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an imaginary value in proportion as its real value is age without shrinking; he would have boldly dared to

live, and served that society by his future assiduity Our attachment to every object around us increases which he basely injured by his desertion. in general from the length of our acquaintance with it. I would not choose,' says a French philosopher,

[A City Night-Piece.] to see an old post pulled up with which I had been

[From the 'Citizen of the World.'] long acquainted. A mind long habituated to a certain set of objects insensibly becomes fond of seeing The clock has just struck two; the expiring taper them; visits them from babit, and parts from them rises and sinks in the socket; the watchman forgets the with reluctance. From hence proceeds the avarice hour in slumber; the laborious and the happy are at of the old in every kind of possession; they love the rest ; and nothing wakes but meditation, guilt, revelry, world and all that it produces ; they love life and all and despair. The drunkard once more fills the deits advantages, not because it gives them pleasure, stroying bowl; the robber walks his midnight round; but because they have known it long.

and the suicide lifts his guilty arm against his own Chinvang the Chaste, ascending the throne of China, sacred person. commanded that all who were unjustly detained in Let me no longer waste the night over the page of prison during the preceding reigns should be set free. antiquity or the sallies of contemporary genius, but Among the number who came to thank their deliverer pursue the solitary walk, where vanity, ever changing, on this occasion there appeared a majestic old man, but a few hours past walked before me—where she who, falling at the emperor's feet, addressed him as kept up the pageant, and now, like a froward child, follows: 'Great father of China, behold a wretch, seems hushed with her own importunities. now eighty-five years old, who was shut up in a What a gloom hangs all around! The dying lamp dungeon at the age of twenty-two. I was imprisoned, feebly emits a yellow gleam; no sound is heard but though a stranger to crime, or without being even of the chiming clock or the distant watch-dog ; all confronted by my accusers. I have now lived in the bustle of human pride is forgotten. An hour solitude and darkness for more than fifty years, and like this may well display the emptiness of human am grown familiar with distress. As yet, dazzled with vanity. the splendour of that sun to which you have restored There will come a time when this temporary solime, I have been wandering the streets to find out tude will be made continual, and the city itself, like some friend that would assist, or relieve, or remember its inhabitants, fade away, and leave a desert in its me; but my friends, my family, and relations are all room. dead, and I am forgotten. Permit me, then, O Chin What cities, great as this, have once triumphed vang, to wear out the wretched remains of life in my in existence, had their victories as great, joy as just former prison; the walls of my dungeon are to me and as unbounded, and, with short-sighted presumpmore pleasing than the most splendid palace: I have tion, promised themselves immortality! Posterity can not long to live, and shall be unhappy except I spend hardly trace the situation of some; the sorrowful the rest of my days where my youth was passed-in traveller wanders over the awful ruins of others; that prison from whence you were pleased to release and, as he beholds, he learns wisdom, and feels the me.'

transience of every sublunary possession. The old man's passion for confinement is similar to Here, he cries, stood their citadel, now grown over that we all have for life. We are habituated to the with weeds; there their senate house, but now the prison, we look round with discontent, are displeased haunt of every noxious reptile. Temples and theatres with the abode, and yet the length of our captivity stood here, now only an undistinguished heap of ruin. only increases our fondness for the cell. The trees we They are fallen, for luxury and avarice first made have planted, the houses we have built, or the pos- them feeble. The rewards of state were conferred on terity we have begotten, all serve to bind us closer to amusing, and not on useful members of society. earth, and imbitter our parting, Life sues the young Their riches and opulence invited the invaders, who, like a new acquaintance; the companion, as yet un- though at first repulsed, returned again, conquered by exhausted, is at once instructive and amusing; its perseverance, and at last swept the defendants into company pleases, yet for all this it is but little re- undistinguished destruction. garded. To us, who are declined in years, life appears How few appear in those streets, which but some like an old friend; its jests have been anticipated in few hours ago were crowded! And those who appear former conversation ; it has no new story to make us now no longer wear their daily mask, nor attempt to smile, no new improvement with which to surprise, hide their lewdness or their misery. yet still we love it; destitute of every enjoyment, still But who are those who make the streets their couch, we love it; husband the wasting treasure with in- and find a short repose from wretchedness at the doors creasing frugality, and feel all the poignancy of an- of the opulent! These are strangers, wanderers, and orguish in the fatal separation.

