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bedding, linen, clothing, fuel, victuals, and drink, assumed. He acted also as physician, and seems all in abundance, and of their own providing; good generally to have been received with kindness and horses, and a houseful of people who have more food confidence. The population, according to Mr Bell, than work. Food, furniture, and clothing being all is divided into fraternities, like the tithings or home-made, the difference in these matters between hundreds in England during the time of the Saxons. the family and the servants is very small; but there Criminal offences are punished by fines levied on the is a perfect distinction kept up. The servants in- fraternity, that for homicide being 200 oxen. The variably eat, sleep, and sit apart from the family, guerilla warfare which the Circassians have carried and have generally a distinct building adjoining to on against Russia, marks their indomitable spirit and the family house.'
love of country, but it must, of course, retard civili
sation. The neighbouring country of Sweden appears to
A Winter in the Azores, and a Summer at the Baths be in a much worse condition, and the people are described as highly immoral and depraved. By the of the Furnas, by JOSEPH BULLAR, M.D. and John
BULLAR of Lincoln's Inn, two volumes, 1841, fur. returns from 1830 to 1834, one person in every nish some light agreeable notices of the islands of forty-nine of the inhabitants of the towns, and one in every one hundred and seventy-six of the rural which they are distant about 800 miles. This
the Azores, under the dominion of Portugal, from population, had been punished each year for criminal offences. The state of female morals, particu- archipelago contains about 250,000 inhabitants. St larly in the capital of Stockholm, is worse than in Michaels is the largest town, and there is a conany other European state. Yet in Sweden education About 120,000 large and small chests of oranges
siderable trade in oranges betwixt it and England. is widely diffused, and literature is not neglected.
were shipped for England in 1839, and 315 boxes of The nobility are described by Mr Laing as sunk in debt and poverty; yet the people are vain of idle lemons. These particulars will serve to introduce distinctions, and the order of burgher nobility is
a passage respecting as numerous as in some of the German states,
[The Cultivation of the Orange, and Gathering • Every man,' he says, 'belongs to a privileged or
the Fruit.] licensed class or corporation, of which every member is by law entitled to be secured and protected within
March 26.-Accompanied Senhor B to several his own locality from such competition or interference of his orange gardens in the town. Many of the trees of others in the same calling as would injure his in one garden were a hundred years old, still bearing means of living. It is, consequently, not as with us, plentifully a highly-prized thin-skinned orange, full upon his industry, ability, character, and moral of juice and free from pips. The thinness of the rind worth that the employment and daily bread of the of a St Michael's orange, and its freedom from pips, tradesman, and the social influence and consideration depend on the age of the tree. The young trees, when of the individual, in every rank, even the highest, in full vigour, bear fruit with a thick pulpy rind and almost entirely depends ; it is here, in the middle an abundance of seeds; but as the vigour of the plant and lower classes, upon corporate rights and privi- declines, the peel becomes thinner, and the seeds graleges, or upon license obtained from government; and dually diminish in number, until they disappear in the higher, upon birth and court or government altogether. Thus, the oranges that we esteem the favour. Public estimation, gained by character and
most are the produce of barren trees, and those which conduct in the several relations of life, is not a neces
we consider the least palatable come from plants in sary element in the social condition even of the
full vigour. working tradesman. Like soldiers in a regiment, a
Our friend was increasing the number of his trees great proportion of the people under this social system by layers. These usually take root at the end of two derive their estimation among others, and conse- years. They are then cut off from the parent stem, quently their own self-esteem, not from their moral and are vigorous young trees four feet high. The worth, but from their professional standing and im- process of raising from seed is seldom if ever adopted portance. This evil is inherent in all privileged
in the Azores, on account of the very slow growth of classes, but is concealed or compensated in the higher, the trees so raised. Such plants, however, are far the nobility, military, and clergy, by the sense of less liable to the inroads of a worm which attacks the honour, of religion, and by education. In the middle roots of the trees raised from layers, and frequently and lower walks of life those influences are weaker, proves very destructive to them. The seed or 'pip of while the temptations to immorality are stronger; and the acid orange, which we call Seville, with the the placing a man's livelihood, prosperity, and social
sweeter kind grafted upon it, is said to produce fruit consideration in his station upon other grounds than
of the finest flavour. In one small garden eight trees on his own industry and moral worth, is a demo
were pointed out which had borne for two successive ralising evil in the very structure of Swedish society.' years a crop of oranges which was sold for thirty
pounds. Mr Laing has more recently presented a volume
The treatment of orange-trees in Fayal differs from entitled Notes of a Traveller, full of valuable obser- that in St Michael's, where, after they are planted vation and thought.
