« 前へ次へ »
clined to have yielded this point of ceremony; but adding that he was so overcome by fatigue and bodily Sir George Staunton and the other members of the illness as absolutely to require repose. Lord AmCanton mission took the most decided part on the herst further pointed out the gross insult he had other side. The result of their deliberations was a already received, in having been exposed to the indetermination against the performance of the ko-tou, trusion and indecent curiosity of crowds, who appeared and the emperor at last consented to admit them to view him rather as a wild beast than the represenupon their own terms, which consisted in kneeling tative of a powerful sovereign. At all events, he upon a single knee. The embassy went to Pekin, intreated the Koong-yay to submit his request to his and were ushered into an ante-chamber of the im- imperial majesty, who, he felt confident, would, in perial palace.
consideration of his illness and fatigue, dispense with
his immediate appearance. The Koong-yay then [Scene at Pekin, Described by Mr Ellis.] pressed Lord Amherst to come to his apartments, Mandarins of all buttons * were in waiting; several alleging that they were cooler, more convenient, and
more private. This Lord Amherst declined, saying princes of the blood, distinguished by clear ruby that he was totally unfit for any place but his own buttons and round flowered badges, were among them; residence. The Koong-yay having failed in his atthe silence, and a certain air of regularity, marked the immediate presence of the sovereign. The small tempt to persuade him, left the room for the purpose
of taking the emperor's pleasure upon the subject. apartment, much out of repair, into which we were huddled, now witnessed a scene I believe unparalleled and ornaments bespoke him a prince, * was particu
During his absence an elderly man, whose dress in the history of even Oriental diplomacy. Lord Am-larly inquisitive in his inspection of our persons and herst had scarcely taken his seat, when Chang, der inquiries. His chief object seemed to be to commulivered a message from Ho (Koong-yay), stating that nicate with Sir George Staunton, as the person who the emperor wished to see the ambassador, his son, had been with the former embassy ; but Sir George and the commissioners immediately. Much surprise very prudently avoided any intercourse with him. was naturally expressed; the previous arrangement It is not easy to describe the feelings of annoyance for the eighth of the Chinese month, a period certainly produced by the conduct of the Chinese, both public much too early for comfort, was adverted to, and the and individual: of the former I shall speak hereutter impossibility of his excellency appearing in his after ; of the latter I can only say that nothing could present state of fatigue, inanition, and deficiency of be more disagreeable and indecorous. every necessary equipment, was strongly urged. Chang was very unwilling to be the bearer of this answer, ting the room, to say that the emperor dispensed with
A message arrived soon after the Koong-yay’s quitbut was finally obliged to consent. During this time the ambassador's attendance ; that he had further the room had filled with spectators of all ages and been pleased to direct his physician to afford to his ranks, who rudely pressed upon us to gratify their excellency every medical assistance that his illness brutal curiosity, for such it may be called, as they might require. The Koong-yay himself soon followed, seemed to regard us rather as wild beasts than mere and his excellency proceeded to the carriage. The strangers of the same species with themselves. Some Koong-yay not disdaining to clear away the crowd, other messages were interchanged between the Koong- the whip was used by him to all persons indiscrimiyay and Lord Amherst, who, in addition to the reito nately; buttons were no protection; and however sons already given, stated the indecorum and irre- indecorous, according to our notions, the employment his reply to this it was said, that in the proposed might be for a man of his rank, it could not have
been in better hands. audience the emperor merely wished to see the ambassador, and had no intention of entering upon busi
Lord Amherst was generally condemned for reLord Amherst having persisted in expressing fusing the proffered audience. The emperor, in disthe inadmissibility of the proposition, and in trans- gust, ordered them instantly to set out for Canton, mitting through the Koong-yay a humble request which was accordingly done. This embassy made to his imperial majesty that he would be graciously scarcely any addition to our knowledge of China. MB pleased to wait till to-morrow, Chang and another John FRANCIS Davis, late chief superintendent in mandarin finally proposed that his excellency should China, has published two interesting works, which go over to the Koong-yay's apartments, from whence give a full account of this singular people, so far as a reference might be made to the emperor. Lord known to European visitors. These are, Sketches of Amherst having alleged bodily illness as one of the China, partly during an Inland Journey of Four reasons for declining the audience, readily saw that Months between Pekin, Nankin, and Canton ; and if he went to the Koong-yay, this plea, which to The Chinese : a General Description of the Empire the Chinese (though now scarcely admitted) was in of China and its Inhabitants. The latter work was general the most forcible, would cease to avail him, published in 1836, but has since been enlarged, and positively declined compliance. This produced a the history of British intercourse brought up to the visit from the Koong-yay, who, too much interested present time. Mr Davis resided twenty years at and agitated to heed ceremony, stood by Lord Am- Canton, is perfect in the peculiar language of China, herst, and