religious truths from stagnating in enjoyed a popularity rarely attained by divines. that lukewarm age; but in adverting to them, we GEORGE WHITEFIELD was born in Gloucester in are reminded of the fine saying of Hall— While 1714. He took orders, and preached in London with Protestants attended more to the points on which astonishing success. He made several voyages to they differed than those on which they agreed, while America, where he was equally popular. Whitefield more zeal was employed in settling ceremonies and adopted the Calvinistic doctrines, and preached defending subtleties than in enforcing plain revealed them with incessant activity, and an eloquence untruths, the lovely fruits of peace and charity perished paralleled in its effects. As a popular orator he under the storms of controversy.'
was passionate and vehement, wielding his audiences A permanent service was rendered to the cause of almost at will, and so fascinating in his style and Christianity by the writings of the Rev. WILLIAM manner, that Hume the historian said he was worth Law (1686-1761), author of a still popular work, travelling twenty miles to hear. He died in NewA Serious Call to a Holy Life, which, happening to bury, New England, in 1770. His writings are tame fall into the hands of Dr Johnson at college, gave and commonplace, and his admirers regretted that that eminent person the first occasion of thinking he should have injured his fame by resorting to in earnest of religion after he became capable of publication. rational inquiry.' Law was a Jacobite nonconfor JOHN WESLEY was more learned, and in all remist: he was tutor to the father of Gibbon the spects better fitted to become the leader and founder historian.
of a sect. His father was rector of Epworth, in LinThe two elementary works of Dr Isaac Watts, colnshire, where John was born in 1703. He was his Logic, or the Right Use of Reason, published in educated at Oxford, where he and his brother Charles, 1724, and his Improvement of the Mind (a supplement and a few other students, lived in a regular system of
DR HUGH BLAIR.
pious study and discipline, whence they were deno- tice among the dissenting divines, as having obtained minated Methodists. After officiating a short time the poetical praise of Pope. He was originally an as curate to his father, the young enthusiast set Independent, but afterwards joined the Baptists, and off as a missionary to Georgia, where he remained was one of the most popular preachers in London. about two years. Shortly after his return in 1738, He wrote T'racts on Heresy, Discourses on Natural he commenced field-preaching, occasionally travel. Religion and Social Virtue, and other theological ling through every part of Great Britain and Ireland, works. where he established congregations of Methodists. John LELAND (1691-1766) was pastor of a conThousands flocked to his standard. The grand doc- gregation of Protestant dissenters in Dublin. He trine of Wesley was universal redemption, as con- wrote A View of the Deistical Writers in England, tradistinguished from the Calvinistic doctrine of and an elaborate work on the Advantage and Necesparticular redemption, and his proselytes were, by sity of the Christian Revelation. The former is a solid the act of conversion, made regenerate men. The and valuable treatise, and is still regarded as one of Methodists also received lay converts as preachers, the best confutations of infidelity. who, by their itinerant ministrations and unquenchable enthusiasm, contributed materially to the extension of their societies. Wesley continued writing, preaching, and travelling, till he was eighty The Scottish church at this time also contained eight years of age; his apostolic earnestness and some able and accomplished divines. The equality venerable appearance procured for him everywhere of livings in the northern establishment, and the profound respect. He had preached about forty greater amount of pastoral labour devolved upon its thousand sermons, and travelled three hundred ministers, are unfavourable for studious research or thousand miles. His highly useful and laborious profound erudition. The Edinburgh clergy, howcareer was terminated on the 2d of March 1791. ever, are generally men of talents and attainments, His body lay in a kind of state in his chapel at and the universities occasionally receive some of the London the day previous to his interment, dressed best divines as professors. One of the most popular in his clerical habit, with gown, cassock, and band; and influential of the Scottish clergy was DR HUGH the old clerical cap on his head, a Bible in one hand, Blair, born in Edinburgh in 1718. He was at first and a white handkerchief in the other. The funeral | minister of a country church in Fifeshire, but, being service was read by one of his old preachers. “When celebrated for his pulpit eloquence, he was succeshe came to that part of the service, “ forasmuch as sively preferred to the Canongate, Lady Yester's, it hath pleased God to take unto himself the soul of and the High Church in Edinburgh. În 1759 he our dear brother," his voice changed, and he substi- commenced a course of lectures on rhetoric and tuted the word father; and the feeling with which belles lettres, which extended his literary reputation; he did this was such, that the congregation, who and in 1763 he published his Dissertation on the were shedding silent tears, burst at once into loud Poems of Ossian, a production evincing both critical weeping.'* At the time of Wesley's death, the taste and learning. In 1777 appeared the first vonumber of Methodists in Europe, America, and the lume of his Sermons, which was so well received that West India islands, was 80,000: they are now above the author published three other volumes, and a a million-three hundred thousand of which are in fifth which he had prepared, was printed after his Great Britain and Ireland. The writings and jour- death. A royal pension of £200 per annum further nals of Wesley are very voluminous, but he cannot rewarded its author. Blair next published his Rhebe said to have produced any one valuable work in torical Lectures, and they also met with a favourable divinity or general literature.