out, they are allowed to grow as they please. In this Travels in Circassia and Krim Tartary, by, MR orange-garden the branches, by means of strings and SPENCER, author of a work on 'Germany and the pegs fixed in the ground, were strained away from the Germans, two volumes, 1837, was hailed with centre into the shape of a cup, or of the ribs of an open peculiar satisfaction, as affording information re- umbrella turned upside down. This allows the sun specting a brave mountainous tribe who have long to penetrate, exposes the branches to a free circulawarred with Russia to preserve their national inde- tion of air, and is said to be of use in ripening the pendence. They appear to be a simple people, with fruit. Certain it is that oranges are exported from feudal laws and customs, never intermarrying with Fayal several weeks earlier than they are from St any race except their own. Farther information Michael's; and as this cannot be attributed to greater was afforded of the habits of the Circassians by the warmth of climate, it may possibly be owing to the Journal of a Residence in Circassia during the years plan of spreading the trees to the sun. The same 1837, 1838, and 1839, by Mr J. S. BELL. This gentle- precautions are taken here as in St Michael's to man resided in Circassia in the character of agent shield them from the winds; high walls are built or envoy from England, which, however, was partly round all the gardens, and the trees themselves are
planted among rows of fayas, firs, and camphor-trees. Travels in New Zealand, by ERNEST DIEFFENBACH, if it were not for these precautions, the oranges M.D. late naturalist to the New Zealand Company would be blown down in such numbers as to interfere (1843), is a valuable history of an interesting with or swallow up the profits of the gardens; none of country, destined apparently to transmit the Engthe wind falls or ground-fruit,' as the merchants lish language, arts, and civilisation. Mr Dieffenhere call them, being exported to England.
bach gives a minute account of the language of New Suddenly we came upon merry groups of men and Zealand, of which he compiled a grammar and dicboys, all busily engaged in packing oranges, in a tionary. He conceives the native population of New square and open plot of ground. They were gathered Zealand to be fit to receive the benefits of civilisaround a goodly pile of the fresh fruit, sitting on heaps tion, and to amalgamate with the British colonists. of the dry calyx-leaves of the Indian corn, in which At the same time he believes in the practice of caneach orange is wrapped before it is placed in the nibalism often imputed to the New Zealanders. boxes. Near these circles of laughing Azoreans, who Life in Mexico, during a Residence of Two Years sat at their work and kept up a continual cross-fire of in that Country, by MADAME CALDERON DE rapid repartee as they quickly filled the orange-cases, BARCA, an English lady, is full of sketches of dowere a party of children, whose business it was to pre-mestic life, related with spirit and acuteness. In pare the husks for the men, who used them in pack- no other work are we presented with such agreeable ing. These youngsters, who were playing at their glimpses of Mexican life and manners. Letters on work like the children of a larger growth that sat by Paraguay, and Letters on South America, by J. P. and their side, were with much difficulty kept in order by W. P. ROBERTSON, are the works of two brothers an elderly man, who shook his head and a long stick who resided twenty-five years in South America. whenever they flagged or idled.
The Narrative of the Voyages of H.M.S. AdvenA quantity of the leaves being heaped together ture and Beagle (1839), by_CAPTAINS King and near the packers, the operation began. A child FITZROY, and c. Darwin, Esq. naturalist of the handed to a workman who squatted by the heap of Beagle, detail the various incidents which occurred fruit a prepared husk; this was rapidly snatched during their examination of the southern shores of from the child, wrapped round the orange by an in- South America, and during the Beagle's circumnatermediate workman, passed by the feeder to the next; vigation of the globe. The account of the Patawho (sitting with the chest between his legs) placed gonians in this work, and that of the natives of it in the orapge-box with amazing rapidity, took a Tierra del Fuego, are both novel and interesting, second, and a third, and a fourth as fast as his hands while the geological details supplied by Mr Darwin could move and the feeders could supply him, until at length the chest was filled to overflowing, and was
possess a permanent value. ready to be nailed up. Two men then handed it to the Visit in 1839-40 have been published by Me
Notes on the United States during a Phrenological carpenter, who bent over the orange chest several thin GEORGE COMBE, in three volumes. Though attachboards, secured them with the willow band, pressed it with his naked foot as he sawed off the ragged ends ing what is apt to appear an undue importance to of the boards, and finally despatched it to the ass traveller. He paid particular attention to schools
his views of phrenology, Mr Combe was a sensible which stood ready for lading. Two chests were slung across his back by means of cords crossed in a figure of and all benevolent institutions, which he has deeight; both were well secured by straps under his scribed with care and minuteness. Among the belly, the driver took his goad, pricked his beast, and matter-of-fact details and sober disquisitions in this uttering the never-ending cry Sackaaio,' trudged off work, we meet with the following romantic story. to the town.
