tion and in action, and yet they were splendidly gifted more active than another, without reference to size, with energy. They carried captive at once the sym. just as the optic nerve is sometimes more irritable pathies and the understanding of the audience, and than the auditory; but this is by no means a common maile every man feel his faculties expanding, and his occurrence. Exercise greatly increases activity as whole mind becoming greater under the influence of well as power, and hence arise the benefits of educatheir power. Other performers, again, are remarkable tion. Dr Spurzheim thinks that long fibres produce for agility of action and elocution, who, nevertheless, more activity, and thick fibres more intensity.' are felt to be feeble and ineffective in rousing an audi The doctrine, that size is a measure of power, is not ence to emotion. Vivacity is their distinguishing to be held as implying that much power is the only attribute, with an absence of vigour. At the bar, in or even the most valuable quality which a mind in the pulpit, and in the senate, the same distinction all circumstances can possess. To drag artillery over prevails. Many members of the learned professions a mountain, or a ponderous wagon through the streets display great fluency of elocution and felicity of illus- of London, we would prefer an elephant or a horse of tration, surprising us with the quickness of their parts, great size and muscular power; while, for graceful who, nevertheless, are felt to be neither impressive motion, agility, and nimbleness, we would select an nor profound. They exhibit acuteness without depth, Arabian palfrey. In like manner, to lead men in and ingenuity without comprehensiveness of under- gigantic and difficult enterprises--to coinmand by standing. This also proceeds from vivacity with little native greatness, in perilous times, when law is energy. There are other public speakers, again, who trampled under foot-to call forth the energies of a open heavily in debate-their faculties acting slowly people, and direct them against a tyrant at home, or but deeply, like the first heave of a mountain-wave. an alliance of tyrants abroad-to stamp the impress Their words fall like minute-guns upon the ear, and of a single mind upon a nation--to infuse strength to the superficial they appear about to terminete ere into thoughts, and depth into feelings, which shall they have begun their efforts. But even their first ac command the homage of enlightened men in every cent is one of power; it rouses and arrests attention; age-in short, to be a Bruce, Bonaparte, Luther, their very pauses are expressive, and indicate gather-Knox, Demosthenes, Shakspeare, Milton, or Cromwell ing energy to be embodied in the sentence that is to

---a large brain is indispensably requisite. But to When fairly animated, they are impetuous as display skill, enterprise, and fidelity in the various the torrent, brilliant as the lightning's beam, and professions of civil life-to cultivate with success the overwhelm and take possession of feebler minds, less arduous branches of philosophy – to excel in impressing them irresistibly with a feeling of gigan- acuteness, taste, and felicity of expression-to acquire tic power.

extensive erudition and refined manners-a brain of The distinction between vivacity and energy is well a moderate size is perhaps more suitable than one illustrated by Cowper in one of his letters. “The that is very large; for wherever the energy is intense, mind and body,' says he, have in this respect a it is rare that delicacy, refinement, and taste are prestriking resemblance of each other. In childhood sent in an equal degree. Individuals possessing mothey are both nimble, but not strong; they can skip derate-sized brains easily find their proper sphere, and and frisk about with wonderful agility, but hard la-enjoy in it scope for all their energy. In ordinary bour spoils them both. In maturer years they become circumstances they distinguish themselves, but they less active but more vigorous, more capable of fixed sink when difficulties accumulate around them. Perapplication, and can make themselves sport with that sons with large brains, on the other hand, do not which a little earlier would have affected them with readily attain their appropriate place; common ocintolerable fatigue.' Dr Charlton also, in his Brief currences do not rouse or call them forth, and, while Discourse Concerning the Different Wits of Men, has unknown, they are not trusted with great undertakadmirably described two characters, in one of which ings. Often, therefore, such men pine and die in obstrength is displayed without vivacity, and in the scurity. When, however, they attain their proper other vivacity without strength; the latter he calls element, they are conscious of greatness, and glory in the man of nimble wit,' the former the man of 'slow the expansion of their powers. Their mental energies but sure wit.' In this respect the French character rise in proportion to the obstacles to be surmounted, may be contrasted with the Scotch.

and blaze forth in all the magnificence of self-sustainAs a general rule, the largest organs in each head ing energetic genius, on occasions when feebler minds have naturally the greatest, and the smallest the would sink in despair. least, tendency to act, and to perform their functions with rapidity.

