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"lish Captain would equally suffer, if he America are of no value? And, when we “ had all the risk and loss to incur of an know, when no man will deny, when “improper detention. Against this, how-official records of the fact' exist, that “ever, the arguments are strong. The hundreds of native Americans have been "American Captain may have been impo- impressed and sent to serve on board our sised upon by the similarity of language, ships of war: when this is notorious; when "&c. ; and when brought into one of our it neither will nor can be denied, what is

ports, where there is a competent Court of value to America if this cause be not of "10 adjudge the point, a real American value?--As to the proposition for making

seaman might find it impossible to ad- English seamen contraband of rar," it. “ duce proofs of his nativity. Besides, in is so impudent, it is so shameful, it is even “ both events, the penalty would be inor- so horrid, that I will do no more than just ct dinate.----Another suggestion has been name it, that it may not escape the reader's “ made, that the British naval officer im- indignation.--- Indeed, there needs vo more

pressing a seaman on board an American than the reading of this one article to con“ vessel, and vice versa, should be bound vince the Americans, that all the factions

to make a certificate in duplicate (or in England are, in effect, of one mind upon “ what the French call a proces verbal), to the subject of this war; and, I am afraid, as the fact, one copy of which he should that this conviction will produce conse" deliver to the American Captain, aud quences, which we shall have sorely to « transmit the other to the Admiralty to lament, though I shall, for my own part, “ be filed; and that the seaman scized always have the satisfaction to reflect, that " should have his action for dainages in the every thing which it was in my power to “ Courts of Law, the certificate to be pro-do, has been done, to prevent those conse* duced by the Admiralty as proof of the quences. trespass, if the person can prove hinisell

Wv. COBBETT. si to be a native of the country that he

pretended to be. We copless we think Botley, 14th January, 1813. so that this ought to satisfy both Govern

ments, for this would make officers 0212“ tious in exercising the right which at the

OFFICIAL PAPERS. same time cannot be safely surrendered.” This is poor, palıry trash. But, it contains

AMERICAN STATES.che assertion, which I declare to be fulse.

-Declaralion of the It is here asserted, that "-the right of in

Regent of England against them. pressment of seamen on board of trading The earnest endeavours of the Prince Re

ships, is a right which has, at all times gent to preserve the relations of peace and 64 been asserted, and acquiesced in by sove- amity with the United States of America

reign Slates respectively."-I give this an having unfortunately failed, His Royal unqualified denial. I say, that it is a Highness, acting in the name and on the right, which no nation has before as behalf of His Majesty, deems it proper seried, and that no nation ever acquiesced publicly to declare the causes and origin of in.---Lerthe Morning Chronicle name the the war, in which the Government of the nation that has ever done either: let him United States has compelled bim to engage. cile the instance of such a practice as we -No desire of conquest, or other ordiinsist upon; let him name the writer, every nary motive of aggression has been, or can. English writer, on public law, who has be, with any colour of reason, in this case, made even an altempt to maintain such a imputed 10 Great Britain: that lier comdoctrine ; nay, let him name the writer, mercial interests were on the side of peace, who has laid down any principle, or maxim, if war could have been avoided, without the from which such a right can possibly be sacrifice of her maritime rights, or without deduced. And, if he can do wone of these, an injurious submission 10 France, is a trulli what assurance, what a desperate devotion which the American Government will not to saction, must it be to enable a man to deny.--His Royal Highness does not, make such an assertion! The assertion of the however, mean to rest on the favourable