The author had visited the lunatic asylum at BloomThe orange-trees in this garden cover the sides of a
ingdale, where he learned this realisation of Cymon glen or ravine, like that of the Dargle, but somewhat and Iphigenia—finer even than the version of Dry
den! less steep; they are of some age, and have lost the stiff clumpy form of the younger trees. Some idea of In the course of conversation, a case was mentioned the rich beauty of the scene may be formed by ima- to me as having occurred in the experience of a highly gining the trees of the Dargle to be magnificent shrubs respectable physician, and which was so fully authenloaded with orange fruit, and mixed with lofty arbu- ticated, that I entertain no doubt of its truth. The tuses
physician alluded to had a patient, a young man, who Groves whoso rich fruit, burnished with golden rind, was almost idiotic from the suppression of all his faculHung amiable, and of delicious taste.
ties. He never spoke, and never moved voluntarily, but In one part scores of children were scattered among sat habitually with his hand shading his eyes. The the branches, gathering fruit into small baskets, physician sent him to walk as a remedial measure. In hallooing, laughing, practically joking, and finally the neighbourhood, a beautiful young girl of sixteen emptying their gatherings into the larger baskets lived with her parents, and used to see the young underneath the trees, which, when filled, were slowly man in his walks, and speak kindly to him. For some borne away to the packing-place, and bowled out upon time he took no notice of her; but after meeting her the great heap. Many large orange-trees on the steep for several months, he began to look for her, and to sides of the glen lay on the ground uprooted, either feel disappointed if she did not appear. He became from their load of fruit, the high winds, or the weight so much interested, that he directed his steps volunof the boys, four, five, and even six of whom will tarily to her father's cottage, and gave her bouquets of climb the branches at the same time; and as the soil flowers. By degrees he conversed with her through is very light, and the roots are superficial (and the the window. His mental faculties were roused; the fall of a tree perhaps not unamusing), down the trees dawn of convalescence appeared. The girl was vircome. They are allowed to lie where they fall; and tuous, intelligent, and lovely, and encouraged his those which had evidently fallen many years ago were visits when she was told that she was benefiting his still alive, and bearing good crops. The oranges are mental health. She asked him if he could read and not ripe until March or April, nor are they eaten ge-write? He answered, No. She wrote some lines to nerally by the people here until that time-the boys, him to induce him to learn. This had the desired however, that pick them are marked exceptions. The effect. He applied himself to study, and soon wrote young children of Villa Franca are now almost uni- good and sensible letters to her. He recovered his versally of a yellow tint, as if saturated with orange reason. She was married to a young man from the juice.
neighbouring city, Great fears were entertained that
this event would undo the good which she had ac- The Literary Character. The whole of these are now complished. The young patient sustained a severe printed in one large volume. In 1841 this author, shock, but his mind did not sink under it. He ac- though labouring under partial blindness, followed quiesced in the propriety of her choice, continued to up the favourite studies of his youth by another improve, and at last was restored to his family cured. work in three volumes, entitled The Amenities of She had a child, and was soon after brought to the Literature, consisting, like the Curiosities and Missame hospital perfectly insane. The young man cellanies, of detached papers and dissertations on heard of this event, and was exceedingly anxious to literary and historical subjects, written in a pleasee her ; but an interview was denied to him, both on sant philosophical style, which presents the fruits her account and his own. She died. He continued of antiquarian research and careful study, without well, and became an active member of society. What their dryness and general want of connexion. a beautiful romance might be founded on this nar In the same style of literary illustration, with rative!