WRITERS IN DIVINITY. The temperaments also indicate the amount of this tendency. The nervous is the most vivacious, next Critical and biblical literature have made great the sanguine, then the bilious, while the lymphatic progress within the last half century, but the numis characterised by proneness to inaction.

ber of illustrious divines is not great. The early In a lymphatic brain, great size may be present fathers of the Protestant church had indeed done so and few manifestations occur through sluggishness ; much in general theology and practical divinity, but if a strong external stimulus be presented, energy that comparatively little was left to their successors. often appears. If the brain be very small, no degree of stimulus, either external or internal, will cause great power to be manifeste.

A certain combination of organs-namely, Com The greatest divine of the period is DR WILLIAM bativeness, Destructiveness, Hope, Firmness, Acquisi- PalEY, a man of remarkable vigour and clearness of tiveness, and Lore of Approbation, all large - is intellect, and originality of character. His acquirefavourable to general vivacity of mind ; and another ments as a scholar and churchman were grafted on combination -- namely, Combativeness, Destructive- a homely, shrewd, and benevolent nature, which no ness, Hope, Firmness, and Acquisitiveness, small or circumstances could materially alter. There was moderate, with Veneration and Benevolence large no doubt or obscurity either about the man or his is frequently attended with sluggishness of the men- works: he stands out in bold relief among his brotal character ; but the activity of the whole brain is ther divines, like a sturdy oak on a lawn or parterre constitutionally greater in some individuals than in -a little hard and cross-grained, but sound, fresh, others, as already explained. It may even happen and massive - dwarfing his neighbours with his that, in the same individual, one organ is naturally | weight and bulk, and intrinsic excellence.



He shall be like a tree that grows

spent or spoiled ; and if one of the number take or Near planted by a river,

touch a particle of the board, the others joining Which in his season yields his fruit,

against him, and hanging him for the theft. And his leaf fadeth never.

There must be some very important advantages to So says our old version of the Psalms with respect account for an institution which, in the view of it to the fate of a righteous man, and Paley was a

above given, is so paradoxical and unnatural.

The principal of these advantages are the followrighteous man whose mind yielded precious fruit,

ing: and whose leaves will never fade. This excellent

1. It increases the produce of the earth. author was born at Peterborough in 1743. His

The earth, in climates like ours, produces little father was afterwards curate of Giggleswick, Yorkshire, and teacher of the grammar-school there. At without cultivation ; and none would be found wilthe age of fifteen he was entered as sizar at Christ's ling to cultivate the ground, if others were to be adcollege, Cambridge, and after completing his aca. is true of the care of flocks and herds of tame animals.

mitted to an equal share of the produce. The same demical course, he became tutor in an academy at

Crabs and acorns, red deer, rabbits, game, and fish, Greenwich. As soon as he was of sufficient age, he was ordained to be assistant curate of Greenwich are all which we should have to subsist upon in this He was afterwards elected a fellow of his college, of the soil; and it fares not much better

with other

country, if we trusted to the spontaneous productions and went thither to reside, engaging first as tutor. countries. A nation of North American sa vages, conHe next lectured in the university on moral philo- sisting of two or three hundred, will take up and be sophy and the Greek Testament. His college friend, half-starved upon a tract of land which in Europe, Dr Law, bishop of Carlisle, presented him with the and with European management, would be sufficient rectory of Musgrave, in Westmoreland, and he re- for the maintenance of as many thousands. moved to his country charge, worth only £80 per