phans, whose circumstances are too humble to expect reSir Philip Mordaunt was young, beautiful, sincere, dress, and whose distresses are too great even for pity. brave, an Englishman. He had a complete fortune of Their wretchedness excites rather horror than pity. his own, and the love of the king his master, which Some are without the covering even of rags, and others was equivalent to riches. Life opened all her treasures emaciated with disease. The world has disclaimed before him, and promised a long succession of future them : society turns its back upon their distress, and happiness. He came, tasted of the entertainment, but has given them up to nakedness and hunger. These was disgusted even at the beginning. He professed poor shivering females have once seen happier days, an aversion to living, was tired of walking round the and been flattered into beauty. same circle; had tried every enjoyment, and found Why, why was I born a man, and yet see the sufthem all grow weaker at every repetition. If life ferings of wretches I cannot relieve! Poor houseless be in youth so displeasing,' cried he to himself, “wbat creatures! the world will give you reproaches, but will it appear when age comes on? if it be at present will not give you relief. The slightest misfortunes indifferent, sure it will then be execrable. This of the great, the most imaginary uneasiness of the thought imbittered every reflection ; till at last, with rich, are aggravated with all the power of eloquence, all the serenity of perverted reason, he ended the and held up to engage our attention and sympathetic debate with a pistol ! Had this self-deluded man sorrow. The poor weep unheeded, persecuted by every been apprised that existence grows more desirable to subordinate species of tyranny; and every law which us the longer we exist, he would have then faced old I gives others security becomes an enemy to them.

Why was this heart of mine formed with so much affairs were among his most vigorous and felicitous sensibility or why was not my fortune adapted to its appearances : his most important public duty was impulses? Tenderness without the capacity of re- the part he took in the prosecution of Warren lieving, only makes the man more wretched than the Hastings, and his opposition to the regency bill object which sues for assistance.

of Mr Pitt. Stormier times, however, were at

hand : the French Revolution was then blackenEDMUND BURKE.

ing the horizon' (to use one of his own metaphors),

and he early predicted the course it would take. As an orator, politician, and author, the name of He strenuously warned his countrymen against the EDMUND BURKE stood high with his contemporaries, dangerous influence of French principles, and puband time has abated little of its lustre. He is still lished his memorable treatise, Reflections on the by far the most eloquent and imaginative of all our French Revolution. A rupture now took place bewriters on public affairs, and the most philosophical tween him and his Whig friends, Mr Fox in partiof English statesmen. Burke was born in Dublin, cular ; but with characteristic ardour Burke went the second son of an attorney, in 1730. After his on denouncing the doctrines of the revolution, and education at Trinity college, he removed to London, published his Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs, where he entered himself as a student of the Middle his Letters to a Noble Lord, and his Letters on the ProTemple, and laboured in periodical works for the posals for Peace with the Regicide Directory of France. booksellers. His first conspicuous work was a The splendour of these compositions, the various parody on the style and manner of Bolingbroke, a knowledge which they display, the rich imagery Vindication of Natural Society, in which the para- with which they abound, and the spirit of philosodoxical reasoning of the noble sceptic is pushed to a phical reflection which pervades them all, stamp ridiculous extreme, and its absurdity very happily them among the first literary productions of their exposed. In 1757 he published A Philosophical In- time. Judged as political treatises, they may in quiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and some instances be considered as exaggerated in their Beautiful, which soon attracted considerable atten- tone and manner: the imagination of the orator tion, and paved the way for the author's introduc- transported him beyond the bounds of sober prution to the society of Johnson, Reynolds, Goldsmith, dence and correct taste; but in all his wanderings and the other eminent men of the day. Burke, there is genius, wisdom, and eloquence. Such a however, was still struggling with difficulties, and flood of rich illustration had never before been poured

