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Adam Smith advantage amongst applied arising art of copying attention axis bar iron barometer become brass cajeput oil capital causes CHAP clock coin considerable contrivance copper copper-plate cost cylinder difficulty diminished division of labour economy effect employed engine engraving executed exertion expense factory flax force forceps fulminating silver glass greater hammer hand heat holes House of Commons hundred Ill France important impression inches increased instance iron lathe machine machinery mandril manufacture mechanical medal ment metal method mode mould moveable types necessary needles operations paper passing perhaps persons Petersburgh Picul piece pins placed plates portion pounds principle printed produced profit punch purchase quantity raw material reduced render rollers sheet skill steam steam-engine steel substance supply surface surface-printing terminal velocity tinned tion trade tube usually velocity vessel weight wheels whilst wire workmen wrought iron
175 ページ - This great increase of the quantity of work which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of performing, is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another ; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
171 ページ - But if each man commit this waste in acquiring successively every process, the quantity of waste will be much greater than if each person confine his attention to one process." And in general each will be much sooner qualified to execute his one process, if he be not distracted while learning it, by the necessity of learning others.
171 ページ - When the human hand or the human head has been for some time occupied in any kind of work, it cannot instantly change its employment with full effect The muscles of the limbs employed have acquired a flexibility during their exertion, and those to be put into action a stiffness during rest, which renders every change slow and unequal in the commencement.
175 ページ - That the master manufacturer, by dividing the work to be executed into different processes, each requiring different degrees of skill or of force, can purchase. exactly that precise quantity of both which is necessary for each process...
215 ページ - ... similar arts, it will soon occur to the manufacturer, that if that part were executed by a steam-engine, the same man might, in the case of weaving, attend to two or more looms at once : and, since we already suppose that one or more operative engineers have been employed, the number of looms may be so arranged that their time shall be fully occupied in keeping the steam-engine and the looms in order.
13 ページ - ... very small space from each other, and each in its turn is pushed lengthwise to the right or to the left, according to the direction of the point.
253 ページ - I shall now present the outline of a system which appears to me to be pregnant with the most important results, both to the class of workmen and to the country at large; and which, if acted upon, would, in my opinion, permanently raise the working classes, and greatly extend the manufacturing system. The general principles on which the proposed system is founded, are — i St.
111 ページ - ... caterpillars are placed at the bottom. A peculiar species is chosen, which spins a strong web; and the animals commence at the bottom, eating and spinning their way up to the top, carefully avoiding every part touched by the oil, but devouring every other part of the paste.
13 ページ - Another process in the art of making needles furnishes an example of one of the simplest contrivances which can come under the denomination of a tool. After the needles have been arranged in the manner just described, it is necessary to separate them into two parcels, in order that their points may be all in one direction. This is usually done by women and children. The needles are placed...
247 ページ - As connected with this subject, and as affording most valuable information upon points in which, previous to experiment, widely different opinions have been entertained; the following extract is inserted from Mr. Telford's Report on the State of the Holyhead and Liverpool Roads. The instrument employed for the comparison was invented by Mr. Macneill ; and the road between London and Shrewsbury was selected for the place of experiment. The general results, when a waggon weighing 21 cwt. was used on...