reception. Though somewhat hard and dry in style and manner, this work forms a useful guide to the
young student: it is carefully arranged, contains NATHANIEL LARDNER-HUGH FARMER—DR JAMES
abundance of examples in every department of lite
rary composition, and has also detailed criticisms on The English dissenters now began to evince their ancient and modern authors. The sermons, howregard for learning and their ardour in study. De ever, are the most valuable of Blair's works. They NATHANIEL LARDNER (1684-1768) produced some
are written with taste and elegance, and by incultreatises of the highest importance to the theological cating Christian morality without any allusion to student. His works fill eleven octavo volumes. controversial topics, are suited to all classes of ChrisThe chief is his Credibility of the Gospel History, tians. Profound thought, or reasoning, or impaspublished between 1730 and 1757, in fifteen volumes, sioned eloquence, they certainly do not possess, and and in which proofs are brought from innumerable in this respect they must be considered inferior to sources in the religious history and literature of the the posthumous sermons of Logan the poet, which, first five centuries in favour of the truth of Chris. if occasionally irregular, or faulty in style, have tiapity: Another voluminous work, entitled A Large more of devotional ardour and vivid description. In Collection of Ancient Jewish and Heathen Testimonies society Dr Blair was cheerful and polite, the friend to the Truth of the Christian Religion, appeared near of literature as well as of virtue. His predominant the close of the author's life, and completed a design, weakness seems to have been vanity, which was which, making allowance for the interruptions occa
soon discovered by Burns, in his memorable resisioned by other studies and writings of less impor-dence in Edinburgh in 1787. Blair died on the 27th tance, occupied his attention for forty-three years.
of December 1800. Hugh FARMER (1714-1787), a pupil of Dr Doddridge, was author of several religious treatises, the
[On the Cultivation of Taste.] most important of which is his Dissertation on
(From · Blair's Lectures.'] Miracles, a work of close reasoning and profound thought. This dissertation was published in 1771,
Such studies have this peculiar advantage, that they and still maintains its place as one of the bulwarks exercise our reason without fatiguing it. They lead of revealed religion.
to inquiries acute, but not painful; profound, but not DB JAMES FOSTER (1697-1752) is worthy of no-dry or abstruse, They strew flowers in the path of
science, and while they keep the mind bent in some * Southey's Life of Wesley. degree and active, they relieve it at the same time
from that more toilsome labour to which it must sub- always be expected to coexist in an equal degree. mit in the acquisition of necessary erudition or the More powerful correctives than taste can apply are investigation of abstract truth.
