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pressment may take place in our ports and very name of war was too hateful to be harbours; and, there, if confined to our endured. own seamen, America does not objec: to. But, in answer to all' this, it is said, it. It is upon the high seas that she objects by Lord Castlereagh, that the naval to impressment; because there the matter strength of the empire mainly depends" must be left to the discretion of the Brilish upon the continuation of this practice of officer. It is there a matter of power. There impressment. That is to say, if we take is no one to appeal to; there is no umpire; the whole of the facts into view, our naval there is no judge to look into proofs, and strength mainly depends upon a practice to decide. The searching officer may, which exposes so many of the American under his discretion, take out as many men citizens to misery, and ruin. The plaja as he pleases; he may leave the ship des- meaning of cur perseverance in the practice kitute of the hands necessary to conduct her is this: that, if we do not continue it, our a league ; and, he may take out American seamen will desert to the American ships citizens as well as English subjects. That in such numbers as to leave us without the this may be done is quite certain, because possibility of obtaining a sufficiency of men it has been done in countless instances. to man and fight our Heet. Supposing this Thousands of native Americans, thus im- to be the fact, it really forms no justifica, pressed, have been released by our Admi- tion of the practice ; for, we can have no Fally on the official application of the right to put America to any inconvenience American agents; and, who can doubt whatever merely for our own benefit, or to thai many thousands remain unreleased ? save ourselves from loss or danger. The General Lyman, late American Consul in President, however, in order to show, London, once stated, in a report to his go that he does not wish us to receive any vernment, that there were about fourleen injury in this way, and in order, if posthousand native Americans then on board sible, to put an end to the war, has made our fleet, who had been impressed from a voluntary offer of a law to be passed in on board American ships on the high seas• America to prevent our seamen from being He might possibly exaggerate ; but it is admitted into American ships, upon con not to be doubted that the number was, dition, that we will first abandon our pracand has constantly been, very considerable. tice of impressment, and give up, that is, And, I beg your Royal Highness to take a restore to their liberty, those native Ame . serious view of the great hardships expe- ricans whom we have already impressed rienced by Americans thus impressed. Mr. Russell, in his letter to Lord Castle Taken from their lawful and peaceable reagh, says :- While, however, it repursuits ; dragged into a service and forced gards this course as the only one which under a discipline so little congenial with “ remained for it to pursue with a hope of their habits and their prejudices; wafted" preserving any portion of that kind of away to sickly climates, exposed to all the character, which constitutes the vital dangers of battle, taken, perhaps for ever, " strength of every nation, yet it is still from the sight and the knowledge of their willing to give another proof of the spihomes and friends; and, if, by chance “ rit which has uniformly distinguished its { {for it can be nothing more), restored at proceedings, by seeking to arrest, on last, restored (as has often been the case) ": terms consistent with justice and honour, with the loss of health or of limbs, and," the calamities of war,

It has therefore at the very least, with the loss of time, "authorized me to stipulate with His Briand that, too, in the prime of their lives ; " tannic Majesty's Government, an armi. and carrying about them, for the remainder "stice to commence at or before the exof their days, feelings towards England piration of sixty days after the signature which I need not attempt to describe.

o of the instrument providing for it, on Your Royal Highness's heart will tell" condition that the Orders in Council be you, I hope, much better than I can, not “repealed, and no illegal blockades to be wbat is, but what must be, the effect of " substituted to them, and that orders be such a practice, carried on against a inmediately given to discontinue the impeople, who are not only the children of pressment of persons from American ves. Englishmen, but of those Englishmen who sels, and to restore the citizens of the preferred freedom in a wilderness across " United States already impressed; it bethe ocean to slavery in their native land. “ ing moreover well understood that the This it is, Sir, that has, at last, kindled "British Government will assent to enter the flame of war in a country where the “ into definitive arrangements as soon as may be, on these and every other dif- knowledged, that we had Americans un“ference, by a Treaty to be concluded willingly serving on board. And, what a “ either at London or 'Washington, as on lamentable contrast do we find in the same “ an impartial consideration of existing letter, with regard to some English sea" circumstances shall be deemed most ex- men said to have been on board the Con“ pedient. As an inducement to Greatstitution ; to which I beg leave to add, for “ Britain to discontinue the practice of im- your most serious moment, the fact (if a

