« 前へ次へ »
Vol. XXII, No. 22.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 29, 1813.
been defeated; and they will continue to SUMMARY OF POLITICS.
believe so, though Hamburgh should fall, Northern War.—Below will be found and though Napoleon should reach Dantzic the official dispatch of Lord Cathcart, re- and even Petersburgh.---How are they lating to the Battle of Lutzen. To read to believe otherwise ? The Allies claim, this dispatch there is no one who would not always claim, the victory. Their accounts, believe that the Allies were completely vic- in nineteen twentieths of our news-papers, torious. Here are all the signs of complete are said to in true; and, though the French victory. We are told, that the French bulletins c!e published, they are always were driven back; we are told that the Al- accompanied with an editorial comment, lies made prisoners and took cannon; and asserting them to be false.—The mass of we are distinctly told, that the Allies pre- the people in the country have no channel pared for attacking the French again in the of information other than these newsmorning, but that " the enemy did not papers ; and, of course, they must be de" wait for it, and, that it was judged expe- ceived. The profligate men, who conduct “ dient not to pursue."--English reader ; these papers, know well how false their good, thinking, English reader, what do contents are, and they, amongst themselves, you understand from this! What can you laugh heartily at the frauds they are pracunderstand from it? What is its clear tising; but the people do not know this ; meaning? Why, it is this: That the they have no idea of the existence of any French were defeated, and that, being thing so impudent and base; they believe, about to be attacked again in the morning, and that is all their deceivers care about. they ran away.
-Is not this the only -It must be confessed, however, that meaning that this dispatch can convey there is a wonderful pre-disposition in the And yet, thanks to the French Empress's people theinselves to be deceived. They bulletins, we know, that the French, so far have, by means of a base press, been made from running away, advanced the day after 1 to believe, that their own personal safety the battle, and that, when the last of those depends upon the destruction of Napoleon bulletins came away, the Emperor was in and his government; and, that being the possession of Dresden, which is on the case, their ears are open only to what enbanks of the river Elbe, and which is, at courages their hope of seeing that destrucleast, fifty English miles in advance of the tion take place. Like all the rest of manplace where the battle was fought.- -We kind, they are ever ready to believe that know, from the same source, that the Em- which they wish for. This is the great peror Alexander had passed through Dres- source of the power of our Government to den a little time before the French arrived. carry on the war. People grumble at the
We know, that these are facts; or, taxes ; they smart under the effects of the that the Emperor Napoleon has promul- war; but, they endure, because they are gated barefaced lies to the people of France, persuaded, that the war, with all its evils, which, if he has done it now, is what, as is preferable to what a peace, leaving Nafar as I can remember, he never before did, poleon in power, would produce. -----The in any of his bulletins. However, there agricultural part of the kingdom, too, imais not, I believe, one single person, at all gine that the war, by wasting the producis conversant in such matters, who believes, of the earth and preventing iinportation of that Napoleon is not arrived at Dresden; corn, is conducive to the high price of their and, if that be the case, it is undoubtedly property. This is a wrong notion, the loss true, that he did defeat the Allies, because being to them greater than the gain; but, what can be a proof of defeat, if retreating as it is not reasonable to expect, in the mass before the enemy be not such proof, of these persons, any views beyond those Nevertheless, the people in the country in of immediate interest, so it would be unEngland will believe that the French have reasonable to expect them to be hostile to
the continuance of the war. A farmer, | how or other, he identifies with the tri. who, while such vast improvements have umph of Jacobin principles. It is in vain taken place in all other arts and sciences, to tell him, that Napoleon is an Emperor, still continues to cultivate bis land in pre- and no friend of Jacobins. It is in vain to cisely the same way that it was cultivated remind him, that he himself thinks, or, at when people believed that the earth slood least, says, that the Emperor of France is still, and that the sun and moon set in the a military despot. Still he connects the sea; a farmer, who does this, cannot be idea of triumphant democracy with the expected to dive into questions of political success of Napoleon in war or in peace; economy, and to perceive, that he may and he does this even at the very moment, thrive by selling his wheat at ten pounds a and in almost the very same breath, that Joad, and he ruined by selling it at forty he asserts the people of Germany to be in
-The very confined views arms against Napoleon as their oppressor. of the mass of this description of persons, -It would be a waste of time to attempt and which views are utterly incomprehensi- to account for the way of thinking of such ble to persons unaccustomed to see their a person. We know the fact; and the effect and to trace them to their source; effect is an unqualified support of the war. these views are a main support of the Go- -The Aristocracy and the Church supvernment in the prosecution of the war. port the war upon more rational grounds, Where will you find a farmer, who wishes it being notorious, that the Napoleon systo put a stop to the export of oats, or grain tem strikes at the root of both. of any sort to Portugal, or Spain, or Sicily, who is new to power himself, all whose or to any other place ? And, what are we nobles are new, whose system is that of to expect from Counties, while these false making all honours grow out of personal notions of interest prevail ? And prevail merit and well-known services, cannot be they must, from the same cause, that it is regarded as other than the enemy of an healmost as hard for a camel to pass through reditary nobility. His system strikes at