on questions of state policy and government. At the same time Burke was eminently practical in his views. His greatest efforts will be found directed to the redress of some existing wrong, or the preservation of some existing good—to hatred of actual oppression, to the removal of useless restrictions, and to the calm and sober improvement of the laws and government which he venerated, without 'coining to himself Whig principles from a French die, unknown to the impress of our fathers in the constitution. Where inconsistencies are found in his writings between his early and later opinions, they will be seen to consist chiefly in matters of detail or in expression. The leading principles of his public life were always the same. He wished, as he says, to preserve consistency, but only by varying his means to secure the unity of his end: when the equipoise of the vessel in which he sails may be endangered by overloading it upon one side, he is desirous of carrying the small weight of his reasons to that which may preserve its equipoise.' When the revolution broke out, his sagacity enabled him to foresee the dreadful consequences which it would entail upon France and the world, and his enthusiastic temperament led him to state his impressions in language sometimes overcharged and almost bombastic, sometimes full of prophetic fire, and always

with an energy and exuberance of fancy in which, Edmund Burke.

among philosophical politicians, he was unrivalled.

In the clash of party strife, so eminent a person could compiling for booksellers. He suggested to Dodsley not escape animadversion or censure ; his own ardour the plan of an Annual Register, which that spirited excited others, and the vehemence of his manner natupublisher adopted, Burke furnishing the whole of rally provoked and aggravated discussion. Thus he the original matter. He continued for several years stood aloof from most of his old associates, when, like to write the historical portion of this valuable com a venerable tower, he was sinking into ruin and depilation. In 1761 Burke accompanied the Earl of cay. Posterity, however, has done ample justice to Halifax to Ireland as one of his secretaries; and four his genius and character, and has confirmed the years afterwards, he was fairly launched into public opinion of one of his contemporaries, that if (as he life as a Wbig politician, by becoming private secre- did not attempt to conceal) Cicero was the model on tary to the Marquis of Rockingham, then appointed which he laboured to form his own character in first lord of the treasury. A seat in parliament next eloquence, in policy, in ethics, and philosophy, he followed, and Burke became a leading speaker in infinitely surpassed the original. Burke retired from the House of Commons. His first seat was for parliament in 1794. The friendship of the Marquis Wendover, and he was afterwards member for of Rockingham had enabled him to purchase an Bristol and Malton. His speeches on American estate near Beaconsfield, in Buckinghamshire, and

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there the orator spent exclusively his few remaining orator, a philosopher, and practical statesman; and years. In 1795 he was rewarded with a handsome his knowledge, his industry, and perseverance, were pension from the civil list. It was in contemplation as remarkable as his genius. The protracted and to elevate him to the peerage, but the death of his brilliant career of this great man was terminated on only son (who was his colleague in the representa- the 9th of July 1797, and he was interred in the tion of Malton) rendered him indifferent, if not church at Beaconsfield.* averse, to such a distinction. The force and energy A complete edition of Burke's works has been pub. of his mind, and the creative richness of his imagi- lished in sixteen volumes. His political, and not his nation, continued with him to the last. His Letter philosophical writings, are now chiefly read. His Disto a Noble Lord on his Pension (1796), his Letters on quisition on the Sublime and Beautiful is incorrect a Regicide Peace (1796 and 1797), and his Observa- in theory and in many of its illustrations, though tions on the Conduct of the Minority (1797), bear no containing some just remarks and elegant criticism. trace of decaying vigour, though written after the His mighty understanding, as Sir James Mackintosh age of sixty-seven. The keen interest with which observed, was best employed in the middle region, he regarded passing events, particularly the great political drama then in action in France, is still manifest in these works, with general observations and reflections that strike from their profundity and their universal application. “He possessed,' says Coleridge, and had sedulously sharpened that eye which sees all things, actions, and events, in relation to the laws which determine their existence and circumscribe their possibility. He referred habitually to principles-he was a scientific statesman.' This reference to principles in the writings and speeches of Burke (and his speeches were all carefully prepared for the press), renders them still popular and valuable, when the circumstances and events to which they relate have long passed away, and been succeeded by others not less important; while their grander passages, their imagery and profusion of illustration, make them interesting to the orator and literary student. His imagination, it is admitted, was not always guided by correct taste ; some of his images are low, and even border on disgust.* His language and his conceptions are often hyperbolical; or it may be said, his mind, like the soil of the East, which he loved to paint, threw up a rank and luxuriant vegetation, in which unsightly weeds were mingled with the choicest flowers and the most precious fruit. He was at once a poet, an