value of the cause” being slight to Ame- presu:nption to which he is entitled. He rica, in comparison to what it is to us, has is prepared, by an exposition of the circumno better foundation. The value! 'what stances which have led to the present war, is of value, what is of any value at all, to shew that Great Britain has throughout if the liberty and lives of the people of acted towards the United States of America with a spirit of amity, forbearance, and circumstances of unparalleled provocation, conciliation; and to demonstrate the inad- His Majesty had abstained from any meamissible nature of those pretensions, which sure, which the ordinary rules of the law have at length unhappily involved the two of nations did not fully warrant. Never couniries in war. It is well known to was the maritime superiority of a Belligethe world, that it has been the invariable rent over his enemy more complete and deobject of the Ruler of France, to destroy cided. Never was the opposite Belligerent the power and independence of the British so formidably dangerous in his power, and Empire, as the chief obstacle to the accom- in his policy to the liberties of all other naplishment of his ambitious designs.--Hetions. France had already trampled so first contemplated the possibility of assem- openly and systematically on the most sabling such a naval force in the Channel as, cred rights of neutral powers, as might combined with a numerous flotilla, should well have justified the placing her out of the enable him to diseasbark in England au pale of civilized nations. Yet in this exarray sufficient, in his conception, 10. sub- ireme case Great Britain had so used her jugate this country; and through the con- naval ascendency, that her enemy could quest of Great Britain he hoped to realize find no just cause of complaint : and in orhis project of universal empire.- By the der to give to these lawless decrees the apadoption of an enlarged and provident sys- pearance of retaliation, the Ruler of France tem of internal defence, and by the valour was obliged to advance principles of mariof His Majesty's fleets and armies, this de tine law unsanctioned by any other authori. sign was entirely frustrated ; and the nava! ty than his own arbitrary will. ---The force of France, after the most sigual de pretexts for these decrees were, first, that feats, was compelled 10 retire from the Great Britain had exercised ihe rights of ocean.- -An attempt was then made to war against private persons, their ships and effectuate the same purpose by other means; goods, as if the only object of legitimate a system was brought forward, by which hostility on the ocean were the public prothe Ruler of France hoped to annibilate the perty of a State, or as if the edicts, and commerce of Great Britain, to shake her the Courts of France itself had not at all public credit, and to destroy her revenue ; times enforced this right with peculiar rito render useless her maritime superiority, gour. Secondly, that the Eritish orders of and so to avail himself of his continental blockade, instead of being confined to forascendency, as to constitute himself, in a tified towns, had, as France asserted, been great measure, the arbiter of the ocean, unlawfully extended to commercial towns notwithstanding the destruction of his feets. and ports, and to the mouths of rivers ;

With this view, by the Deeree of Ber- and thirdly, that they had been applied to lịn, followed by that of Milan, he declared places, and to coasts, which neither were, the British territories to be in a state of nor could be actually blockaded. The last blockade; and that all commerce, or even of these charges is not founded on fact, correspondence with Great Britain was pro whilst the others, even by the adınission of hibited. He decreed that every vessel and the American Government, are utterly cargo which had entered, or was found pro- groundless in point of law, ceeding to a British port, or which, under Against these Decrees, His Majesty proany circumstances, had been visited by a tested and appealed; he called upon the British ship of war, should be lawful prize: United States to assert their own rights, he declared all British goods and produce and to vindicate their independence, thus wherever found, and however acquired, menaced and attacked; and as France had whether coming from the Mother Country, declared, that slie would confiscate every or from her colonies, subject to confiscation: vessel which should, touch in Great Brihe further declared to be denationalized the tain, or be visited by British ships of war, flag of all neutral ships that should be His Majesty having previously issued the found offending against these bis decrees : Order of January 1807, as an act of mitiand he gave to this project of universal ty gated retaliation, was at leogth compelled, ranny the name of the Continental System. by the persevering violence of the enemy,

For these aliempts to ruin the com- and the continued acquiescence of neutral merce of Great Britain, by means subver-powers, to revisit, upon France, in a sive of the clearest righuis of neutral na- niore effectual manner, the measure of her tions, France endeavoured in vain to rest own injustice; by declaring, in an Order her justification upon the previous conduct in Council, bearing date the Ilth of Noof His Majesty's Government. Under vember 1807, that no neutral vessel should