of a needle as to induce a common the root of all pretensions founded on fafarmer to attempt any, even the slightest, mily antiquity; and the surprising talents alteration in the mode of managing his which that system, which was borrowed land, though he has what to any other set from the Jacobins, has brought into action, of men would amount to demonstration of gall the very souls of those, whose rank is the benefit of such alteration.- -When to owing to their birth. The Church nathis cause of support of the war we add the turally are hostile to a system, which has interests, the real interests, of all the per: taken away its wealth, and made the land sons in the Army, the Navy, the Barrack free of an encumbrance, which the mass of Department, the Dock Yards, the Tax Of its occupiers, though through wrong notions, fices; and all their families and friends ; in some respects, endure with impatience. when we look at the buildings at Black - The Church must naturally fear the effects water, at Wycombe, at Woolwich, &c. &c. of a free communication with a country and consider the thousands of young per- wherein tithes have been abolished; for, sons here breeding up for the purposes of such communication could not fail to give war, and consider the hopes of their pa- rise to the publication of statements most rents and relations, who have in this way injurious in their tendency to the establishplaced them; when we add this most Therefore, the Church, as we powerful cause to the former, are we always see, is for “a vigorous prosecution io wonder, that the war has so many
6 of the war.”
Another reason why Nasupporters?
The fund-holder, too, poleon is hated by all those, who enjoy the though the war daily diminishes the emoluments attached to the education of value of his property, has lurking in his youth in the public schools and colleges, mind the notion, that a peace which should is, that he has, by his regulations, stripped ratify the power of Napoleon would destroy their trade of its principal support. He that property altogether. Thus he, too, has made a knowledge of the Greek and the most timid of all, is for a prosecution Latin languages unnecessary to the admis, of the war. He hopes, and his hopes are sion to degrees in his learned institutions, fed by the news-papers, that war may, at He has, in fact, destroyed the last remains last, put down Napoleon, and the funds of monkery, by showing the world, that will then rise in value. While he groans men may be truly learned with:aut its aid, under the effects of war, his mind is haunt- for this reason is he held in abhorrence by ed with the fears of peace, which, some the Clergy, who think, and very correctly,
that a free communication with France deceived ? I do not blame the ministers could not long exist without giving a fatal much for not attempting to make peace blow to their pretensions to superiority in during the last winter ; because, as I have point of learning, as well as to the whole said before, my opinion is, that there can of those notions from which they derive be no real peace in England, unless the their vast power.
These are the causes power of Napoleon be first greally dimi. of the support invariably given to the war, nished, or, unless we have a lolal change and of the readiness with which every re- of syslem. But, is it not reasonable to port of success against Napoleon is credited. suppose, that, if he now succeed, no terms Were it not for these causes, which all of peace so good as he last offered, will unite to make people hope for the destruc- ever be obtained by us? In my opinion, tion of Napoleon, and to make them be the worst thing that could be done by lieve, like all other people, what they hope, us was done at the time of Napoleon's it would have been quite impossible for the retreat out of Russia. At that time the lanpress to gain belief in the statements guage of our press (which, I dare say, was about insurrections in France, about the faithfully given to the people of France) soldiers marching to the army in chains, was, that the only way to peace was over and now in the statements about Napoleon's the dead body of the Emperor. defeat at Lutzen. -Reader (for let me very bad; but, it was infinitely worse, or, hope that I shall find one, at least, to listen at least, more unwise, to say, as the Times to reason); then, I ask you, reader, if newspaper did, that the whole French nayou, upon reflection, do really believe, lion ought to be punished. They were rethat the Allies are likely to be triumphant presented as a wicked, a base, a bloodyin this war? You, as well as I, were minded race; they were, we were told, the assured, that the Allies had wholly de- willing instruments of his cruelty and rastroyed the army of Napoleon; that it was pacity, though, only a few days before, he impossible for him to raise another; that was represented as having drugged them to the people of France were ready to rise his army in chains. As long as it suited against him; that they placarded the walls the purpose of these vile scribes to reprewith accusations of tyranny and cowardice sent the people of France as oppressed by. against him ; that he dared not quit France him, and as being an object of our pity, again.-- We have found all this to be they so represented them; but, when these false. Every jot of it has been proved to corrupt conductors of newspapers thought be false. We are now quite sure of its it expedient to change their tone, then the falsehood. And, will you still place re- people of France, not only the army, but hance on what is told us through the same the whole nation, became his willing inchannel ?- -We were assured, in terms struments !- -The effect of this is too equally positive, that the people of Ger- obvious to need pointing out. The people many, having felt his grinding tyranny, of France, upon hearing this language, had risen every where against his authority; upon reading these denunciations against, that they were embodying themselves into them, must have said: “So, then, while corps and legions and armies for the pur- you thought our chief so strong that nopose of waging war against him ; that their " thing but our defection from him could fury against him was absolutely ungovern. o afford you a chance of resistance, you en-, able; that Frenchmen were every where " deavoured to produce that defection by murdered by them; that his troops would " calling us an oppressed people, and by be driven back, not only to the Rhine, but " saying that we were dragged to his armies within the boundaries of the old territories " in chains; but, the moment you thought, of France. -Has not all this been now or that he was down, and that his power proved to be false? Has he not already " was destroyed for ever, you changed your traversed great part of Germany ? Have" tone with regard to us, declared us to the people, in any one instance, risen have been his willing instruments, and against him? Have not the allied armies “ inculcated the justice of making us sharers jetreated before him?