used every argument to induce him to and has certainly seen more of its inhabitants than obey the emperor's commands. Among other topics any other English author. The Journal of Three Voyhe used that of being received with our own ceremony, ages along the Coast of China, in 1831, 1832, and 1833, using the Chinese words, 'ne mun tih lee-your own by MR GUTZLAFF, a German, is also a valuable work. ceremony. All proving ineffectual, with some rough- The contraband trade in opium formed a memorable ness, but under pretext of friendly violence, he laid era in the history of Chinese commerce. It was hands upon Lord Amherst, to take him from the carried on to a great extent with the Hong merroom; another mandarin followed his example. His chants; but in 1834, after the monopoly of the East lordship, with great firmness and dignity of manner, India Company had been abolished, our government shook them off, declaring that nothing but the ex- appointed Lord Napier to proceed to Canton, as tremest violence should induce him to quit that room special superintendent, to adjust all disputed quesfor any other place but the residence assigned to him; tions among the merchants, and to form regulations
with the provincial authorities. The Chinese, always * The buttons, in the order of their rank, are as follows: ruby red, worked coral, smooth coral, pale blue, dark blue, jealous of foreigners, and looking upon mercantile crystal, ivory, and gold.
* They are distinguished by round badges.
employments as degrading, insulted our superin- known habits of most of the Chinese. The leg from tendent; hostilities took place, and trade was sus- the knee downwards was much wasted; the foot appended.' Lord Napier took his departure amidst peared as if broken up at the instep, while the four circumstances of insult and confusion, and died on small toes were bent flat and pressed down under the the 11th of October 1834. The functions of super- foot, the great toe only being allowed to retain its naintendent devolved on Mr Davis. “The Chinese, tural position. By the breaking of the instep a high emboldened by the pacific temperament of our arch is formed between the heel and the toe, enabling government, proceeded at length to the utmost the individual to step with them on an even surface; extent; and not satisfied with imprisoning and in this respect materially differing from the Canton threatening the lives of the whole foreign commu- and Macao ladies; for with them the instep is not nity, laid also violent hands on the British repre- interfered with, but a very high heel is substituted, sentative himself, claiming, as the purchase of his thus bringing the point of the great toe to the ground. freedom, the delivery of the whole of the opium When our Canton compradore was shown a Chusan then in the Chinese waters-property to the amount shoe, the exclamation was, 'He yaw! how can walkee of upwards of two millions sterling. After a close so fashion?'_nor would he be convinced that such was imprisonment of two months' duration, during which the case. The toes, doubled under the foot I have period our countrymen were deprived of many of been describing, could only be moved by the hand the necessaries of life, and exposed repeatedly, as sufficiently to show that they were not actually grown in a pillory, to the gaze and abuse of the mob, no into the foot. I have often been astonished at seeing resource was left but to yield to the bold demands how well the women contrived to walk on their tiny of the Chinese, relying with confidence on their pedestals. Their gait is not unlike the little mincing pation for support and redress: nor did they rely walk of the French ladies; they were constantly to be in vain; for immediately the accounts of the aggres- seen going about without the aid of any stick, and I sion reached London, preparations commenced for have often seen them at Macao contending against a the Chinese expedition.'* After two years of irre- fresh breeze with a tolerably good-sized umbrella gular warfare, a treaty of peace and friendship spread. The little children, as they scrambled away between the two empires was signed on board her before us, balanced themselves with their arms exmajesty's ship Cornwallis, on the 29th of August tended, and reminded one much of an old hen between 1842. This expedition gave rise to various publi- walking and flying. All the women I saw about Chucations. Lord JOCELYN wrote a lively and inte
san had small feet. It is a general characteristic of resting narrative, entitled Six Months with the true Chinese descent; and there cannot be a greater Chinese Expedition ; and Commander J. ELLIOT
mistake than to suppose that it is confined to the BINGHAM, R. N. a Narrative of the Expedition to higher orders, though it may be true that they take China. Two Years in China, by D. MACPHERSON, more pains to compress the foot to the smallest possible M. D. relates the events of the campaign from its dimensions than the lower classes do. High and low, formation in April 1840 to the treaty of peace in rich and poor, all more or less follow the custom ; and 1842. Doings in China, by LIEUTENANT ALEXANDER
when you see a large or natural-sized foot, you may MURRAY, illustrates the social habits of the Chinese. depend upon it the possessor is not of true Chinese The Last Year in China, to the Peace of Nankin, by the tribes that live and have their being on the
blood, but is either of Tartar extraction, or belongs to a Field Officer, consists of extracts from letters waters. The Tartar ladies, however, are falling into written to the author's private friends. The Closing this Chinese habit of distortion, as the accompanying Events of the Campaign in China, by CAPTAIN G. G. edict of the emperor proves. “For know, good people, Loch, R. N. is one of the best books which the ex
you must not dress as you like in China. You must pedition called forth.