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proceed to France, or to any of the coun- security was demanded, that the Berlin tries from which, in ubedience to the dic. and Milan Decrees, even if revoked, tates of France, British commerce was ex- should not under some other form be recluded, without first touching at a' port established; and a direct engagement was in Great Britain, or her dependencies. At offered, that upon such revocation, the the same time His Majesty intimated: his American Government would take part in readiness to repeal the Orders in Council, the war against Great Britain, if Great whenever France should rescind her De- Britain did not immediately rescind her crees, and return to the accustomed prin- Orders. Whereas ano corresponding enciples of maritime warfare; and at a sub- gagement was offered to Great Britain, of sequent period, as a proof of His Majesty's whom it was required, not only that the sincere desire to accommodate, as far as Orders in Council should be repealed, but possible, his defensive measures to the that no others of a similar nature should be convenience of neutral powers, the opera- issued, and that the blockade of May, 1806, tion of the Orders in Council was, by an should be also abandoned. This blockorder issued in April 1809, limited to a ade, established and enforced according to blockade of France, and of the cooptries accustomed practice, had not been objected subjected to her immediate dominion.- to by the United States at the time it was Systems of violence, oppression, and ty. issued. Its provisions were on the conranny, can never be suppressed, or even trary represented by the American Minister checked, if the power against which such resident in London at the time, to have injustice is exercised, be debarred froin been so framed, as to afford, in his judgthe right of full and adequate retaliation : ment, a proof of the friendly disposition or, if the measures of the retaliating pow

of the British Cabinet towards the United er, are io be considered as matters of just States.----Great Britain was thus called offence 10 neutral nations, whilst the mea- upon to abandon one of her most iinportant sures of original aggression and violence, maritime rights, by acknowledging the are to be tolerated with indifference, sub. Order of blockade in question, to be one mission, or complacency.---The Govern- of the edicts which violated the commerce ment of the United States did not fail to of the United States, although it had never remonstrate against the Orders in Council been so considered in the previous negociaof Great Britain. Although they kuew tions ;--and although the President of the that these Orders would be revoked, if the United States had recently consented to. Decrees of France, which had occasioned abrogate the Non-Intercourse Act, on the them, were repealed, they resolved at the sole condition of the Orders in Council same moment to resist the conduct of both being revoked ; thereby distinctly admitBelligerents, instead of requiring France, ting these orders to be the only edicts in the first instance, to rescind her Decrees. which fell within the contemplation of the Applying most unjustly the same measure law, under which he acted.of resentment to the aggressor, and to the sition so hostile to Great Britain could not party aggrieved, they adopted measures of but be proportionably encouraging to the cominercial resistance against both—a sys- pretensions of the enemy; as by thus, altem of resistance which, however varied leging that the blockade of May 1806, in the successive acts of embargo, non-in- was illegal, the American Government tercourse, or non-importation, was evi- virtually justified, so far as depended on dently unequal in its operation, and prin- them, the French Decrees. After this cipally levelled against the superior com- proposition had been made, the French merce, and maritime power of Great Bri- Minister for Foreign Affairs, if not in contain. The same partiality towards.cert with that Government, at least in France was observable, in their negocia conformity with its views, in a dispatch, tions, as in their measures of alleged re- dated the 5th of August, 1810, and ada sistance. Application was made to both dressed to the American Minister resident Belligerents for a revocation of their re- at Paris, stated that the Berlin and Milan spective edicts; but the terms in which Decrees were revoked, and that their opethey were made were widely different.- ration would cease from the 1st day of No. or France was required a revocation only vember following, provided His Majesty of the Berlin and Milan Decrees, although would revoke his Orders in Council, and many other edicts, grossly violating the renounce the new principles of blockade ; neutral commerce of the United States, or that the United States would cause their had been promulgated by that Power. No rights to be respected ; meaning thereby,