And will you,
" in the punishment with which you menaccan you, sensible reader, confide in any s6 ed him." If this was not the precise thing ; can you put your faith in any as- language, it must of necessity have been surance, that shall reach you through the the feeling, of the French nation, who thus same channel? Will you join in calling saw their fate inseparable from that of their an enemy of his country the man who shall chief, and who, as it was natural to expect, cadeavour to prevent you from being again made immense sacrifices to give him thé
means of warding off that punishment with Equality inscribed on his banners. To which both were menaced.- I am not cer- compel the sovereigns of Germany and tain, indeed, that the people of France ever Russia to aid him in a war against England heard of these denunciations of our press; was his avowed object. And, if he met but, they might hear of them, and our chil. with no resistance from the people tben, dren may have to rue the consequences. why was he to meet with it now? As It was manifest to me, and to some others, to the people feeling the grasp of his tyran. from the time that Napoleon was compelled ny, we are to consider what sort of people to retreat out of Russia, that his future fate it was, who must have felt that grasp. depended, not upon the disposition of the Those who had been most opposed to him, Poles or the Germans, but upon that of the if any had been conspicuous in that way, people of France only. If they were still would naturally feel it the most. He would on his side; if the love of glory, or any assuredly not squeeze his friends, or those other passion, would still give him a French who became his friends. Besides, his exarmy, there appeared no good reason, why actions of money would fall upon the rich, he should not again cross the Vistula.- and it is not the rich who fight ballles. It Those who expressed an opposite opinion is very certain, that, if you injure the rich, reasoned thus: They said, that the people the poor, for a while, at least, must be inof Germany and Poland would now be jured too. But, they do not see the real against him; and, it was not unpleasing, cause of their new, sufferings, and are, as at the end of a series of years, during which all experience proves, always ready to they had treated the people as nothing, to ascribe these new sufferings to their old hear them rest their hopes upon the dispo- masters. If, indeed, the old governments sition and voluntary exertions of the peo- of Germany were so very mild and just, ple, and thus to make the people every and the people so free and happy under thing. But, at any rate, this was their them that any change must have been for new doctrine. They said, that, on former the worse, I allow that the people must occasions, the people had not risen against naturally be disposed to resist him now; him; though, by-the-by, they, at the time, and I cannot say, that they were not such told us the people did rise against him to a excellent governinents because I never was man. However, this was their new doc- in Germany; but, then comes this diffitrine, that the people were deceived by him culty, that, if the people were so very per before; but, that, now, having felt the verse as to fold up their arms and suffer grasp of his tyranny, they were no longer him to over run their country before, ia to be deceived; that they now abhorred spite of the excellence of their governments, him, and were all ready to shed the last why are we to believe, that they will shed drop of their blood in order to prevent the their blood now for the restoration of these return of his authority, or that of his de- very governments ? And, if, on the other puty sovereigns. -This reasoning was hand, the old governments were of a conclusive enough if the premises were left somewhat different description, what reaout of consideration; and, in such cases, son have we to believe, that the people men seldom embarrass themselves with will now die to the last man, rather premises. I have no means of knowing than relinquish their endeavours to prawhat was the precise difference between the cure their restoration ?- This is my operation of Napoleon's governments in grand difficulty, and I should be very much Germany, and that of the governments ex. obliged to any of the enlightened editors isting there before ; and, therefore, I could of our press, if they would condescend to not positively assert, that the people might get me out of it.- -In the mean while I not wish for a counter- revolution. But, I do really see no signs of any resistance to must confess, that I took the non-resistance Napoleon on the part of the people of Gerof the people upon the former occasions to many. I read, indeed, about the volunbe but ioo strong a presumptive proof that teer corps and the levy-en-mass in Prússia; they were still disposed in his favour. For, but, I read about them before, not many as to his deceiving them; how was such a days previous to the arrival of the news, deception to be practised? He was then that Napoleon had gone to the theatre at an Emperor as much as he now is. His Berlin amidst the acclamations of the peogovernment was well known. The surt of ple. I have no faith, therefore, in these
sway that he exercised in France was no accounts. I every where see volunteers Discountssegret in Germany. He did not advance, and levy-en-mass until he approaches, and
as he formerly had done, with Liberly and then I hear no more of them. I have lately read of the patriotic stir in Hanover ; pers, any abuse of our King or of any of the but the map shows me, that Napoleon has Royal Family. Those papers do not call not been afraid, “coward" as he is be- them monsters, nor do they revile thein ia come, to leave that patriotic and inestima- any degree. They very seldom say thing ble Electorate in his rear, and I am not personal of any body in this country. It without my apprehensions, that he will would, surely, be wise to follow their exhave the insolence to treat many other re- ample. They seem not to be in a passion. spectable seats of patriotism in the same They seein to take things coolly. The truth way.
