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Wehrenunty,

accorded to citizens of one country within the territory of another. You are, therefore, instructed to demand such concession, agreeing on your part that Spain shall have similar rights as to her subjects and vessels in the ports of any territory in the Philippines ceded to the United States."

The Spanish Commissioners, at the first conference, attempted to secure a restoration of the status quo in the Philippine Islands existing at the time of the signing of the protocol, the Americans having actually occupied Manila a few hours after the execution of that document. This demand was refused as without the province of the Commissioners.

General Merritt, having been ordered by the President to go to Paris for the purpose, appeared before the Commissioners on October 4, with opinions on the Philippines by Admiral Dewey, General F. V. Greene, and others, together with a mass of correspondence with Aguinaldo, the leader of the insurgents.

From the 7th to the 26th the conferences were taken up with a heated discussion on the disposition of Cuba. The Spanish Commissioners wished to cede the island to the United States, to be transferred by the latter to the Cubans, and with it the Cuban debt, which the United States was either to assume or pass along to Cuba. The Americans main

tained that they had never desired sovereignty over Cuba and refused to accept the island, insisting upon its“ relinquishment” by Spain in accordance with the protocol. It was clear that the debt which Spain wished to force upon the United States, or Cuba, was not one that had been incurred for material improvements on the island, of value to its future owners, nor for any other pacific cause, but represented the money spent in suppressing the efforts of the Cuban people to obtain greater liberty and a better government, which was the cause of the war and the reason for intervention. The American Commissioners, therefore, refused to assume any part of the Cuban debt, or to accept sovereignty, though expressing willingness to be responsible for the protection of life and property in Cuba during their temporary occupancy.

A personal letter from Mr. Day to the President, dated October 23, 1898, shows with what difficulties the Commissioners had to contend:

DEAR MR. PRESIDENT:

The Spanish Commissioners are strenuously pressing certain points, having in view the same object, namely, the assumption on the part of the United States, either for itself or for such government as may be formed in Cuba, of the immense Cuban debt,

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