more imagination and poetical susceptibility, may America, Historical, Statistical, and Descriptice, by the Censura Literaria, 1805-9, in ten volumes; the
be mentioned Sir EGERTON BRYDGES, who published J. S. BUCKINGHAM, is a vast collection of facts and British Bibliographer, in three volumes ; an enlarged details, few of them novel or striking, but apparently edition of Collins's British Peerage ; Letters on the written with truth and candour. The work fatigues Genius of Lord Byron, &c. As principal editor of from the multiplicity of its small statements, and the Retrospective Review, Sir Egerton Brydges the want of general views or animated description. drew public attention to the beauties of many old In 1842 the author published two additional volumes, writers, and extended the feeling of admiration which describing his tour in the slave states. These are more interesting, because the ground is less hack for the early masters of the English lyre. In 1835
Charles Lamb, Hazlitt, and others, had awakened neyed, and Mr Buckingham feels strongly; as a this veteran author edited an edition of Milton's benevolent and humane man, on the subject of
poetical works in six volumes. A tone of querulous slavery, that curse of the American soil. Two' remarkable works on Spain have been pub- works of this author, but his taste and exertions
egotism and complaint pervades most of the original lished by George BORROW, late agent of the British in English literature entitle him to high respect. and Foreign Bible Society in Spain. The first of
JOSEPH RITSON (1752-1803), another zealous litethese, in two volumes 12mo. 1841, is entitled The Zincali
, or an Account of the Gipsies of Spain. Mr rary antiquary and critic, was indefatigable in his Borrow calculates that there are about forty thou- the neglected ballad strains of the nation. He pub
labours to illustrate English literature, particularly sand gipsies in Spain, of which about one-third are lished in 1783 a valuable collection of English songs ; to be found in Andalusia. The caste, he says, has in 1790, Ancient Songs, from the Time of Henry III. diminished of late years.
The author's adven
to the Revolution ; in 1792, Pieces of Ancient Popular tures with this singular people are curiously com
Poetry; in 1794, A Collection of Scottish Songs , in pounded of the ludicrous and romantic, and presented in the most vivid and dramatic form. Me 1795, A Collection of all the Ancient Poems, &c. ReBorrow's second work is termed The Bible in Spain, lating to Robin Hood, &c. Ritson was a faithful or the Journey's, Adventures, and Imprisonments of and acute editor, profoundly versed in literary antian Englishman, in an attempt to circulate the kept him in a state of constant warfare with his
quities, but of a jealous irritable temper, which Scriptures in the Peninsula. There are many things brother collectors. He was in diet a strict Pythain the book which, as the author acknowledges, have little connexion with religion or religious enterprise. mal food. Sir Walter Scott, writing to his friend
gorean, and wrote a treatise against the use of aniIt is, indeed, a series of personal adventures, varied Mr Ellis in 1803, remarks — Poor Ritson is no and interesting, with sketches of character and romantic incidents drawn with more power and more. All his vegetable soups and puddings bare
not been able to avert the evil day, which, I undervivacity than those of most professed novelists.
An account of The Highlands of Ethiopia, by stand, was preceded by madness. Scott has borne MAJOR W. CORNWALLIS Harris, H. E. 1. C.' En- ample testimony to the merits of this unhappy gineers, three volumes, 1844, also abounds with gleaner in the by-paths of literature.
The Illustrations of Shakspeare, published in 1807 novel and interesting information. The author was employed to conduct a mission which the British by Mr Francis Douce, and the British Monachissi, government sent to Sahela Selasse, the king of Shoa, the Rev. T. D. FOSBROOKE, are works of great re
1802, and Encyclopædia of Antiquities, 1824, by in southern Abyssinia, whose capital, Ankober, was supposed to be about four hundred miles inland search and value as repositories of curious inforfrom the port of Tajura, on the African coast. The mation. Works of this kind illustrate the pages of king consented to form a commercial treaty, and our poets and historians, besides conveying pictures Major Harris conceives that a profitable intercourse of national manners now faded into oblivion. might be maintained by Great Britain with this the same time with this study of antiquities. THOMAS
A taste for natural history gained ground about productive part of the world.