In some fertile soils, together with great abundance He was soon inducted into the vicarage of of fish upon their coasts, and in regions where clothes Dalston, in Cumberland, to a prebend's stall in Car- are unnecessary, a considerable degree of population lisle cathedral, and also to the archdeaconry of Car- may subsist without property in land, which is the lisle. In 1785 appeared his long-meditated Elements case in the islands of Otabeite: but in less favoured of Moral and Political Philosophy; in 1790 his Hora situations, as in the country of New Zealand, though Paulina ; and in 1794 his View of the Evidences of this sort of property obtain in a small degree, the inChristianity. Friends and preferment now crowded habitants, for want of a more secure and regular estain on him. The bishop of London (Porteous) made blishment of it, are driven oftentimes by the scarcity him a prebend of St Paul's; the bishop of Lincoln of provision to devour one another. presented him with the sub-deanery of Lincoln; and

II. It preserves the produce of the earth to matua the bishop of Durham gave him the rectory of rity. Bishop-Wearmouth, worth about a thousand pounds

We may judge what would be the effects of a comper annum-and all these within six months, the munity of right to the productions of the earth, from luckiest half-year of his life. The boldness and free- the trifling specimens which we see of it at present. dom of some of Paley’s disquisitions on government, A cherry-tree in a hedgerow, nuts in a wood, the and perhaps a deficiency, real or supposed, in per- grass of an unstinted pasture, are seldom of much sonal dignity, and some laxness, as well as an inve- advantage to anybody, because people do not wait for terate provincial homeliness, in conversation, pre- the proper season of reaping them. Corn, if any were vented his rising to the bench of bishops. When his sown, would never ripen; lambs and calres would name was once mentioned to George III., the mo never grow up to sheep and cows, because the first narch is reported to have said . Paley! what, pigeon person that met them would reflect that he had better Paley?'-an allusion to a famous sentence in the take them as they are than leave them for another. Moral and Political Philosophy' on property. As III. It prevents contests. a specimen of his style of reasoning, and the liveli War and waste, tumult and confusion, must be ness of his illustrations, we subjoin this passage, unavoidable and eternal where there is not enough which is part of an estimate of the relative duties of for all, and where there are no rules to adjust the men in society :


IV. It improves the conveniency of living.

This it does two ways. It enables mankind to Of Property.

divide themselves into distinct professions, which is If you should see a flock of pigeons in a field of impossible, unless a man can exchange the produccorn, and if (instead of each picking where and what tions of his own art for what he wants from others, it liked, taking just as much as it wanted, and no and exchange implies property. Much of the advanmore) you should see ninety-nine of them gathering tage of civilised over savage life depends upon this all they got into a heap, reserving nothing for them- When a man is, from necessity, his own tailor, tentselves but the chaff and the refuse, keeping this heap maker, carpenter, cook, huntsman, and fisherman, it for one, and that the weakest, perhaps worst pigeon of is not probable that he will be expert at any of his the flock ; sitting round, and looking on all the winter, callings. Hence the rude habitations, furniture, whilst this one was devouring, throwing about and clothing, and implements of savages, and the tedious wasting it; and if a pigeon, more hardy or hungry length of time which all their operations require. than the rest, touched a grain of the hoard, all the It likewise encourages those arts by which the acothers instantly flying upon it and tearing it to pieces; commodations of human life are supplied, by approif you should see this, you would see nothing more priating to the artist the benefit of his discoveries and than what is every day practised and cstablished improvements, without which appropriation ingenuity among men. Among men you see the ninety-and- will never be exerted with effect. nine toiling and scraping together a heap of super Upon these several accounts we may venture, with fluities for one (and this one too, oftentimes, the a few exceptions, to pronounce that even the poorest feeblest and worst of the whole set-a child, a woman, and the worst provided, in countries where property a madman, or a fool), getting nothing for themselves and the consequences of property prevail, are in a all the while but a little of the coarsest of the pro- better situation with respect to food, raiment, houses, vision which their own industry produces ; looking and what are called the necessaries of life, than any quietly on while they see the fruits of all their labour are in places where most things remain in common.

The balance, therefore, upon the whole, must pre- to feel pleasure in a display of knowledge, probity, ponderate in favour of property with a manifest and charity, and meekness unmatched by an avowed great excess.

advocate in a cause deeply interesting his warmest Inequality of property, in the degree in which it feelings. His Natural Theology is the wonderful exists in most countries of Europe, abstractedly con- work of a man who, after sixty, had studied anatomy sidered, is an evil; but it is an evil which flows from in order to write it; and it could only have been those rules concerning the acquisition and disposal of surpassed by a man (Sir Charles Bell) who, to great property, by which men are incited to industry, and originality of conception and clearness of exposition, by which the object of their industry is rendered added the advantage of a high place in the first class secure and valuable. If there be any great inequality of physiologists.' unconnected with this origin, it ought to be corrected.