follow the customs and habits of your ancestors, and [Chinese Ladies' Feet.]
wear your winter and summer clothing as the empe.
ror or one of the six boards shall direct. If this were [From Captain Bingham's Narrative.]
the custom in England, how beneficial it would be to During our stay we made constant trips to the sur
our pockets, and detrimental to the tailors and millirounding islands'; in one of which--at Tea Island- ners. Let us now see what the emperor says about little we had a good opportunity of minutely examining the feet, on finding that they were coming into rogue far-famed little female feet. I had been purchasing among the undeformed daughters of the Mantehows. a pretty little pair of satin shoes for about half a dol. Not only does he attack the little feet, but the large lar, at one of the Chinese farmers' houses, where we Chinese sleeves which were creeping into fashion at were surrounded by several men, women, and chil, court. Therefore, to check these misdemeanours, the dren. By signs we expressed a wish to see the pied usual Chinese remedy was resorted to, and a flaming mignon of a really good-looking woman of the party. edict launched, denouncing them; threatening the Our signs were quickly understood, but, probably from "heads of the families with degradation and punishher being a matron, it was not considered quite comme
ment if they did not put a stop to such gross illeil faut for her to comply with our desire, as she would galities, and his celestial majesty further goes on not consent to show us her foot; but a very pretty in- and tells the fair ones,' that by persisting in their rulteresting girl of about sixteen was placed on a stool gar habits, they will debar themselves from the possifor the purpose of gratifying our curiosity, At first bility of being selected as ladies of honour for the inshe was very bashful, and appeared not to like expos- ner palace at the approaching presentation ! How ing her Cinderella-like slipper, but the shine of a new far this had the desired effect I cannot say. When and very bright 'loopee' soon overcame her delicacy, the children begin to grow, they suffer excruciating when she commenced unwinding the upper bandage pain, but as they advance in years, their vanity is which passes round the leg, and over a tongue that I played upon by being assured that they would be excomes up from the heel. The shoe was then removed, ceedingly ugly with large feet. Thus they are perand the second bandage taken off, which did duty for suaded to put up with what they consider a necessary a stocking; the turns round the toes and ankles being evil; but the children are remarkably patient under very tight, and keeping all in place. On the naked pain. A poor little child about five years old was foot being exposed to view, we were agreeably sur- | brought to our surgeorf, having been most dreadfully prised by finding it delicately white and clean; for we scalded, part of its dress adhering to the skin. Durfully expected to have found it otherwise, from the ing the painful operation of renoving the linen, it * Macpherson's * Two Years in China.' only now and then said 'he-yaw, he-yaw.'