-A propos

that they would resist the retaliatory mea| repealed by the American Government : sures of Great Britain. Although the that they were not repealed in conformity repeal of the French Decrees thus announc with a proposition simultaneously made to ed was evidently contingent, either on con both Belligerents, but that in consequence cessions to be made by Great Britain, (con- of a previous Act on the part of the Amecessions to which it was obvious Great rican Government, they were repealed in Britaia could not submit,) or on measures favour of one Belligerent, to the prejudice to be adopted by the United States of Ame of the other : that the American Governrica; the American President at once con- ment having adopted measures restrictive sidered the repeal as absolute. Under upon the commerce of both Belligerents, that pretence, the Non-Importation Act in consequence of Edicts issued by both, was strictly enforced against Great Britain, rescinded these measures, as they effected whilst the ships of war, and merchant that power, which was the aggressor, ships of the enemy were received into the whilst they put them in fall operation against harbours of America. The American the party aggrieved; although the Edicts Government, assuming the repeal of the of both powers continued in force; and French Decrees to be absolute, and effec- lastly, that they excluded the ships of war, tual, most uujustly required Great Britain, belonging to one Belligerent, whilst they in conformity to her declarations, to revoke admitted into their ports and harbours the her Orders in Council. The British Go- ships of war belonging to the other, in vernment denied that the repeal, which violation of one of the plainest and most was announced in the letter of the French essential duties of a neutral nation. AlMinister for Foreign Affairs, was such as though the instrument thus produced was ought to satisfy Great Britain ; and in by no means that general and unqualified order to ascertain the true character of the revocation of the Berlin and Milan Decrees, measures adopted by France, the Govern which Great Britain had continually de ment of the United States was called upon manded, and had a full right to claim ; to produce the instrument, by which the and although this instrument, under ali alleged repeal of the French Decrees had the circumstances of its appearance at that been effected. If these Decrees were moment, for the first time, was open to really revoked, such an instrument must the strongest suspicions of its authenticity; exist, and no satisfactory reason could be yet, as the Minister of the United States given fur withholding it.—At length, produced it, as purporting to be a copy of on the 21st of May 1812, and not before, the instrument of revocation, the Governihe American Minister in London did pro- ment of Great Britain, desirous of reverting, duce a copy, or at least what purported to if possible, to the ancient and accustomed be a copy, of such an instrument.

It principles of maritime war, determined prosessed to bear date the 28th of April upon revoking conditionally the Orders in 1811, long subsequent to the dispatch of Council. Accordingly, in the month, of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs of June last, his Royal Highness the Prince the 5th of August 1810, or even the day Regent was pleased to declare in Council, named therein, viz. the 1st of November in the name and on the behalf of His Mafollowing, when the operation of the French jesty, that the Orders in Council should Decrees was to cease. This instrument be revoked, as far as respected the ships expressly declared that these French De- and property of the United States, from the crees were repealed in consequence of the 1st of August following. This revocation American Legislature having, by their was to continue in force, provided the GoAct of the Ise of March 1811, provided, vernment of the United States should, within that British ships and merchandize should a time to be limited, repeal their restrictive be excluded from the ports and harbours laws against British commerce. His Ma, of the United States.

jesty's Minister in America was expressly By this instrument, the only document ordered to declare to the Government of produced by America, as a repeal of the the United States, that “ this measure had French Decrees, it appears beyond a pos-“ been adopted by the Prince Regent in sibility of doubt or cavil, that the alleged 's the earnest wish and hope, either that the repeal of the French Decrees was condi- ' Government of France, by further relaxtional, as Great Britain had asserted; and "ations of its system, might render persenot absolute or final, as had been maintain" verance on the part of Great Britain in ed by America : that they were not re- retaliatory measures unnecessary, or if pealed as the time they were stated to be" this hope should prove delusive, that His “ Majesty's Government might be enabled, Treaty of Utrecht, and were therefore " in the absence of all irritating and re- binding upon all States. From the penal" strictive regulations on either side, to enter ties of this Code no nation was to be " with the Government of the United States exempt, which did not accept it, not only " into amicable explanations, for the pur- as the rule of its own conduct, but as a law,

pose of ascertaining whether, if the ne- the observance of which it was also re“ cessity of retaliatory measures should un- quired to enforce upon Great Britain.“i fortunately continue to operate, the parti- In a Manifesto, accompanying their De66 cular measures to be acted upon by Great claration of hostilities, in addition to the