In 1802 Paley published his Natural Theology, his [The World was Made with a Benevolent Design.] last work. He enjoyed himself in the country with

[From Natural Theology.'] his duties and recreations : he was particularly fond of angling; and he mixed familiarly with his neigh It is a happy world after all. The air, the earth, bours in all their plans of utility, sociality, and even the water, teem with delighted existence. In a spring conviviality. He disposed of his time with great noon or a summer evening, on whichever side I turn regnlarity: in his garden he limited himself to one my eyes, myriads of happy beings crowd upon my hour at a time, twice a-day ; in reading books of view. The insect youth are on the wing.? Swarms amusement, one hour at breakfast and another in the of new-born flies are trying their pinions in the air. evening, and one for dinner and his newspaper. By Their sportive notions, their wanton mazes, their thus dividing and husbanding his pleasures, they gratuitous activity, their continual change of place remained with him to the last. He died on the 25th without use or purpose, testify their joy and the exof May 1805.

ultation which they feel in their lately-discovered No works of a theological or philosophical nature faculties. A bee amongst the flowers in spring is have been so extensively popular among the edu- one of the most cheerful objects that can be looked cated classes of England as those of Paley. His per- upon.

Its life appears to be all cnjoyment; so busy spicacity of intellect and simplicity of style are and so pleased : yet it is only a specimen of insect almost unrivalled. Though plain and homely, and life, with which, by reason of the animal being halfoften inelegant, he has such vigour and discrimina- domesticated, we happen to be better acquainted than tion, and such a happy vein of illustration, that he is

we are with that of others. The whole winged insect always read with pleasure and instruction. No tribe, it is probable, are equally intent upon their reader is ever at a loss for his nieaning, or finds him proper employments, and, under every variety of contoo difficult for comprehension. He had the rare stitution, gratified, and perhaps equally gratified, by art of popularising the most recondite knowledge, the offices which the Author of their nature has asand blending the business of life with philosophy: signed to them. But the atmosphere is not the only The principles inculcated in some of his works have scene of enjoyment for the insect race. Plants are been disputed, particularly his doctrine of expediency covered with aphides, greedily sucking their juices, as a rule of morals, which has been considered as

and constantly, as it should seem, the act of sucktrenching on the authority of revealed religion, and ing. It cannot be doubted but that this is a state of also lowering the standard of public duty. The gratification : what else should fix them so close to system of Paley certainly would not tend to foster the operation, and so long? Other species are running the great and heroic virtues. In his early life he is about with an alacrity in their motions which carries reported to have said, with respect

to his subscrip with it every mark of pleasure. Large patches of tion to the thirty-nine articles of the Church of ground are sometimes half covered with these brisk England, that he was “too poor to keep a conscience;' produce, shoals of the fry of fish frequent the margins

and sprightly natures. If we look to what the waters and something of the same laxness of moral feeling of rivers, of lakes, and of the sea itself. These are so pervades his ethical system. His abhorrence of all hypocrisy and pretence was probably at the root of happy that they know not what to do with themthis error. Like Dr Johnson, he was a practical out of the water, their frolics in it (which I have

selves. Their attitudes, their vivacity, their leaps moralist, and looked with distrust on any high, noticed a thousand times with equal attention and strained virtue or enthusiastic devotion. He did not write for philosophers or metaphysicians, but spirits, and are simply the effects of that excess.