PENNANT (1726-1798), by the publication of his
works on zoology, and his Tours in Scotland, excited MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS.
public curiosity; and in 1789 the Rev. GILBERT
WHITE (1720-1793) published a series of letters One of the most laborious and successful of modern addressed by him to Pennant and Daines Barringmiscellaneous writers, and who has tended in a ton, descriptive of the natural objects and appearmaterial degree to spread a taste for literary history ances of the parish of Selborne in Hampshire. White and anecdote, is Isaac D'ISRAELI, author of the was rector of this parish, and had spent in it the Curiosities of Literature, and other works. The first greater part of his life, engaged in literary occuvolume of the Curiosities was published in 1791; a pations and the study of nature. His minute and second appeared a few years afterwards, and a third interesting facts, the entire devotio i of the amiable in 1817. A second series has since been published author to his subject, and the ea y elegance and in three volumes. The other works of Mr D'Israeli simplicity of his style, render Waite's history a are entitled Literary Miscellanies ; Quarrels of Authors; universal favourite something like Izaak Walton's Calamities of Authors; Character of James I.; and book on angling, which all admire. and hundreds
have endeavoured to copy. The retired naturalist all the seasons, are afterwards delineated in the was too full of facts and observations to have room choicest language, and with frequent illustration for sentimental writing, yet in sentences like the from the kindred pages of the poets; and the work following (however humble be the theme), we may concludes with an account of the English forests trace no common power of picturesque painting : and their accompaniments-lawns, heaths, forest
The evening proceedings and manæuvres of the distances, and sea-coast views; with their proper rooks are curious and amusing in the autumn. Just appendages, as wild horses, deer, eagles, and other before dusk they return in long strings from the picturesque inhabitants. As a specimen of Gilpin's foraging of the day, and rendezvous by thousands manner (though a very inadequate one), we subjoin over Selborne-down, where they wheel round in the his account of the effects of the sun, “an illustrious air, and sport and live in a playful manner, all the family of tints,' as fertile sources of incidental while exerting their voices, and making a loud caw- beauty among the woods of the forest :ing, which, being blended and softened by the distance that we at the village are below them, becomes a confused noise or chiding; or rather a pleasing
[Sunrise and Sunset in the Woods.] murmur, very engaging to the imagination, and not The first dawn of day exhibits a beautiful obscuunlike the cry of a pack of hounds in hollow echoing rity. When the east begins just to brighten with the woods, or the rushing of the wind in tall trees, or the retiections only of effulgence, a pleasing progressive tumbling of the tide upon a pebbly shore. When light, dubious and amusing, is thrown over the face this ceremony is over, with the last gleam of day of things. A single ray is able to assist the picthey retire for the night to the deep beechen woods turesque eye, which by such slender aid creates a of T'isted and Ropley. We remember a little girl, thousand imaginary forms, if the scene be unknown, who, as she was going to bed, used to remark on such and as the light steals gradually on, is amused by an occurrence, in the true spirit of physico-theology, correcting its vague ideas by the real objects. What that the rooks were saying their prayers ; and yet in the confusion of twilight perhaps seemed a stretch this child was much too young to be aware that the of rising ground, broken into various parts, becomes Scriptures have said of the Deity--that 'he feedeth now vast masses of wood and an extent of forest. the ravens who call upon him.'
As the sun begins to appear above the horizon, anThe migration of the swallows, the instincts of ani- other change takes place. What was before 'only mals, the blossoming of flowers and plants, and the form, being now enlightened, begins to receive effect. humblest phenomena of ever-changing nature, are
This effect depends on two circumstances—the catchrecorded by Gilbert White in the same earnest and ing lights which touch the summits of every object,
and the mistiness in which the rising orb is commonly unassuming manner.
The effect is often pleasing when the sun rises in REV. WILLIAM GILPIN-SIR UVEDALE PRICE.