* One of the happiest of his homely similes is contained in his reply to Pitt, on the subject of the commercial treaty with

Beaconsfield. France in 1787. Pitt, he contended, had contemplated the between the details of business and the generalities subject with a narrowness peculiar to limited minds' as an of speculation. In this department, his knowledge affair of two little counting-houses, and not of two great of men as well as of books, of passions as well as nations. He seems to consider it as a contention between the sign of the fleur-de-lis and the sign of the old red lion, principles, was called into action, and his imaginafor which should obtain the best custom. In replying to tion found room for its lights and shadows among the argument, that the Americans were our children, and the varied realities and shifting scenes of life. Å should not have revolted against their parent, he said, generous political opponent, and not less eloquent • They are our children, it is true, but when children ask (though less original and less powerful) writer, for bread, we are not to give them a stone. When those has thus sketched the character of Burke :children of ours wish to assimilate with their parent, and to 'It is pretended,' says Robert Hall, that the morespect the beauteous countenance of British liberty, are we ment we quit a state of nature, as we have given up to turn to them the shameful parts of our constitution ? Are the control of our actions in return for the superior we to give them our weakness for their strength, our oppro- advantages of law and government, we can never brium for their glory, and the slough of slavery, which we are appeal again to any original principles, but must not able to work off, to serve them for their freedom ?' His account of the ill-assorted administration of Lord Chatham is by the terms of the society. These are the views

rest content with the advantages that are secured no less ludicrous than correct. “He made an administration which distinguish the political writings of Mr Burke, so chequered and speckled; he put together a piece of joinery an author whose splendid and unequal powers have 80 crossly indented, and whimsically dove-tailed ; a cabinet so variously inlaid ; such a piece of diversified mosaic ; such a given a vogue and fashion to certain tenets which, tesselated pavement without cement, here a bit of black stone, from any other pen, would have appeared abject and there a bit of white; patriots and courtiers ; king's friends and contemptible. In the field of reason the enand republicans ; Whigs and Tories ; treacherous friends and counter would not be difficult, but who can withopen enemies ; that it was indeed a very curious show, but stand the fascination and magic of his eloquence? utterly unsafe to touch, and unsure to stand on. The colleagues The excursions of his genius are immense. His imwhom he had assorted at the same boards stared at each other, perial fancy has laid all nature under tribute, and and were obliged to ask, “Sir, your name ?" "Sir, you have has collected riches from every scene of the creation the advantage of me;" “Mr Such-a-one, I beg a thousand pardons." I venture to say it did so happen, that persons had a * A plain mural tablet has been erected in the church to the single office divided between them, who had never spoke to memory of Burke. The orator's residence was about a mile each other in their lives, until they found themselves, they from the town of Beaconsfield. The house was afterwards knew not how, pigging together, heads and points, in the same partly destroyed by fire, and is now, we believe, wholly re