pressment from American vessels, I am fact it bey that part of the crews of the vic“ authorized to give assurance that a law torious American ships, the Wasp and the " shall be passed to be reciprocal) lo pro- United States, were English. Nay, it is hibit the employment of British seamen in stated in the Courier news-paper, upon the public or commercial service of the what is asserted to be good authority, that « United States."

two thirds of the crews of the American Really, Sir, it is not possible, it appears ships of war are English seamen. If this to me, to suggest any thing more reason be true, it is another, and a most cogent able than this. I can form an idea of no- reason, for acceding to the terms of Amething more strongly expressive of a desire rica, and putting an end to the war; for, to put an end to the war. What! shall

' it the longer the war continues the longer be said that England wages a war, when will continue a connexion froin which such she might terminate it by such means? I fearful consequences may ensuć. trust not, and that we shall not have to At any rate, it appears to me, that our 'weep over a much longer continuation of own safety, if the war is to be continued, this unfortunate contest.

will dictate the discharging of all the imI know, that there are persons who pressed Americans whom we may have on treat the idea of a law, passed by the Con- board of our ships. Fight against their gress, with contempt. But, if this is to country they will not, unless they be be the course pursued, the war will not forced, and who is to foresee and provide soon have an end. We must treat Ame- against the contagion of such an example ? rica with respect. We must do it ; and Against this evil, however, and against the sooner we begin the better. Some of numerous others, which I forbear to menthe impudent hireling writers in London, tion, the measure proposed by the Preaffect to say, that no credit is to be given sident would completely guard us; and, to any act of the American government; the respect, which it is my duty to enterthat our officers ought not to believe the tain towards your Royal Highness, bids passports and certificates produced by the me hope that that proposition will finally be American seamen. If this is to be the accepted. tone, and if we are to act accordingly, there

I am, &c. &c. is no possibility of making peace with Anne

WM. COBBETT. rica." Peace implies trealy and confidence; but, what confidence are we to have in a

Botley, 29th Dec. 1812. nation such as our hirelings describe America to be? This arrogant, this insolent tone must be dropped, or peace is im.

SUMMARY OF POLITICS. possible.

NORTHERN WAR, -And, he is not · The fact of our impressing of native dead! He is not dead! And all the Americans is affected to be denied, and Lloyd's men are baffled! - Napoleon, Lord Castlereagh does not notice the pro- after having conducted his army out of position to restore those whom we have danger, has himself returned to Paris, already impressed. But, Sir, if the fact where, it appears he has been received were not perfectly notorious, that thou with a much joy as if he had met, in his

sands have been released by us, the letter absence, with no reverse at all.- The of CAPTAIN DACRES, of the Guerriere, 29th Bulletin does him more honour than removes all doubt upon the subject; for, in any one he has ever published. It is a that letter, intended to account for his de- candid exposition of his own disappoint· feat by the Constitution, he says, that went and of the sufferings of his army. IC

PART OF HIS CREW WERE NA- contains internal evidence of its truth, and TIVE AMERICANS, and, they not leaves, in my mind, no doubt at all, not choosing to fight against their country, he only of his design, but of his full ability, suffered them to be inactive spectators. to recommence his attack on Russia in the Now,' here we have the fact clearly ac- spring. I will, on some future occasion, review the accounts of " his defeat,” | hour through the British Envoy here, that which have been published in Londor ; for, the hostile edicts against our commercial such a string of falsehoods, such impudent, rights and our maritime independence would and at the same time such stupid attempts not be revoked; nay, that they could not at deception, were never, surely, heard of | be revoked, without violating the obligabefore. These accounts would make a tions of Great Britain to other Powers as most curious and not a small volume. It well as to her own interests. To have is a volume of which he will not lose sight, shrunk under such circumstances, from I dare say. - What mischiefs have not manly resistance, would have been a dea, this vile press done in the world! Now gradation blasting our best and proudest where is the Bourbon project ? Now hopes. It would have struck us from the where are all the hopes of “ marching to high rank where the virtuous struggles of “ peace over his corpse ?". The dream