Britain, could be rendered more accept- former complaints against the Orders in " able to the American Government, than Council, a long list of grievances was brought " those hitherto pursued.”— In order to forward; some trivial in themselves, others provide for the contingency of a Declara- which had been mutually adjusted, but none lion of War on the part of the United States, of them such as were ever before alleged previous to the arrival in America of the by the American Governinent to be grounds said Order of Revocation, instructions were for war. -As if to throw additional sent to His Majesty's Minister Plenipoten- obstacles in the way of peace, the Ames tiary accredited to the United States (the rican Congress at the same time passed a executiou of which instructions, in conse-law, prohibiting all intercourse with Great quence of ihe discontinuance of Mr. Foster's Britain, of such a tenor, as deprived the functions, were at a subsequent period in Executive Government, according to the trusted to Admiral Sir John Borlase President's own construction of ihat Act, Warren), directing him to propose a ces of all power of restoring the relations of sation of hostilities, should they have com- friendly intercourse between the two States, menced, and further to offer a simulta- su lar at least as concerned their commercial neous repeal of the Orders in Council on Intercourse, until Congress should re-asthe one side, and of the Restrictive Laws on semble. --The President of the United the British ships and commerce on the other. States, has, it is true, since proposed to - They were also respectively empowered Great Britain an Armistice; not, however, to acquaint the American Government, in on the admission, that the cause of war reply to any inquiries with respect to the hitherto relied on was removed: but on blockade of May, 1806, whilst the British condition that Great Britain, as a prelimiGoverninent must continue to maintain its nary siep, should do away a cause of war, legality, --" That in point of fact this now brought forward as such for the first “ particular Blockade had been discontinued time; namely, that she should abandon " for a length of time, having been merged the exercise of her undoubted right of " in the general retaliatory blockade of search, to take from American merchant " the enemy's ports under the Orders in vessels British seamen, the natural-born “ Council, and that Ilis Majesty's Govern- subjects of His Majesty; and this concessi ment had no intention of recurring to sion was required upon a mere assurance " this, or to any other of the blockades of that Jaws would be enacted by the Legislaas the enemy's ports, founded upon the or- ture of the United States, to prevent such 6 dinary and accustomed principles of Ma. seamen 'from entering into their service; 65 ritime Law, which were in force pre- but independent of the objection to an ex"s vious to che Orders in Council, without clusive reliance on a Foreign State, for the "sa new notice to Neutral Powers in the conservation of so vital an interest, no ex6 usual form.". -The American Go-planation was, or could be afforded by the vernment, before they received intimation Agent who was charged with this Overture, of the course adopted by the British either as to the main principles upon which Government, had in fact proceeded to the such laws were to be founded, or as to the extreme measure of declaring war, and provisions which it was proposed they issuing “ Letters of Marque,” notwith- should contain.---This proposition havstanding they were previously in possession ing been objected to, a second proposal of the Report of the French Minister for was made, again offering an Armistice, Foreign Affairs, of the 12th of March, 1812, provided the British Government would promulgating anew, the Berlin and Milan secretly stipulate to renounce the exercise Decrees, as fundamental laws of the French of this Right in a Treaty of Peace. An Empire, under the false and extravagant immediate and formal abandonment of its pretext, that the monstrous principles exercise, as a preliminary to a cessation iherein contained were to be found in the of hostilities, was not demanded; but his

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