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and every walk of art. His eulogium on the queen succession of civilising conquests and civilising settleof France is a master-piece of pathetic composition; ments in a series of seventeen hundred years, you so select are its images, so fraught with tenderness, shall see as much added to her by America in the and so rich with colours “dipt in heaven,” that he course of a single life! If this state of his country who can read it without rapture may have merit as had been foretold to him, would it not require all the a reasoner, but must resign all pretensions to taste sanguine credulity of youth, and all the fervid glow and sensibility. His imagination is, in truth, only of enthusiasm, to make him believe it? Fortunate too prolific: a world of itself, where he dwells in man, he has lived to see it! Fortunate, indeed, if he the midst of chimerical alarms—is the dupe of his lives to see nothing that shall vary the prospect and own enchantments, and starts, like Prospero, at the cloud the setting of his day! * spectres of his own creation. His intellectual views You cannot station garrisons in every part of these in general, however, are wide and variegated, rather deserts. If you drive the people from one place, they than distinct; and the light he has let in on the will carry on their annual tillage, and remove with British constitution, in particular, resembles the their flocks and herds to another. Many of the people coloured effulgence of a painted medium, a kind of in the back settlements are already little attached to mimic twilight, solemn and soothing to the senses, particular situations. Already they have topped the but better fitted for' ornament than use.'*

Appalachian mountains. From thence they behold Sir James Mackintosh considered that Burke's before them an immense plain, one vast, rich, level best style was before the Indian business and the meadow; a square of five hundred miles. Over this French Revolution had inflamed him. It was more they would wander without a possibility of restraint; chaste and simple; but his writings and speeches at they would change their manners with the habits of this period can hardly be said to equal his later their life; would soon forget a government by which productions in vigour, fancy, or originality. The they were disowned; would become hordes of English excitement of the times seemed to give a

Tartars, and, pouring down upon your unfortified development to his mental energies. The early frontiers a fierce and irresistible cavalry, become speeches have most constitutional and practical value masters of your governors and your counsellors, your - the late ones most genius. The former are a solid collectors and comptrollers, and all the slaves that and durable structure, and the latter its • Corinthian adhere to them. Such would, and in no long time columns.'

must be, the effect of attempting forbid as a crime,

and to suppress as an evil, the command and blessing [From the Speech on Conciliation with America, 1775.] be the happy result of an endeavour to keep as a lair