necessary for reforming the corrupt propensities which The cultivation of taste is further recommended by too frequently prevail among mankind. Elegant the happy effects which it naturally tends to produce speculations are sometimes found to float on the suron human life. The most busy man in the most face of the mind, while bad passions possess the inteactive sphere cannot be always occupied by business. rior regions of the heart. At the same time this Men of serious professions cannot always be on the cannot but be admitted, that the exercise of taste is, stretch of serious thought. Neither can the most gay in its native tendency, moral and purifying. From and flourishing situations of fortune afford any man the reading the most admired productions of genius, power of filling all his hours with pleasure. Life must whether in poetry or prose, almost every one rises always languish in the hands of the idle. It will with some good impressions left on his mind; and frequently languish even in the hands of the busy, if though these may not always be durable, they are at they have not some employment subsidiary to that least to be ranked among the means of disposing the which forms their main pursuit. How then shall heart to virtue. One thing is certain, that withthese vacant spaces, those unemployed intervals, out possessing the virtuous affections in a strong which more or less occur in the life of every one, be degree, no man can attain eminence in the sublime filled up? How can we contrive to dispose of them parts of eloquence. He must feel what a good man in any way that shall be more agreeable in itself, or feels, if he expects greatly to move or to interest manmore consonant to the dignity of the human mind, kind. They are the ardent sentiments of honour, than in the ertainments of taste, and the study of virtue, magnanimity, and public spirit, that only can polite literature? He who is so happy as to have kindle that fire of genius, and call up into the mind acquired a relish for these, has always at hand an in- those high ideas, which attract the admiration of ages; nocent and irreproachable amusement for his leisure and if this spirit be necessary to produce the most hours, to save him from the danger of many a perni- distinguished efforts of eloquence, it must be neces. cious passion. He is not in hazard of being a burden sary also to our relishing them with proper taste and to himself. He is not obliged to fly to low company, feeling. or to court the riot of loose pleasures, in order to cure the tediousness of existence.
[Difference between Taste and Genius.] Providence seems plainly to have pointed out this useful purpose to which the pleasures of taste may
[From the same.) be applied, by interposing them in a middle station Taste and genius are two words frequently joined between the pleasures of sense and those of pure together, and therefore, by inaccurate thinkers, conintellect. We were not designed to grovel always founded. They signify, however, two quite different among objects so low as the former ; nor are we cap- things. The difference between them can be clearly able of dwelling constantly in so high a region as the pointed out, and it is of importance to remember it. latter. The pleasures of taste refresh the mind after Taste consists in the power of judging; genius in the the toils of the intellect and the labours of abstract power of executing. One may have a considerable study; and they gradually raise it above the attach- degree of taste in poetry, eloquence, or any of the fine ments of sense, and prepare it for the enjoyments of arts, who has little or hardly any genius for comvirtue.
position or execution in any of these arts; but genius So consonant is this to experience, that, in the edu- cannot be found without including taste also. Genius, cation of youth, no object has in every age appeared therefore, deserves to be considered as a higher power more important to wise men than to tincture them of the mind than taste. Genius always imports someearly with a relish for the entertainments of taste. thing inventive or creative, which does not rest in The transition is commonly made with ease from these mere sensibility to beauty where it is perceived, but to the discharge of the higher and more important which can, moreover, produce new beauties, and exduties of life, Good hopes may be entertained of hibit them in such a manner as strongly to impress those whose minds have this liberal and elegant turn the minds of others. Refined taste forms a good It is favourable to many virtues. Whereas, to be critic; but genius is further necessary to form the entirely devoid of relish for eloquence, poetry, or any of poet or the orator. the fine arts, is justly construed to be an unpromising It is proper also to observe, that genius is a word symptom of youth; and raises suspicions of their which, in common acceptation, extends much further being prone to low gratifications, or destined to than to the objects of taste. It is used to signify that drudge in the more vulgar and illiberal pursuits of talent or aptitude which we receive from nature for life.
excelling in any one thing whatever. Thus, we speak There are indeed few good dispositions of any kind of a genius for mathematics, as well as a genius for with which the improvement of taste is not more or poetry-of a genius for war, for politics, or for any less connected. A cultivated taste increases sensibi- mechanical employment. lity to all the tender and humane passions, by giving This talent or aptitude for excelling in some one them frequent exercise ; while it tends to weaken the particular is, I have said, what we receive from nature. more violent and fierce emotions.