CAPTAIN BASIL HALL.
this, he again repaired to the continent, and visited the Tyrol and Spain. His travels in both countries
were published; and one of the volumes—Spain in The embassy of Lord Amherst to China was, as 1830—is the best of all his works. He next produced we have related, comparatively a failure; but the a novel descriptive of Spanish life, entitled The New return voyage was rich both in discovery and in ro-Gil Blas, but it was unsuccessful-probably owing to mantic interest. The voyage was made, not along the very title of the work, which raised expectations, the coast of China, but by Corea and the Loo-Choo or suggested comparisons, unfavourable to the new islands, and accounts of it were published in 1818 aspirant. After conducting a newspaper for some by MR MACLEOD, surgeon of the Alceste, and by Cap- time in Jersey, Mr Inglis published an account of the TAIN Basil Hall of the Lyra. The work of the Channel Islands, marked by the easy grace and piclatter was entitled An Account of a Voyage of Disco-turesque charm that pervade all his writings. He very to the West Coast of Corea, and the Great Loo- next made a tour through Ireland, and wrote his Choo Island. In the course of this voyage it was valuable work (remarkable for impartiality no less found that a great part of what had been laid down than talent) entitled Ireland in 1834. His last work in the maps as part of Corea consisted of an im- was Travels in the Footsteps of Don Quixote, published mense archipelago of small islands. The number of in parts in the New Monthly Magazine. these was beyond calculation ; and during a sail of upwards of one hundred miles, the sea continued closely studded with them. From one lofty point a hundred and twenty appeared in sight, some with
SIR FRANCIS HEAD. waving woods and green verdant valleys. Loo-Choo,
SIR FRANCIS HEAD has written two very lively however, was the most important, and by far the and interesting books of travels—Rough Notes taken most interesting of the parts touched upon by the during some Rapid Journeys across the Pampas, 1826 ; expedition. There the strange spectacle was pre- and Bubbles from the Brunnens of Nassau, 1833. The sented of a people ignorant equally of the use of fire. Pampas described is an immense plain, stretching arms and the use of money, living in a state of pri- westerly from Buenos Ayres to the feet of the Andes. mitive seclusion and happiness such as resembles The following extract illustrates the graphic style of the dreams of poetry rather than the realities of mo Sir Francis :dern life. Captain Basil Hall has since distinguished him
[Description of the Pampas.] self by the composition of other books of travels, written with delightful ease, spirit, and picturesque The great plain, or Pampas, on the east of the Corness. The first of these consists of Extracts from a dillera, is about nine hundred miles in breadth, and Journal Written on the Coasts of Chili, Peru,and Merico, the part which I have visited, though under the same being the result of his observations in those countries latitude, is divided into regions of different climate in 1821 and 1822. South America had, previous to and produce. On leaving Buenos Ayres, the first of this, been seldom visited, and its countries were also these regions is covered for one hundred and eighty greater objects of curiosity and interest from their miles with clover and thistles; the second region, political condition, on the point of emancipation from which extends for four hundred and fifty miles, proSpain. The next work of Captain Hall was Travels duces long grass; and the third region, which reaches in North America, in 1827 and 1828, written in a the base of the Cordillera, is a grove of low trees and more ambitious strain than his former publications, shrubs. The second and third of these regions have and containing some excellent descriptions and re- nearly the same appearance throughout the year, for marks, mixed up with political disquisitions. This the trees and shrubs are evergreens, and the immense was followed by Fragments of Voyages and Tra- plain of grass only changes its colour from green to vels, addressed chiefly to young persons, in three brown; but the first region varies with the four seasmall volumes ; which were so favourably received
sons of the year in a most extraordinary manner. In that a second, and afterwards a third series, each in winter the leaves of the thistles are large and luxuthree volumes, were given to the public. A further riant, and the whole surface of the country has the collection of these observations on foreign society, rough appearance of a turnip-field. The clover in this scenery, and manners, was published by Captain
season is extremely rich and strong; and the sight of Hall in 1842, also in three volumes, under the title the wild cattle grazing in full liberty on such pasture of Patchwork,
is very beautiful. In spring the clover has vanished, the leaves of the thistles have extended along the ground, and the country still looks like a rough crop
of turnips. In less than a month the change is most One of the most cheerful and unaffected of tourists wood of enormous thistles, which have suddenly shot up
extraordinary: the whole region becomes a luxuriant and travellers, with a strong love of nature and a to a height of ten or eleven feet, and are all in full poetical imagination, was Mr HENRY DAVID INGLIS, bloom. The road or path is hemmed in on both sides ; who died in March 1835, at the early age of forty. the view is completely obstructed ; not an animal is Mr Inglis was the son of a Scottish advocate. He to be seen ; and the stems of the thistles are so close was brought up to commercial pursuits, but his pas. to each other, and so strong, that, independent of the sion for literature, and for surveying the grand and prickles with which they are armed, they form an imbeautiful in art and nature, overpowered his busi- penetrable barrier. The sudden growth of these plants ness habits, and led him at once to travel and to is quite astonishing; and though it would be an unwrite. Diffident of success, he assumed the nom de usual misfortune in military history, yet it is really guerre of Derwent Conway, and under this disguise possible that an invading army, unacquainted with he published The Tales of Ardennes ; Solitary Walks this country, might be imprisoned by these thistles through Many Lands; Travels in Norway, Sweden, and before it had time to escape from them. The summer Denmark, 1829; and Switzerland, the South of France, is not over before the scene undergoes another rapid and the Pyrenees in 1830, 1831. The two latter works change: the thistles suddenly lose their sap and verwere included in Constable's Miscellany, and were dure, their heads droop, the leaves shrink and fade, deservedly popular. Mr Inglis was then engaged as the stems become black and dead, and they remain editor of a newspaper at Chesterfield; but tiring of rattling with the breeze one against another, until the
MR H. D. INGLIS.