unsullied brightnegs, diffusing its ruddy light over Among works on the subject of taste and beauty, the upper parts of objects, which is contrasted by the in which philosophical analysis and metaphysics deeper shadows below; yet the effect is then only are happily blended with the graces of refined transcendent when he rises accompanied by a train of thought and composition, a high place must be vapours in a misty atmosphere. Among lakes and assigned to the writings of the Rev. WILLIAM GIL- mountains this happy accompaniment often forms PIN (1724-1804) and SIR UVEDALE PRICE. The the most astonishing visions, and yet in the forest it is former was author of Remarks on Forest Scenery, nearly as great. With what delightful effect do we and Observations on Picturesque Beauty, as connected sometimes see the sun's disk just appear above a with the English lakes and the Scottish Highlands. woody hill, or, in Shakspeare's language, As vicar of Boldre, in the New Forest, Hampshire,
Stand tiptoe on the misty mountain's top, Mr Gilpin was familiar with the characteristics of and dart his diverging rays through the rising vapour. forest scenery, and his work on this subject (1791). The radiance, catching the tops of the trees as they is equally pleasing and profound—a storehouse of hang midway upon the shaggy steep, and touching images and illustrations of external nature, remark- here and there a few other prominent objects, imperable for their fidelity and beauty, and an analysis ceptibly mixes its ruddy tint with the surrounding . patient and comprehensive, with no feature of the mists, setting on fire, as it were, their upper parts, chilling metaphysics of the schools. His Remarks while their lower skirts are lost in a dark mass of on Forest Scenery' consist of a description of the varied confusion, in which trees, and ground, and various kinds of trees. 'It is no exaggerated praise,' radiance, and obscurity are all blended together. he says, 'to call a tree the grandest and most beau- When the eye is fortunate enough to catch the glowtiful of all the productions of the earth. In the for- ing instant (for it is always a vanishing scene), it mer of these epithets nothing contends with it, for furnishes an idea worth treasuring among the choicest we consider rocks and mountains as part of the appearances of nature. Mistiness alone, we have obearth itself. And though among inferior plants, served, occasions a confusion in objects which is often shrubs, and flowers, there is great beauty, yet when picturesque; but the glory of the vision depends on we consider that these minuter productions are the glowing lights which are mingled with it. chiefly beautiful as individuals, and are not adapted Landscape painters, in general, pay too little attento form the arrangement of composition in land- tion to the discriminations of morning and evening. scape, nor to receive the effect of light and shade, We are often at a loss to distinguish in pictures the they must give place in point of beauty-of pic- rising from the setting sun, though their characters turesque beauty at least—to the form, and foliage, are very different both in the lights and shadows. The and ramification of the tree. Thus the splendid ruddy lights, indeed, of the evening are more easily tints of the insect, however beautiful, must yield to distinguished, but it is not perhaps always sufficiently the elegance and proportion of animals which range observed that the shadows of the evening are much in a higher class. Having described trees as indi- less opaque than those of the morning. They may be viduals, he considers them under their various com- brightened perhaps by the numberless rays floating in binations, as clumps, park scenery, the copse, glen, the atmosphere, which are incessantly reverberated in grove, the forest, &c. Their permanent and inci- every direction, and may continue in action after the dental beauties in storm and sunshine, and through sun is set; whereas in the morning the rays of the
preceding day having subsided, no object receives any Many painters, and especially Rubens, have been fond light but from the immediate lustre of the sun. of introducing this radiant spot in their landscapes. Whatever becomes of the theory, the fact I believe is But in painting, it is one of those trifles which prowell ascertained.
duces no effect, nor can this radiance be given. In The incidental beauties which the meridian sun poetry, indeed, it may produce a pleasing image. exhibits are much fewer than those of the rising sun. Shakspeare hath introduced it beautifully, where, In summer, when he rides high at noon, and sheds his speaking of the force of truth entering a guilty conperpendicular ray, all is illumination; there is no science, he compares it to the sun, which shadow to balance such a glare of light, no contrast
Fires the proud tops of the eastern pines, to oppose it. The judicious artist, therefore, rarely
And darts his light through every guilty hole. represents his objects under a vertical sun. And yet no species of landscape bears it so well as the It is one of those circumstances which poetry may scenes of the forest. The tuftings of the trees, the offer to the imagination, but the pencil cannot well recesses among them, and the lighter foliage hanging produce to the eye. over the darker, may all have an effect under a meridian sun.