By art and study, no doubt, it may be greatly im
proved, but by them alone it cannot be acquired. As Ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes
genius is a higher faculty than taste, it is ever, acEmollit mores, nec sinit esse feros.*
cording to the usual frugality of nature, more limited The elevated sentiments and high examples which in the sphere of its operations. It is not uncommon poetry, eloquence, and history are often bringing under to meet with persons who have an excellent taste in our view, naturally tend to nourish in our minds several of the polite arts, such as music, poetry, paintpublic spirit, the love of glory, contempt of external ing, and eloquence, all together; but to find one who fortune, and the admiration of what is truly illus- is an excellent performer in all these arts, is much trious and great.
more rare, or rather, indeed, such a one is not to be I will not go so far as to say that the improvement looked for. A sort of universal genius, or one who is of taste and of virtue is the same, or that they may equally and indifferently turned towards several diffe
rent professions and arts, is not likely to excel in any; * These polished arts have humanised mankind, although there may be some few exceptions, yet in
Softened the rude, and calmed the boisterous mind. general it holds, that when the bent of the mind is
wholly directed towards some one object, exclusive in For the further illustration of this subject, it is a manner of others, there is the fairest prospect of proper to remark, that all ideas of the solemn and eminence in that, whatever it be. The rays must awful kind, and even bordering on the terrible, tend converge to a point, in order to glow intensely. greatly to assist the sublime ; such as darkness, soli
tude, and silence. What are the scenes of nature that [On Sublimity.)
elevate the mind in the highest degree, and produce [From the same.)
the sublime sensation ? Not the gay landscape, the
flowery field, or the flourishing city; but the hoary It is not easy to describe in words the precise im- mountains, and the solitary lake, the aged forest, and pression which great and sublime objects make upon the torrent falling over the rock. Hence, too, night us when we behold them; but every one has a con scenes are commonly the most sublime. The firmaception of it. It produces a sort of internal elevation ment, when filled with stars, scattered in such vast and expansion; it raises the mind much above its numbers, and with such magnificent profusion, strikes ordinary state, and fills it with a degree of wonder the imagination with a more awful grandeur than and astonishment which it cannot well express. The when we view it enlightened with all the splendour emotion is certainly delightful, but it is altogether of of the sun. The deep sound of a great bell, or the the serious kind; a degree of awfulness and solemnity, striking of a great clock, are at any time grand, but, even approaching to severity, commonly attends it when heard amid the silence and stillness of the night, when at its height, very distinguishable from the more they become doubly so. Darkness is very commonly gay and brisk emotion raised by beautiful objects. applied for adding sublimity to all our ideas of the
The simplest form of external grandeur appears in Deity: 'He maketh darkness his pavilion, he dwelleth the vast and boundless prospects presented to us by in the thick cloud.' So Milton :nature; such as wide extended plains, to which the eye can see no limits, the firmament of heaven, or
How oft, amidst the boundless expanse of the ocean. All vastness
Thick clouds and dark, does heaven's all ruling Sire produces the impression of sublimity. It is to be
Choose to reside, his glory unobscured,
And with the majesty of darkness, round remarked, however, that space, extended in length,
Circles his throne. makes not so strong an impression as height or depth. Though a boundless plain be a grand object, yet a Observe with how much art Virgil has introduced high mountain, to which we look up, or an awful pre- all those ideas of silence, vacuity, and darkness, when cipice or tower, whence we look down on the objects he is going to introduce his hero to the infernal rewhich lie below, is still more so. The excessive gran- gions, and to disclose the secrets of the great deep :deur of the firmament arises from its height, joined to its boundless extent; and that of the ocean not from
Ye subterranean gods, whose awful sway its extent alone, but from the perpetual motion and
The gliding ghosts and silent shades obey ; irresistible force of that mass of waters. Wherever
Oh, Chaos, hear! and Phlegethon profound !
Whose solemn empire stretches wide around ! space is concerned, it is clear that amplitude or great
Give me, ye great tremendous powers, to tell ness of extent in one dimension or other is necessary Of scenes and wonders in the depth of hell ; to grandeur. Remove all bounds from any object, Give me, your mighty secrets to display and you presently render it sublime. Hence infinite
From those black realms of darkness to the day.- Pitt. space, endless numbers, and eternal duration, fill the mind with great ideas.