violence of the pampero or hurricane levels them the thundering crash which followed. I must own, with the ground, where they rapidly decompose and that while we shut our ears, the mere sight might disappear-the clover rushes up, and the scene is dwindle down to the effect of a fall of snow from the again verdant.
roof of a house ; but when the potent sound was heard along the whole range of many miles, when the time of awful suspense between the fall and the crash was
measured, the imagination, taking flight, outstripped M. SIMOND, a French author, who, by familiarity all bounds at once, and went beyond the mighty reality with our language and country, wrote in English as itself. It would be difficult to say where the creative well as in his native tongue, published in 1822 a powers of imagination stop, even the coldest; for our work in two volumes — Switzerland; or a Journal of common feelings our grossest sensations—are infia Tour and Residence in that Country in the Years nitely indebted to them; and man, without his fancy, 1817, 1818, and 1819. M. Simond had previously would not have the energy of the dullest animal. Yet written a similar work on Great Britain, and both we feel more pleasure and more pride in the consciousare far superior to the style of ordinary tourists. ness of another treasure of the breast, which tames the We subjoin his account of a
flight of this same imagination, and brings it back to
sober reality and plain truth. [Swiss Mountain and Avalanche.]
When we first approach the Alps, their bulk,
their stability, and duration, compared to our own inAfter nearly five hours' toil, we reached a chalet on considerable size, fragility, and shortness of days, the top of the mountain (the Wingernalp). This strikes our imagination with terror; while reason, summer habitation of the shepherds was still unoc-unappalled, measuring these masses, calculating their cupied; for the snow having been unusually deep last elevation, analysing their substance, finds in them winter, and the grass, till lately covered, being still only a little inert matter, scarcely forming a wrinkle very short, the cows have not ventured so high. Here on the face of our earth, that earth an inferior planet we resolved upon a halt, and having implements for in the solar system, and that system one only among striking fire, a few dry sticks gave us a cheerful blaze myriads, placed at distances whose very incommenin the open air. A pail of cream, or at least of very surability is in a manner measured. What, again, rich milk, was brought up by the shepherds, with a are those giants of the Alps, and their duration—those kettle to make coffee and afterwards boil the milk; revolving worlds--that space—the universe compared very large wooden spoons or ladles answered the pur to the intellectual faculty capable of bringing the pose of cups. The stock of provisions we had brought whole fabric into the compass of a single thought, was spread upon the very low roof of the chalet, being where is all curiously and accurately delineated! the best station for our repas champetre, as it afforded How superior, again, the exercise of that faculty, when, dry seats sloping conveniently towards the prospect. rising from effects to causes, and judging by analogy We had then before us the Jungfrau, the two Eigers, of things as yet unknown by those we know, we are and some of the highest summits in the Alps, shooting taught to look into futurity for a better state of exisup from an uninterrupted level of glaciers of more tence, and in the hope itself find new reason to hope ! than two hundred square miles; and although placed We were shown an inaccessible shelf of rock on the ourselves four thousand five hundred feet above the west side of the Jungfrau, upon which a lammergeyer lake of Thun, and that lake one thousand seven hun-(the vulture of lambs) once alighted with an infant it dred and eighty feet above the sea, the mighty ram- had carried away from the village of Murren, situated part rose still six thousand feet above our head. Be- above the Staubbach : some red scraps, reinnants of tween us and the Jungfrau the desert valley of Trum- the child's clothes, were for years observed, says the latenthal formed a deep trench, into which avalanches tradition, on the fatal spot.