of Providence-increase and multiply. Such would Mr Speaker, I cannot prevail on myself to hurry of wild beasts that earth which God, by an express over the great consideration. It is good for us to be charter, has given to the children of men. Far difhere. We stand where we have an immense view of ferent, and surely much wiser, has been our policy what is, and what is past. Clouds, indeed, and dark- hitherto. Hitherto we have invited our people, by ness, rest upon the future. Let us, however, before every kind of bounty, to fixed establishments. We we descend from this noble eminence, reflect that this have invited the husbandman to look to authority for growth of our national prosperity has happened within his title. We have taught him piously to believe in the short period of the life of man. It has happened the mysterious virtue of wax and parchment. We within sixty-eight years. There are those alive whose have thrown each tract of land, as it was peopled, memory might touch the two extremities. For in- into districts, that the ruling power should never be stance, my Lord Bathurst might remember all the wholly out of sight. We have settled all we could, stages of the progress. He was in 1704 of an age at and we have carefully attended every settlement with least to be made to comprehend such things. He was government. then old enough acta parentum jam legere, et qua sit Adhering, sir, as I do to this policy, as well as for poterit cognoscere virtus. Suppose, sir, that the angel the reasons I have just given, I think this new project of this auspicious youth, foreseeing the many virtues of hedging in population to be neither prudent nor which made him one of the most amiable, as he is practicable. one of the most fortunate men of his age, had opened To impoverish the colonies in general, and in parto him in vision, that, when in the fourth generation, ticular to arrest the noble course of their inarine the third prince of the house of Brunswick had sat enterprises, would be a more easy task, I freely contwelve years on the throne of that nation, which (by fess it. We have shown a disposition to a system of the happy issue of moderate and healing councils) this kind; a disposition even to continue the restraint was to be made Great Britain, he should see his son, after the offence; looking on ourselves as rivals to lord-chancellor of England, turn back the current of our colonies, and persuaded that of course we must hereditary dignity to its fountain, and raise him to a gain all that they shall lose. Much mischief we may higher rank of peerage, whilst he enriched the family certainly do. The power inadequate to all other with a new one. If amidst these bright and happy things is often more than sufficient for this. I do scenes of domestic honour and prosperity that angel not look on the direct and immediate power of the should have drawn up the curtain, and unfolded the colonies to resist our violence as very formidable. rising glories of his country, and whilst he was gazing In this, however, I may be mistaken. But when I with admiration on the then commercial grandeur of consider that we have colonies for no purpose but to England, the Genius should point out to him a little be serviceable to us, it seems to my poor understandspeck, scarce visible in the mass of the national inte ing a little preposterous to make them unserviceable, rest, a small seminal principle, rather than a formed in order to keep them obedient. It is, in truth, nothing body, and should tell hin—Young man, there is more than the old, and, as I thought, exploded proAmerica—which at this day serves for little more blem of tyranny, which proposes to beggar its subjects than to amuse you with stories of savage men and into submission. But remember, when you have comuncouth manners; yet shall, before you taste of death, pleted your system of impoverishment, that nature show itself equal to the whole of that commerce which still proceeds in her ordinary course; and that disnow attracts the envy of the world. Whatever Eng. content will increase with misery; and that there are land has been growing to by a progressive increase of critical moments in the fortunes of all states, when improvement, brought in by varieties of people, by they who are too weak to contribute to your prospe

rity, may be strong enough to complete your ruin. * Hall's Works, 2d edition, vol. iv. p. 89. Spoliatis arma supersunt.

The temper and character which prevail in our directors of the great movement of empire, are not fit colonies are, I am afraid, unalterable by any human to turn a wheel in the machine. But to men truly art.

We cannot, I fear, falsify the pedigree of this initiated and rightly taught, these ruling and master fierce people, and persuade them that they are not principles which, in the opinion of such men as I have sprung from a nation in whose veins the blood of free mentioned, have no substantial existence, are in truth dom circulates. The language in which they would everything, and all in all. Magnanimity in politics hear you tell them this tale would detect the impo- is not seldom the truest wisdom, and a great empire sition; your speech would betray you. An English- and little minds go ill together. If we are conscious man is the unfittest person on earth to argue another of our situation, and glow with zeal to fill our places Englishman into slavery.

as becomes our station and ourselves, we ought to My hold of the colonies is in the close affection auspicate all our public proceedings on America, with which grows from common names, from kindred blood, the old warning of the church, sursum corda! We from similar privileges, and equal protection. These ought to elevate our minds to the greatness of that are ties which, though light as air, are as strong as trust to which the order of Providence has called us. links of iron. Let the colonies always keep the idea By adverting to the dignity of this high calling, our of their civil rights associated with your government; ancestors have turned a savage wilderness into a glothey will cling and grapple to you ; and no force rious empire; and have made the most extensive, and under heaven will be of power to tear them from their the only honourable conquests ; not by destroying, allegiance. But let it be once understood that your but by promoting the wealth, the number, the happigovernment may be one thing and their privileges ness of the human race. Let us get an American another; that these two things may exist without any revenue, as we have got an American empire. English mutual relation, the cement is gone-the cohesion is privileges have made it all that it is; English priviloosened-and everything hastens to decay and dis- leges alone will make it all it can be. In full confisolution. As long as you have the wisdom to keep dence of this unalterable truth, I now (quod feliz the sovereign authority of this country as the sanc- faustumquesit) lay the first stone of the temple of tuary of liberty, the sacred temple consecrated to our peace.* common faith, wherever the chosen race and sons of England worship freedom, they will turn their faces towards you. The more they multiply, the more

[Mr Burke's Account of his Son.] friends you will have; the more ardently they love liberty, the more perfect will be their obedience.