Obscure they went ; through dreary shades, that led
Along the waste dominions of the dead; From this some have imagined that vastness or
As wander travellers in woods by night, amplitude of extent is the foundation of all sub
By the moon's doubtful and malignant light.-Dryden. limity. But I cannot be of this opinion, because many objects appear sublime which have no relation These passages I quote at present, not so much as to space at all. Such, for instance, is great loudness instances of sublime writing, though in themselves of sound. The burst of thunder or of cannon, the they truly are so, as to show, by the effect of them, roaring of winds, the shouting of multitudes, the that the objects which they present to us belong to sound of vast cataracts of water, are all incontestably the class of sublime ones. grand objects. 'I heard the voice of a great multi Obscurity, we are further to remark, is not unfavourtude, as the sound of many waters, and of mighty able to the sublime. Though it render the object inthunderings, saying, Hallelujah.' In general, we distinct, the impression, however, may be great; for, may observe that great power and force exerted as an ingenious author has well observed, it is one always raise sublime ideas ; and perhaps the most thing to make an idea clear, and another to make it copious source of these is derived from this quarter. affecting to the imagination; and the imagination Hence the grandeur of earthquakes and burning moun- may be strongly affected, and, in fact, often is so, by tains; of great conflagrations; of the stormy ocean objects of which we have no clear conception. Thus and overflowing waters ; of tempests of wind; of thun- we see that almost all the descriptions given us of the der and lightning; and of all the uncommon violence appearances of supernatural beings, carry some subof the elements : nothing is more sublime than mighty limity, though the conceptions which they afford us power and strength. A stream that runs within its be confused and indistinct. Their sublimity arises banks is a beautiful object, but when it rushes down from the ideas, which they always convey, of superior with the impetuosity and noise of a torrent, it pre-power and might, joined with an awful obscurity. sently becomes a sublime one. From lions, and other We may see this fully exemplified in the following animals of strength, are drawn sublime comparisons noble passage of the book of Job :- In thoughts from in poets. A race-horse is looked upon with pleasure; the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon but it is the war-horse, 'whose neck is clothed with men, fear came upon me and trembling, which made thunder,' that carries grandeur in its idea. The en- all my bones to shake. Then a spirit passed before gagement of two great armies, as it is the highest my face; the hair of my flesh stood up: it stood still ; exertion of human might, combines a variety of but I could not discern the form thereof; an image sources of the sublime, and has accordingly been was before mine eyes; there was silence; and I heard always considered as one of the most striking and a voice-Shall mortal man be more just than God !? magnificent spectacles that can be either presented to (Job iv. 15.) No ideas, it is plain, are so sublime as the eye, or exhibited to the imagination in descrip- those taken from the Supreme Being, the most un. tion
known, but the greatest of all objects; the infinity
of whose nature, and the eternity of whose duration, works are, a Translation of the Four Gospels, worthy joined with the omnipotence of his power, though they of his talents, some sermons preached on public surpass our conceptions, yet exalt them to the highest. occasions, and a series of Lectures on Ecclesiastical In general, all objects that are greatly raised above us, History, which were not published till after his death. or far removed from us, either in space or in time, It is worthy of remark that Hume himself admitted are apt to strike us as great. Our viewing them as the 'ingenuity' of Campbell's reply to his sceptical through the mist of distance or antiquity is favour- opinions, and the great learning' of the author. The able to the impressions of their sublimity.
well-known hypothesis of Hume is, that no testiAs obscurity, so disorder too is very compatible mony for any kind of miracle can ever amount to a with grandeur; nay, frequently heightens it. Few probability, much less to a proof. To this Dr Campthings that are strictly regular and methodical appear bell opposed the argument that testimony has a sublime. We see the limits on every side ; we feel natural and original influence on belief, antecedent ourselves confined ; there is no room for the mind's to experience, in illustration of which he remarked, exerting any great effort. Exact proportion of parts, that the earliest assent which is given to testimony though it enters often into the beautiful, is much by children, and which is previous to all experience, disregarded in the sublime. A great mass of rocks, is in fact the most unlimited. His answer is divided thrown together by the hand of nature with wildness into two parts ; first, that miracles are capable of and confusion, strike the mind with more grandeur proof from testimony, and religious miracles not less than if they had been adjusted to one another with than others; and, secondly, that the miracles on the most accurate symmetry.