with scarcely a quarter of an hour's interval between them, followed by a thundering noise continued along the whole range; not, however, a reverberation MARQUIS OF LONDONDERRY-MR JOHN BARROWof sound, for echo is mute under the universal winding-sheet of snow, but a prolongation of sound, in consequence of the successive rents or fissures forming Since the publication of Dr Clarke's first volume, themselves when some large section of the glacier in which he gave a view of Russia, that vast and in slides down one step.
many respects interesting country has been visited We sometimes saw a blue line suddenly drawn by various Englishmen, who have given their obser. across a field of pure white; then another above it, vations upon it to the world. Amongst the books and another all parallel, and attended each time with thus produced, one of the most amusing is Recollea loud crash like cannon,
producing together the effect tions of a Tour in the North of Europe, 1838, by the of long-protracted peals of thunder. At other times MARQUIS OF LONDONDERRY, whose rank and polisome portion of the vast field of snow, or rather snowy tical character were the means of introducing him ice, gliding gently away, exposed to view a new sur to many circles closed to other tourists. MR JOns face of purer white than the first, and the cast-off Barrow, junior, son of the gentleman already mendrapery gathering in long folds, either fell at once tioned as author of a work on China, and who has, down the precipice, or disappeared behind some inter- during the last few years, devoted some portion of vening ridge, which the sameness of colour rendered his time to travelling, is the author, besides works invisible, and was again seen soon after in another on Ireland and on Iceland, of Excursions in the North direction, shooting out of some narrow channel a cata- of Europe, through parts of Russia, Finland, fre. ract of white dust, which, observed through a tele- 1834. He is invariably found to be a cheerful and scope, was, however, found to be composed of broken intelligent companion, without attempting to be fragments of ice or compact snow, many of them suffi- very profound or elaborate on any subject. Domestic cient to overwhelm a village, if there had been any in Scenes in Russia, by the Rev. MR VENABLES, 1839, the valley where they fell. Seated on the chalet's is an unpretending but highly interesting view of roof, the ladies forgot they were cold, wet, bruised, the interior life of the country. Mr Venables was and hungry, and the cup of smoking café au lait stood married to a Russian lady, and he went to pass & still in their band while waiting in breathless sus- winter with her relations, when he had an oppor pense for the next avalanche, wondering equally at tunity of seeing the daily life and social habits of the death-like silence intervening between each, and I the people. We give a few descriptive sentences
REV. MR VENABLES.
[Russian Peasants' Houses.]
of the interior are valuable, for, as he remarks,
“even in the present day, when the passion for These houses are in general extremely warm and travel has become so universal, and thousands of substantial; they are built, for the most part, of un- miles are thought as little of as hundreds were some squared logs of deal laid one upon another, and years ago, the number of Englishmen who venture firmly secured at the corners where the ends of the to the south of Moscow seldom exceeds one or two timbers cross, and are hollowed out so as to receive every year.' Mr Bremner is a lively scene-painter, and hold one another; they are also fastened together and there is great freshness and vigour about all by wooden pins and uprights in the interior. The his descriptions. The same author has published four corners are supported upon large stones or roots Excursions in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, two of trees, so that there is a current of air under the volumes, 1840. Before parting from Russia, it may floor to preserve the timber from damp; in the win- be observed that no English book upon that country ter, earth is piled up all round to exclude the cold; exceeds in interest A Residence on the Shores of the the interstices between the logs are stuffed with moss Baltic, Described in a Series of Letters (1841), being and clay, so that no air can enter. The windows are
more particularly an account of the Estonians, whose very small, and are frequently cut out of the wooden simple character and habits afford a charming picwall after it is finished. In the centre of the house ture. This delightful book is understood to be from is a stove called a peech (pechka], which heats the the pen of a young lady named Rigby. cottage to an almost unbearable degree ; the warmth,
The most observant and reflecting of all the writhowever, which a Russian peasant loves to enjoy ing travellers of our age is undoubtedly MR SAMUEL within doors, is proportioned to the cold which he is LAING, a younger brother of the author of the Hisrequired to support without; his bed is the top of tory of Scotland during the seventeenth century. his peech ; and when he enters his house in the winter This gentleman did not begin to publish till a mature pierced with cold, he throws off his sheepskin coat, period of life, his first work being a Residence in stretches himself on his stove, and is thoroughly Norway, and the second a Tour in Sweden, both of warmed in a few minutes.