amusement), all conduce to show their excess of for the great body of the people anxious to acquire Walking by the sea-side in a calm evening upon a knowledge, and to be able to give a reason for the sandy shore and with an ebbing tide, I have frehope that is in them.' le considered the art of life quently remarked the appearance of a dark cloud, to consist in properly setting our habits,' and for this or rather very thick mist, hanging over the edge of no subtle distinctions or profound theories were necessary. His · Moral and Political Philosophy' is of the breadth of two or three yards, stretching along

the water, to the height, perhaps, of half a yard, and framed on this basis of utility, directed by strong the coast as far as the eye could reach, and always sense, a discerning judgment, and a sincere regard retiring with the water. When this cloud came to for the true end of all knowledge--the well-being of be examined, it proved to be nothing else than so mankind here and hereafter. Of Paley's other works, much space filled with young shrimps in the act of Sir James Mackintosh has pronounced the following bounding into the air from the shallow margin of the opinion :- The most original and ingenious of his water, or from the wet sand. If any inotion of a writings is the Horæ Paulinæ. The Evidences of mute animal could express delight, it was this ; if Christianity are formed out of an admirable trans- they had meant to make signs of their happiness, lation of Butler's Analogy, and a most skilful abridg- they could not have done it more intelligibly. Supment of Lardner's Credibility of the Gospel His- pose, then, what I have no doubt of, each individual tory. He may be said to have thus given value of this number to be in a state of positive enjoyment; to two works, of which the first was scarcely intel- what a sum, collectively, of gratification and plealigible to most of those who were most desirous of sure have we here before our view! profiting by it; and the second soon wearies out the The young of all animals appear to me to receive greater part of readers, though the few who are more pleasure simply from the exercise of their limbs and patient have almost always been gradually won over bodily faculties, without reference to any end to be

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attained, or any use to be answered by the exertion. however, was a man of forcible intellect, and of
A child, without knowing anything of the use of lan- various knowledge. His controversial works are
guage, is in a high degree delighted with being able highly honourable to him, both for the manly and
to speak. Its incessant repetition of a few articulate candid spirit in which they are written, and the
sounds, or perhaps of the single word which it has logical clearness and strength of his reasoning.
learned to pronounce, proves this point clearly. Nor DR BEILBY PORTEOUS, bishop of London (1731-
is it less pleased with its first successful endeavours 1808), was a popular dignitary of the church, author
to walk, or rather to run (which precedes walking), of a variety of sermons and tracts connected with
although entirely ignorant of the importance of the church discipline. He distinguished himself at col-
attainment to its future life, and even without apply.
ing it to any present purpose. A child is delighted
with speaking, without having anything to say ;
and with walking, without knowing where to go.
And, prior to both these, I am disposed to believe
that the waking hours of infancy are agreeably taken
up with the exercise of vision, or perhaps, more
properly speaking, with learning to see.

But it is not for youth alone that the great Parent
of creation hath provided. Happiness is found with
the purring cat no less than with the playful kitten;
in the arm-chair of dozing age, as well as in either
the sprightliness of the dance or the animation of the
chase. To novelty, to acuteness of sensation, to hope,
to ardour of pursuit, succeeds what is, in no incon-
siderable degree, an equivalent for them all,'' percep-
tion of ease. Herein is the exact difference between
the young and the old. The young are not happy
but when enjoying pleasure; the old are happy when
free from pain. And this constitution suits with the
degrees of animal power which they respectively
possess. The vigour of youth was to be stimulated
to action by impatience of rest ; whilst to the imbe-
cility of age, quietness and repose become positive
gratifications. In one important step the advantage
is with the old. A state of ease is, generally speak-
ing, more attainable than a state of pleasure. A
constitution, therefore, which can enjoy ease, is pre-
ferable to that which can taste only pleasure. This
same perception of ease oftentimes renders old age a Tomb of Bishop Porteous at Sunbridge, Kent.
condition of great comfort, especially when riding at
its anchor after a busy or tempestuous life. It is lege by a prize poem On Death, which has been
well described by Rousseau to be the interval of re- often, reprinted: it is but a feeble transcript of
pose and enjoyment between the hurry and the end Beattie the poet (whom he wished to take orders

Dr Porteous warmly befriended of life. How far the same cause extends to other in the church of England), and he is said to have animal natures, cannot be judged of with certainty: assisted Hannah More in her novel of Cælebs. The appearance of satisfaction with which most animals, as their activity subsides, seek and enjoy rest,