Had it pleased God to continue to me the hopes Slavery they can have anywhere. It is a weed that of succession, I should have been, according to my grows in every soil. They may have it from Spain, mediocrity, and the mediocrity of the age I live in, they may have it from Prussia ; but until you become

a sort of founder of a family; I should have left a lost to all feeling of your true interest and your son, who, in all the points in which personal merit natural dignity, freedom they can have from none

can be viewed, in science, in erudition, in genius, but you. This is the commodity of price, of which

in taste, in honour, in generosity, in humanity, in you have the monopoly. This is the true act of navi

every liberal sentiment, and every liberal accomgation, which binds you to the commerce of the colo-plishment, would not have shown himself inferior nies, and through them secures to you the commerce

to the Duke of Bedford, or to any of those whom he of the world. Deny them this participation of free

traces in his line. His Grace very soon would have dom, and you break that sole bond which originally vision which belonged more to mine than to me.

wanted all plausibility in his attack upon that promade, and must still preserve, the unity of the em

He pire. Do not entertain so weak an imagination, as

would soon have supplied every deficiency, and symthat your registers and your bonds, your affidavits metrised every disproportion. It would not have been and your sufferances, your coquets and your clear- for that successor to resort to any stagnant wasting ances, are what form the great securities of your in himself a salient living spring of generous and

reservoir of merit in me, or in any ancestry. He had Do not dream that your letters of office, manly action. Every day he lived, he would have reand your instructions, and your suspending clauses, are the things that hold together the great contexture purchased the bounty of the crown, and ten times of this mysterious whole. These things do not make more, if ten times more he had received. He was your government. Dead instruments, passive tools made a public creature, and had no enjoyment whatas they are, it is the spirit of the English communion

ever but in the performance of some duty. At this that gives all their life and efficacy to them. It is exigent moment the loss of a finished man is not the spirit of the English constitution which, infused

easily supplied. through the mighty mass, pervades, feeds, unites, resist, and whose wisdom it behoves us not at all to

But a Disposer, whose power we are little able to invigorates, vivifies every part of the empire, even down to the minutest member.

dispute, has ordained it in another manner, and Is it not the same virtue which does everything for whatever my querulous weakness might suggest) a us here in England? Do you imagine, then. that it like one of those old oaks which the late hurricane

far better. The storm has gone over me, and I lie is the land-tax act which raises your revenue? that it is the annual vote in the committee of supply which has scattered about me. I am stripped of all my gives you your army? or that it is the mutiny bill honours ; I am torn up by the roots, and lie prostrate which'inspires it with bravery and discipline? No! on the earth! There, and prostrate there, I most Surely noIt is the love of the people; it is their unfeignedly recognise the divine justice, and in some attachment to their

government, from the sense of degree submit to it. But whilst i humble myself the deep stake they have in such a glorious institu- before God, I do not know that it is forbidden to repel tion, which gives you your army and your navy, and the attacks of unjust and inconsiderate men. The infuses into both that liberal obedience without which patience of Job is proverbial. After some of the conyour army would be a base rabble

, and your navy vulsive struggles of our irritable nature, he submitted nothing but rotten timber. All this, I know well enough, will sound wild and chimerical to the profane the right of parliamentary representation should be extended

* At the conclusion of this speech, Mr Burke moved that herd of those vulgar and mechanical politicians who

to the American colonies, but his motion was negatived by have no place among us; a sort of people who think 270 to 78. Indeed his most brilliant orations made little imthat nothing exists but what is gross and material; pression on the House of Commons, the ministerial party beand who, therefore, far from being qualified to be ling strong in numbers.

commerce,

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