which abound in valuable statistical facts and well
digested information. Mr Laing resided two years [Employments of the People.]
in different parts of Norway, and concluded that The riches of the Russian gentleman lie in the the Norwegians were the happiest people in Europe. labour of his serfs, which it is his study to turn to Their landed property is so extensively diffused in good account; and he is the more urged to this, since small estates, that out of a population of a million the law which compels the peasant to work for him, there are about 41,656 proprietors. There is no requires him to maintain the peasant; if the latter law of primogeniture, yet the estates are not subis found begging, the former is liable to a fine. He divided into minute possessions, but average from is therefore a master who must always keep a certain forty to sixty acres of arable land, with adjoining number of workmen, whether they are useful to him natural wood and pasturage. or not; and as every kind of agricultural and outdoor employment is at a stand-still during the win. Laing, "each the proprietor of his own farm, occupy
The Bonder, or agricultural peasantry,' says Mr ter, he naturally turns to the establishment of a the country from the shore side to the hill foot, and manufactory as a means of employing bis peasants
, up every valley or glen as far as corn can grow. This and as a source of profit to himself. In some cases class is the kernel of the nation. They are in general the manufactory is at work only during the winter, fine athletic men, as their properties are not so large and the people are employed in the summer in agriculture; though, beyond what is necessary for home as to exempt them from work, but large enough to consumption, this is but an unprofitable trade in most afford them and their household abundance, and even parts of this empire, from the badness of roads, the superfluity, of the best food. They farm not to raise paucity and distance of markets, and the consequent ent, drink, and wear in their families. They build
produce for sale, so much as to grow everything they difficulty in selling produce.
The alternate employment of the same man in the their own houses, make their own chairs, tables, field and in the factory, which would be attempted ploughs, carts, barness, iron-work, basket-work, and in most countries with little success, is here rendered wood-work; in short, except window-glass, cast-iron practicable and easy by the versatile genius of the ware and pottery, everything about their
houses and Russian peasant, one of whose leading national furniture is of their own fabrication. There is not characteristics is a general capability of turning his probably in Europe so great a population in so happy hand to any kind of work which he may be required of small proprietors, each with his thirty or forty
à condition as these Norwegian yeomanry. A body to undertake. He will plough to-day, weave to-morrow, help to build a house the third day, and the acres, scarcely exists elsewhere in Europe; or, if it fourth, if his master needs an extra coachman, he
can be found, it is under the shadow of some more will mount the box and drive four horses abreast as
imposing body of wealthy proprietors or commercial though it were his daily occupation. It is probable
Here they are the highest men in the nation. that none of these operations, except, perhaps, the last, and in our colonies, possess properties of probably
* The settlers in the newer states of America, will be as well perforined as in a country where the about the same extent ; but they have roads to make, division of labour is more thoroughly understood. lands to clear, houses to build, and the work that They will all, however, be sufficiently well done to has been doing here for a thousand years to do, before serve the turn--a favourite phrase in Russia. These people are a very ingenious race, but perseverance is they can be in the same condition. These Norwegian wanting; and though they will carry many arts to a the older states of America, because they are not so
proprietors are in a happier condition than those in high degree of excellence, they will generally stop much influenced by the spirit of gain. They farm short of the point of perfection, and it will be long their little estates, and consume the produce, without before their manufactures can rival the finish and seeking to barter or sell, except what is necessary durability of English goods.
for paying their taxes and the few articles of luxury Excursions in the Interior of Russia, by ROBERT they consume. There is no money-getting spirit BREMNER, Esq. two volumes, 1839, is a very spirited among them, and none of extravagance. They enjoy and graphic narrative of a short visit to Russia the comforts of excellent houses, as good and large as during the autumn of 1836. The author's sketches those of the wealthiest individuals ; good furniture,