DR SAMUEL HORSLEY, bishop of St Asaph (1733affords reason to believe that this source of gratifica- 1806), was one of the most conspicuous churchmen tion is appointed to advanced life under all or most of his day. He belonged to the high church party, of its various forms. In the species with which we and strenuously resisted all political or ecclesiastical are best acquainted, namely, our own, I am far, even change. He was learned and eloquent, but prone as an observer of human life, from thinking that to controversy, and deficient in charity and the youth is its happiest season, much less the only milder virtues. His character was not unlike that happy one.

of one of his patrons, Chancellor Thurlow, stern

and unbending, but cast in a manly mould. He A new and illustrated edition of Paley's “Natural was an indefatigable student. His first public apTheology' was published in 1835, with scientific illus- pearance was in the character of a man of science. trations by Sir Charles Bell, and a preliminary dis- He was some time secretary of the Royal Societycourse by Henry Lord Brougham.

wrote various short treatises on scientific subjects, DR RICHARD WATSON, bishop of Llandaff (1737- and published an edition of Sir Isaac Newton's 1816), did good service to the cause of revealed reli- works. As a critic and scholar he had few equals ; gion and social order by his replies to Gibbon the and his disquisitions on the prophets Isaiah and historian, and Thomas Paine. To the former he Hosea, his translations of the Psalms, and his Bibliaddressed a series of letters, entitled An Apology for cal Criticisms (in four volumes), justly entitled him Christianity, in answer to Gibbon's celebrated chap to the honour of the mitre. His sermons, in three ters on the rise and progress of Christianity; and volumes, are about the best in the language : clear, when Paine published his Age of Reason, the nervous, and profound, he entered undauntedly upon bishop met it with a vigorous and conclusive reply, the most difficult subjects, and dispelled, by research which he termed An Apology for the Bible. Watson and argument, the doubt that hung over several also published a few sermons, and a collection of passages of Scripture. He was for many years theological tracts, selected from various authors, in engaged in a controversy with Dr Priestley on the six volumes. His Whig principles stood in the way subject of the divinity of Christ. Both of the comof his church preferment, and he had not magna- batants lost their temper; but when Priestley renimity enough to conceal his disappointment, which sorted to a charge of incompetency and ignorance, is strongly expressed in an autobiographical memoir it was evident that he felt himself sinking in the published after his death by his son. Dr Watson, I struggle. In intellect and scholarship, Horsley was

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vastly superior to his antagonist. The political friends forsake us ; when sorrow, or sickness, or old opinions and intolerance of the bishop were more age comes upon us, then it is that the superiority of successfully attacked by Robert Hall, in his Apo- the pleasures of religion is established over those of logy for the Freedom of the Press.

dissipation and vanity, which are ever apt to fly from GILBERT WAKEFIELD (1756-1801) enjoyed cele- us when we are most in want of their aid. There brity both as a writer on controversial divinity and is scarcely a more melancholy sight to a considerate a classical critic. He left the church in consequence mind, than that of an old man who is a stranger to of his embracing Unitarian opinions, and afterwards those only true sources of satisfaction. How affecting, left also the dissenting establishment at Hackney, and at the same time how disgusting, is it to see such to which he had attached himself. He published a one awkwardly catching at the pleasures of his translations of some of the epistles in the New Tes younger years, which are now beyond his reach ; or tament, and an entire translation of the same sacred feebly attempting to retain them, while they mock volume, with notes. He was also author of a work his endeavours and elude his grasp! To such a one on Christian Evidence, in reply to Paine. The gloomily, indeed, does the evening of life set in ! All bishop of Llandaff having in 1798 written an address is sour and cheerless. He can neither look backward against the principles of the French Revolution, with complacency, nor forward with hope ; while the Wakefield replied to it, and was subjected to a aged Christian, relying on the assured mercy of his crown prosecution for libel ; he was found guilty, Redeemer, can calmly reflect that his dismission is and sentenced to two years' imprisonment.