which the belief of Christianity is founded, are suffiIn the feeble attempts which human art can make ciently attested. Campbell had no fear for the retowards producing grand objects (feeble, I mean, in sult of such discussions - I do not hesitate to comparison with the powers of nature), greatness of affirm," he says, “that our religion has been indebted dimensions always constitutes a principal part. .No to the attempts, though not to the intentions, of its pile of buildings can convey any idea of sublimity, bitterest enemies. They have tried its strength, unless it be ample and lofty. There is, too, in archi- indeed, and, by trying, they have displayed its tecture, what is called greatness of manner, which strength; and that in so clear a light, as we could seems chiefly to arise from presenting the object to us in one full point of view, so that it shall make its never have hoped, without such a trial, to have impression whole, entire, and undivided upon the viewed it in. Let them, therefore, write ; let them mind. A Gothic cathedral raises ideas of grandeur argue, and, when arguments fail
, even let them in our minds by its size, its height, its awful obscu- should be heartily sorry that ever in this island, the
cavil against religion as much as they please; I rity, its strength, its antiquity, and its durability. There still remains to be mentioned one class of asylum of liberty, where the spirit of Christianity
is better understood (however defective the inhabisublime objects, which may be called the moral or sentimental sublime, arising from certain exertions of tants are in the observance of its precepts) than in the human mind, from certain affections and actions any other part of the Christian world; I should, I of our fellow-creatures. These will be found to be all, say, be sorry that in this island so great a disservice or chiefly of that class, which comes under the name
were done to religion as to check its adversaries in of magnanimity or heroism; and they produce an any other way than by returning a candid answer effect extremely similar to what is produced by the to their objections. I must at the same time acview of grand objects in nature ; filling the mind with knowledge, that I am both ashamed and grieved admiration, and elevating it above itself. Wherever, when I observe any friends of religion betray so in some critical and high situation, we behold a man great a diffidence in the goodness of their cause" (for uncommonly intrepid, and resting upon himself, supe- to this diffidence alone can it be imputed), as to show rior to passion and to fear ; animated by some great an inclination for recurring to more forcible methods. principle to the contempt of popular opinion, of selfish The assaults of infidels, I may venture to prophecy, interest, of dangers, or of death, there we are struck will never overturn our religion. They will prove with a sense of the sublime.
not more hurtful to the Christian system, if it be High virtue is the most natural and fertile source allowed to compare small things with the greatest, of this moral sublimity. However, on some occasions, than the boisterous winds are said to prove to the where virtue either has no place, or is but imperfectly sturdy oak. They shake it impetuously for a time, displayed, yet if extraordinary vigour and force of and loudly threaten its subversion ; whilst, in effect, mind be discovered, we are not insensible to a degree they only serve to make it strike its roots the deeper, of grandeur in the character; and from the splendid and stand the firmer ever after.' conqueror, or the daring conspirator, whom we are far In the same manly spirit, and reliance on the from approving, we cannot withhold our admiration. ultimate triumph of truth, Dr'Campbell was opposed
to the penal laws against the Catholics ; and in 1779, when the country was agitated with that intolerant zeal against Popery, which in the following year
burst out in riots in London, he issued an Address DR GEORGE CAMPBELL, Professor of divinity and to the People of Scotland, remarkable for its cogency afterwards principal of Marischal college, Aberdeen, of argument and its just and enlightened sentiments. was a theologian and critic of more vigorous intel- For this service to true religion and toleration the lect and various learning than Dr Blair. His Dis- mob of Aberdeen broke the author's windows, and sertation on Miracles, written in reply to Hụme, is a nicknamed him 'Pope Campbell.' In 1795, when conclusive and masterly piece of reasoning; and his far advanced in life, Dr Campbell received a penPhilosophy of Rhetoric (published in 1776) is perhaps sion of £300 from the Crown, on which he resigned the best book of the kind since Aristotle. Most of his professorship, and his situation as principal of the other works on this subject are little else but Marischal college. He enjoyed this well-earned recompilations, but Campbell brought to it a high ward only one year, dying in 1796, in his seventy. degree of philosophical acumen and learned research. seventh year. With the single exception of Dr Its utility is also equal to its depth and originality: Robertson the historian (who shone in a totally the philosopher finds in it exercise for his ingenuity, different walk), the name of Dr Campbell is the and the student may safely consult it for its practical greatest which the Scottish church can number suggestions and illustrations. Dr Campbell's other l among its clergy.
DR GEORGE CAMPBELL.