our fathers had placed us, and have betrayis already over, and we awaken to the ed the magnificent legacy which we hold inreality of endless war. -The “ three trust' for future generations. It would have o armies in his front and two armies in his acknowledged, that on the element which “ rear" could not, it seems, arrest his forms three-fourths of the globe we inhabit, progress. In short, either almost the and where all independent nations have whole of what we heard of his perils was equal and common rights, the American false, or he has now gained a thousand people were not an independent people, times more glory than he ever before was but colonists and vassals. -It was at this entitled to. For my part, I am quite moment, and with such an alternative, that struck dumb at the credulity of those who war wes chosen. The nation felt the necesbelieve him to be a fallen · man. It fills sity of it, and called for it. The appeal one with despair to see any portion of the was accordingly made in a just cause, to public so besotted. Far be it from me to the just and powerful Being who holds in blame any Englishman for wishing to see his hands the chain of events and the destiNapoleon down; but, to believe that he is my of nations. It remains only, that faithso, when they see him return to his capital ful to ourselves, entangled with no conamidst the acclamations of the French nexions with the views of other Powers, people, is, one would suppose, too much and ever ready to accept peace from the for any people in their senses.- -In a few hand of justice, we prosecute that war weeks, however, we shall see reflection with united council, and with the ample return. Kutosow's adventures have been a faculties of the nation, until peace be so sort of honey-moon to us. When that is obtained, and as the only means under the quite passed, we shall become as mopish divine blessing of speedily obtaining it. as gib-cats. We shall look back with shame

JAMES MADISON, to our ecstasies and deliriums; and, about

Nov, 4, 1812.
that time 100 will come the landlord with
his reckoning; that is to say, the minister
with his Budget, and the war with its ex-
tended demands.

ARMIES OF SPAIN.
WM. COBBETT.

OFFICE OF THE MINISTER AT WAR.
Botley, 30th Dec. 1812.

Paris, Dec. 11.

Copy of a Leltér written to the Minister at OFFICIAL PAPERS.

Ivar by Marshal Jourdan, Chief of his

Catholic Majesty's Staff AMERICAN PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.

Salamanca, Nov. 21. (Continued from page 830, vol. 22.) I have the honour to address to your Exmaintenance of our own; that it was pre-cellency the account of the prisoners of war. ceded by a patience without example, under and deserters which have entered Salamanca wrongs accumulating without end; and that from the 16th up to this evening.--I am it was finally not declared, until every hope ignorant whether the Duke of Dalmatia, of averting it was extinguished by the whose head-quarters ought to be at Salvatransfer of the British Sceptres into new tierra, has any still with him. When I shall hands, clinging to former Councils, and be informed on that head, I shall have the until declarations were reiterated in the last honour to render you an account thereof.

Account of the Prisoners of War and De-Gen. Bonnemain pursued him for a

serters, which have entered Salamanca, league on the other side of Ocana; he overfrom the 16th Nov. to this day, the 21st took his rear-guard, sabred 30 men, and of the same month.

made 20 prisoners; he also carried away Sub-Officers and about thiriy horses. The Duke of Dalma. Officers, Soldiers.

tia fixed his head-quarters on the 26th at English

7
1,414

Ocana, whence he sent a reconnoissance Portuguese 9

904

upou Aranjuez. The enemy had evacuated Spanish

9

849

this town, blown up the bridge of la Reyna, Deserters

0

330

and burnt the one near the palace; several

corps of infantry and cavalry were seen in 25

3,497

the park on the right bank. The Duke of Among the officers is Lieutenant-General Dalmatia began his operations for rebuildPaget.

ing the bridges. The tide of the Tagus JOURDAN, Marshal of the Empire. was very high; the fords were impractica

ble. On the 28th, his Majesty marched, Extract of a Leller from Baron Thouvenol, with his reserve to Santa Cruz de la Parza.