He at hand ; that his redemption draweth nigh. While published editions of Horace, Virgil, Lucretius, &c. his strength declines, and his faculties decay, he can which ranked him among the first scholars of his quietly repose himself on the fidelity of God; and at time. Wakefield was an honest, precipitate, and the very entrance of the valley of the shadow of death, simple-minded man; a Pythagorean in his diet, and he can lift up an eye dim perhaps and feeble, yet eccentric in many of his habits and opinions. He occasionally sparkling with hope, and confidently was,' says one of his biographers, ' as violent against looking forward to the near possession of his heavenly Greek accents as he was against the Trinity, and inheritance, to those joys which eye hath not seen, anathematised the final n as strongly as episcopacy.' nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart

The infidel principles which abounded at the of man to conceive. What striking lessons have we period of the French Revolution, and continued to had of the precarious tenure of all sublunary possesagitate both France and England for some years, sions ! Wealth, and power, and prosperity, how pecuinduced a disregard of vital piety long afterwards liarly transitory and uncertain! But religion disin the higher circles of British society. To coun- penses her choicest cordials in the seasons of exigence, teract this, MR WILBERFORCE, then member of par.

in poverty, in exile, in sickness, and in death. The liament for the county of York, published in 1797 A essential superiority of that support which is derived Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of from religion is less felt, at least it is less apparent, Professed Christians in the Higher and Middle Classes when the Christian is in full possession of riches and of this Country, Contrasted with Real Christianity. splendour, and rank, and all the gifts of nature and Five editions of the work were sold within six fortune. But when all these are swept away by the months, and it still continues, in various languages, rude hand of time or the rough blasts of adversity, to form a popular religious treatise. The author the true Christian stands, like the glory of the forest, attested, by his daily life, the sincerity of his opi: foliage, but more than ever discovering to the observ

erect and vigorous ; stripped, indeed, of his summer nions. William Wilberforce was the son of a wealthy merchant, and born at Hull in 1759. He was educing eye the solid strength of his substantial texture. cated at Cambridge, and on completing his twenty Another distinguished volunteer in the cause of first year, was returned to parliament for his native religious instruction, and an extensive miscellaneous town. He soon distinguished himself by his talents, writer, was Mrs HANNAH MORE, whose works we and became the idol of the fashionable world--dance have previously enumerated. ing at Almack's, and singing before the Prince of Wales. In 1784, while pursuing a continental tour with some relations, in company with Dean Milner, the latter so impressed him with the truths of Christianity, that Wilberforce entered upon a new life, DR SAMUEL PARR (1747-1825) was better known and abandoned all his former gaieties. In parlia- as a classical scholar than a theologian. His serment he pursued a strictly independent course. For mons on education are, however, marked with cotwenty years he laboured for the abolition of the gency of argument and liberality of feeling. Ilis slave-trade, a question with which his name is in- celebrated Spital sermon, when printed, presented separably entwined. His time, his talents, influence, the singular anomaly of fifty-one pages of text and and prayers, were directed towards the consummation two hundred and twelve of notes. Mr Godwin atof this object, and at length, in 1807, he had the tacked some of the principles laid down in this dishigh gratification of seeing it accomplished. The course, as not sufficiently democratic for his taste; religion of Wilberforce was mild and cheerful, un for though a stanch Whig, Parr was no revolumixed with austerity or gloom. He closed his tionist or leveller. His object was to extend education long and illustrious life on the 27th July 1833, one among the poor, and to ameliorate their condition of those men who, by their virtues, talents, and by gradual and constitutional means. Dr Parr was energy, impress their own character on the age in long head master of Norwich school; and in knowwhich they live. His latter years realised his own ledge of Greek literature was not surpassed by any beautiful description

scholar of his day. His uncompromising support of

Whig principles, his extensive learning, and a cer[On the Effects of Religion.]

tain pedantry and oddity of character, rendered him

always conspicuous among his brother churchmen. When the pulse beats high, and we are flushed He died at Hatton, in Warwickshire, the perpetual with youth, and health, and vigour ; when all goes curacy of which he had enjoyed for above forty years, on prosperously, and success seems almost to anti- and where he had faithfully discharged his duties as cipate our wishes, then we feel not the want of the a parish pastor. consolations of religion : but when fortune frowns, or Dr EDWARD MALTBY, the present bishop of Dur



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