- In my opinions upon this sub- is, they have not to gratify readers who are ject I may be deceived; I am by no filled with rage because they are afraid of mean's sure that I am right; but, I am not the resuit of the contest. While we storm, willing to dupe myself, and wish to prevent they smile. And this is the effect of a my readers from being duped. There is war, begun twenty years ago against the nothing which so degrades a nation, in my Republicans of France. - In speaking of eyes, as its being the dupe of designing the prospects of the war, I forgot to take knaves. The abuse which is heaped into the account, against Napoleon, the upon Napoleon is very odious, and can presence of the Duke of Cumberland with
not do any good. "If, indeed, the calling the allied army, though a circumstance of .: of him " the monster on the banks of the no small importance. It was reported,
Elbe" would drive him back from that that His Royal Highness was about to take river, or, better still, plunge him into it, out the German Troops with him ; but, it there might be some sense in the use of appears, it was thought much better 10 such appellations; but, as they can be of leave them here. I have long wished to see no use, either to us or to our magnanimous some one of our Royal Family pitted Allies, it would, surely, be better to re- against Napoleon. We have seen German, frain from the use of them. If they ever and Russian, and Italian Princes often enough reach him, they cannot fail to make him pitted against him, but, never until now laugh at us.—This is, however, taken for an English Prince of the blood Royal, and a mark of patriotism in this country, though we shall now see the effect that it will proit seems very difficult to find out the rea- duce. We now see a Royal Duke in the son. Any fool may call Buonaparte a mon- field against the Dukes of Napoleon, the ster. Nothing is easier ; but, let any one greater part of whom were farmers' or shew me what valour' or what sense there shop-keepers' or labourers' sons. We is in such reviling.- -For my part, I saw shall now see, whether these low-born a man prosecuted and found guilty of a men will be able to stand before him. Libel for abusing this same Buonaparté, But, I protest before-hand against any atand, from that moment, I resolved never tempt to make us believe, that he has not to speak of him again in any other terms been in this or in that batile. We have than they would allow me to speak of any been assured, that he is with the allied other sovereign, whether at peace or at army, and, in that light we must constantly war with us ; for, what a base thing must view that army. I consider him as a printhe press be, if it is to be muzzled or let cipal person in that arıny; I consider loose, as to the very same person, accord- him as carrying with him the spirit ing to the varying circumstances of peace of England to that army; and, I must or war!LORD CATHCART, I perceive, bey the gentlemen editors of the newscalls Napoleon “ the Ruler of France." papers not to suffer him, by any means, to If this could check him in bis march to drop out of sight in their details.wards Petersburgh, it would be very right When his Royal Brother, the Duke of to use it; but, as it cannot do that, I see York, was engaged in the celebrated camno use in these nick-names. In all the ca- paign with the Russians, against a man lendars of Europe, not excepting those of whom Mallet-du-Pan called " a printer's England, he is styled an Emperor; and, boy of Limosin," I remember what a hartherefore, if I were in the place of Lord vest of glory was anticipated ; and, I have Cathcart, I would not have made use of been very respectably assured, that, if it this phrase of affected contempt, which, I had not been for the baseness of the Dutch, repeat, can do no good.. - The best way, who fought like devils against us instead of I believe, is to be civil. Good manners for us, the convention of the Helder would are due towards enemies; and, by a con- not have graced the Republican amals. trary conduct men only show that they are But, we are not, according to our newsstung.We never see, in the French pa- paper, and, indeed, our official accounts,