The Essays on the Picturesque, by Sir Uvedale I speak chiefly, however, of the internal scenes of the forest, which bear such total Price, were designed by their accomplished author brightness better than any other, as in them there is to explain and enforce the reasons for studying the generally a natural gloom to balance it. The light ciples of their art, with a view to the improvement
works of eminent landscape painters, and the prinobstructed by close intervening trees will rarely pre- of real scenery, and to promote the cultivation of dominate ; hence the effect is often fine. A strong what has been termed landscape gardening. He sunshine 'striking a wood through some fortunate examined the leading features of modern gardening, chasm, and reposing on the tuftings of a clump, just in its more extended sense, on the general principles removed from the eye, and strengthened by the deep shadows of the trees behind, appears to great advan- of painting, and showed how much the character of tage; especially if some noble tree, standing on the the picturesque has been neglected, or sacrificed to foreground in deep shadow, flings athwart the sky its a false idea of beauty. The best edition of these dark branches, here and there illumined with a essays, improved by the author, is that of 1810; splendid touch of light.
but Sir Thomas Dick Lauder has published editions In an open country, the most fortunate circumstance of both Gilpin and Price—the latter a very handthat attends a meridian sun is cloudy weather, which some volume, 1842—with a great deal of additional occasions partial lights. Then it is that the distant matter. Besides his . Essays on the Picturesque,' forest scene is spread with lengthened gleams, while Sir Uvedale has written essays on artificial water, the other parts of the landscape are in shadow; the on house decorations, architecture, and buildings tuftings of trees are particularly adapted to catch this all branches of his original subject, and treated with effect with advantage ; there is a richness in them the same taste and elegance. The theory of the from the strong opposition of light and shade, which author is, that the picturesque in nature has a chais wonderfully fine. A distant forest thus illumined racter separate from the sublime and the beautiful; wants only a foreground to make it highly picturesque. and in enforcing and maintaining this, he attacked
As the sun descends, the effect of its illumination the style of ornamental gardening which Mason the becomes stronger. It is a doubt whether the rising poet had recommended, and Kent and Brown, the or the setting sun is more picturesque. The great great landscape improvers, had reduced to practice. beauty of both depends on the contrast between splen- Some of Price's positions have been overturned by dour and obscurity. But this contrast is produced by Dugald Stewart in his Philosophical Essays; but these different incidents in different ways. The the exquisite beauty of his descriptions must ever grandest effects of the rising sun are produced by the render his work interesting, independently altovapours which envelope it—the setting sun rests its gether of its metaphysical or philosophical distincglory on the gloom which often accompanies its part-tions. His criticism of painters and paintings is ing rays. A depth of shadow hanging over the eastern equally able and discriminating; and by his works hemisphere gives the beams of the setting sun such we consider Sir Uvedale Price has been highly inpowerful effect, that although in fact they are by no strumental in diffusing those just sentiments on means equal to the splendour of a meridian sun, yet matters of taste, and that improved style of landthrough force of contrast they appear superior. A scape gardening, which so eminently distinguish the distant forest scene under this brightened gloom is English aristocracy of the present times. particularly rich, and glows with double splendour. The verdure of the summer leaf, and the varied tints
WILLIAM COBBETT. of the autumnal one, are all lighted up with the most resplendent colours.
WILLIAM COBBETT (1762 - 1835), by his Rural The internal parts of the forest are not so happily Rides, his Cottage Economy, his works on America, disposed to catch the effects of a setting sun. The and various parts of his Political Register, is justly meridian ray, we have seen, may dart through the entitled to be remembered among the miscellaneous openings at the top, and produce a picture, but the writers of England. He was a native of Farnham flanks of the forest are generally too well guarded in Surrey, and brought up as an agricultural laagainst its horizontal beams. Sometimes a recess
bourer. He afterwards served as a soldier in Brifronting the west may receive a beautiful light, tish America, and rose to be sergeant-major. He spreading in a lengthened gleam amidst the gloom of first attracted notice as a political writer by publishthe woods which surround it; but this can only be ing a series of pamphlets under the name of Peter had in the outskirts of the forest. Sometimes also we Porcupine. He was then a decided loyalist and find in its internal parts, though hardly in its deep high churchman; but having, as is supposed, rerecesses, splendid lights here and there catching the ceived some slight from Mr Pitt, he attacked his foliage, which though in nature generally too scattered ministry with great bitterness in his Register, to produce an effect, yet, if judiciously collected, may After the passing of the Reform Bill, he was returned be beautiful on canvass.
to parliament for the borough of Oldham, but he We sometimes also see in a woody scene corusca was not successful as a public speaker. He was tions like a bright star, occasioned by a sunbeam apparently destitute of the faculty of generalising darting through an eyelet hole among the leaves. I his information and details, and evolving from them