General of Brigade, Governor of the 4th On the same day the troops of the Army of Government of Spain, to the Minister at the Centre, who marched upon the Tagus. War.

to reconnoitre the force and position of the Villoria, Dec. 4. enemy, discovered that he had evacuated General Bigarre, Aid-de-camp to his Ca- | Fuente Duena. The boats of the bridge, tholic Majesty, has just arrived at Vittoria, were on the right bank, however, without bearing dispatches for the Emperor. He having received any damage; the posts and announces that 2,600 prisoners, among cables had been cut, and the beams carried whom is General Paget, will arrive on the away. An officer of sappers swam across 6th at Vittoria, under the escort of 3,000 the river ; his example was followed by of the army of Portugal. The English several soldiers; the boats were replaced, have retreated into Portugal, and it appears and the rebuilding of the bridge was imthat our affairs in that quarter are going on mediately set about. On the 29th, the as well as possible. The General in King moved his head-quarters to Ocana. Chief, Count Reille, set out to-day to pro- On the same day the enemy's troops, who ceed on his route to Burgos.

had remained in the park of Aranjuez, on (Signed) , Earon THQU VENOT. the right bank of the Tagus, retired be

hind the Jarama, The Duke of Dalmatia Ixlracts from Dispatches addressed to the advanced to Aranjuez.--On the 30th,

Minister at War, the Duke of Felire, by the bridges were entirely re-established at Marshal Jourdan, Chief of his Catholic Aranjuez and Fuente Duena. It was reMajesty's Staff

ported that the enemy intended to concenMadrid, Nov. 3. trate his forces upon the right bank of the The King departed from Cuenza on the Jarama, and that he appeared inclined to 26th, and fixed his head-quarters at Hor- defend that position, which is extremely cajada ; the head of the Army of the Centre strong. Marshal the Duke of Dalmatia arrived on the same day at Tarancon.- made a reconnoissance this day; he found On the 27th his Majesty arrived at Taran. the enemy intrenched upon the bridge of con; reconnoissances were pushed on Fuente- the Jarama, called Puente Largo; after seDuena, which was still occupied by the veral vollies of canrion, the enemy withdrew English troops ; the bridge of boats had his artillery, and exploded two mines, been withdrawn upon the right bank of the which blew up one arch of the bridge. The Tagus.- The Duke of Dalmatia arrived Duke of Dalmatia then ordered the firing on the 25th at Santa Cruz de la Sarza; on of the musketry to cease, as it was now the same day, the reserve of cavalry of the without object. Our loss in this battle was army of the South, commanded by Geueral about 25 wounded, among whom was an Tilly, was at Villa Tobas. The Duke of officer of Voltigeurs: the enemy's loss was Dalipatia ordered him to push a very strong much more considerable: he had several reconnoissance on Ocana; Gen. Bonnemain men killed on the bridge.--The Duke of had the command of it. He found at Ocana Dalmatia still supposed the enemy intended J7 English and Portuguese squadrons, com- to give battle in the position which overmanded by General Long, who would not looks the Jarama, and as this position is fight, and who fell back upon Aranjuez. truly inassailable in front, it was necessary to manæuvre to force the enemy to abandon! Guadarama. The cavalry of the army of it.--On the 31st, the I)uke of Dalmatia, the South occupied St. Antonio de las Naras learnt, and announced to his Majesty, that and Villa Castin. One part of the infantry the enemy had abandoned Puente Largo. was at L'Espinar, the other part remained This bridge was re-established, and on the at Guadarama and Guadalapagar.-In same day the advanced guard of the Army the night between the 4th and 5th, the of the South advanced to Valdemoro, and Duke of Dalmatia reported to the King that took about 500 prisoners. The divisions of General Hill was continuing his retreat, and this army began to march on the night of that he appeared to direct his inarch upon the 31st, from the different points which Arrevalo, where, it was said, he was 10 they occupied, and passed the Tagus at form his junction with Lord Wellington. Aranjuez; they defiled during the whole of The King had no certain intelligence of the the day and night of the 1st of November. army of Portugal, but all that could be The army had not entirely passed the Tagus learned indicated that army to have answeron the ed of November, at six o'clock in ed on the right of the Douro, all the bridges the morning.-The King proceeded on of which the enemy had destroyed, and the 31st to Aranjuez, and ordered the that Lord Wellington announced the intenCount D'Erlon to march upon this point, tion of leaving on the left bank a portion of in order to follow the movement of the army his army to observe that of Portugal, and of the South. - On the 1st of November, to join the rest of General Hill's at Arreya the advanced posts of the army of the South lo, in order to combat the army of the South arrived near Madrid; that city was evacu- separately. His Majesty, that nothing ated, and the enemy made his retreat by might be compromised, thought it right to the Puerto de Guadarama.--- On the 2d, call to his aid the army of the Centre, the army of the South was concentrated in which remained at Madrid. He, therefore, the environs of Madrid; the advanced on the 5th, ordered the Count of Erlon to guard proceeded to the Escurial, and conti- leave Madrid immediately, and to advance nued to make prisoners. On the same day as rapidly as possible on Villa Castin, the division of Gen. Villatte arrived in whence he would have to follow the direcMadrid, and his Majesty also arrived with tion taken by the army -- On the 5th, his guards; the army of the Centre defiled the King moved his head-quarters to Villa upon the bridge of Aranjuez.--This day, Castin. The same day, our cavalry havthe 5th, the troops of the army of the South ing arrived on the Boltaya, perceived that marched in the direction of the Escurial and of the enemy on the right bank of the river, Guadarama; the advanced guard must now covering the march of their infantry. The be on the other side of the mountains.--- Duke of Dalmatia hastened the march of

The army of the Gentre is arrived in the his infantry, and united some divisions at neighbourhood of Madrid, General D'Ar- Labajos ; the cavalry followed the movemagnac's division has succeeded, in Ma- ments of the enemy, who took the direction drid, that of Gen. Villatte, which has fol- of Penaranda, and met that of Arrevalo, lowed the movement of the army of the Our cavalry took a position at Villa Nueva South. --The infantry of the royal guard de Gomez, Blasco-Sancho, and Sanchidrion. has just departed, to sleep at Las Rosas; --On the 6th, the King advanced his it will arrive to-morrow at Guadarama, and head-quarters to Arrevalo, and all the army the King will rejoin it with his cavalry. moved in that direction. On the 7th, His Majesty's intention is to pursue the the King remained at Arrevalo. Reconenemy with the army of the South, and to noitring parties were seat out, which complace himself in communication with the municated with the army of Portugal, army of Portugal. The army of the Centre which had arrived at Medina del Campo, will continue united in Madrid and its | The divisions of the army of the South neighbourhood, and will be in readiness to which were still in the reary of Portujoin the King, if Lord Wellington should their march upon Arreval aty of Portuconcentrate his forces, to give batile.

Souham, command ning, that Lord Wel(Signed) JOURDAN.

gal, rerus directing his march on Sala

wianca with four divisions of his army, and Ai I had the honour of Salamanca, Nov. 10.11 you a Spanish army commanded by Castanos.

-On the 8th, the King still continued in my'etter of the way the King left Madrid

Arrevalo. The troops of the army of on the 4le with his guard. The same day his Majesty established his head-quarters at the South, which were yet behind, prose

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