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religion, the other of recreation, for the unbending | epistle of the second book, which was written to of our minds : 80 both the Grecians and Romans Augustus : agreed, after their sacrifices were performed, to

Agricolæ prisci, fortes, parvoque beati, spend the remainder of the day in sports and

Condita post frumenta, levantes tempore festo merriments ; amongst which, songs and dances,

Corpus & ipsum animum spe finis dura ferentur, and that which they called wit (for want of know

Cum sociis operum pueris, & conjure fida, ing better), were the chiefest entertainments. The

Tellurem porco, Silvanum lacte piabant, Grecians had a notion of satyrs, whom I have

Floribus & vino Genium memorem brevis avi: already described; and taking them, and the

Pescennina per hunc inventa licentia morem Sileni, that is, the young satyrs and the old, for

Versibus alternis opprobria rustica fudit. the tutors, attendants, and humble companions of

Our brawny clowns of old, who turn'd the soil, their Bacchus, habited themselves like those rural

Content with little, and inur'd to toil, deities, and imitated them in their rustic dances,

At barvest-home, with mirth and country cheer to which they joined songs, with some sort of

Restor'd their bodies for another year; rude harmony, but without certain numbers ; and

Refresh'd their spirits, and renew'd their hope to these they added a kind of chorus.

Of such a future feast, and future crop. The Romans also (as nature is the same in all

Then, with their fellow.joggers of the ploughs, places :) though they knew nothing of those Gre

Their little children, and their faithful spouse, cian demi-gods, por had any communication with

A sow they slew to Vesta's deity, Greece, yet had certainly young men, who, at

And kindly milk, Silvanus, pour'd to thee. their festivals, danced and sung after their uncouth

With flowers, and wine, their genius they ador'd ; manner, to a certain kind of verse, which they

A short life, and a merry, was the word. called Saturnian : what it was, we have no certain

From flowing cups, defaming rhymes ensue, light from antiquity to discover ; but we may con

And at each other homely taunts they threw. elude, that, like the Grecian, it was void of art, or at least with very feeble beginnings of it. Those

Yet since it is a hard conjecture, that so great a ancient Romans, at these holidays, which were a man as Casaubon should misapply what Horace mixture of devotion and debauchery, had a custom writ concerning ancient Rome, to the ceremonies of reproaching each other with their faults, in a and manners of ancient Greece, I will not insist sort of extempore poetry, or rather of tuneable on this opinion, but rather judge in general, that bobbling verse ; and they answered in the same

since all poetry had its original from religion, kind of gross raillery; their wit and their music

that of the Grecians and Romans had the same being of a piece. The Grecians, says Casaubon, beginning : both were invented at festivals of had formerly done the same in the persons of their thanksgiving: and both were prosecuted with mirth petulant satyrs: but I am afraid he mistakes the and raillery, and rudiments of verse: amongst matter, and confounds the singing and dancing the Greeks, by those who represented satyrs; and of the satyrs, with the rustical entertainments of amongst the Romans by real clowns. the first Romans. The reason of my opinion is For indeed, when I am reading Casaubon on this; that, Casaubon, finding little light from these two subjects, methinks I hear the same story antiquity, of these beginnings of poetry, amongst told twice over with very little alteration. Of the Grecians, but only these representations of which Dacier taking notice in his interpretation satyrs, who carried canisters, and cornucopias full of the Latin verses which I have translated, says of several fruits in their hands, and danced with plainly, that the beginning of poetry was the them at their public feasts: and afterwards reading same, with a small variety, in both countries : Horace, who makes mention of his hoinely Romans and that the mother of it, in all nations, was jesting at one another in the saine kind of solemni-devotion. But what is yet more wonderful, that ties, might suppose those wanton satyrs did the most learned critic takes notice also, in his illus.

And especially because Horace possibly trations on the first epistie of the second book, that might seem to him to have shown the original of as the poetry of the Romans, and that of the all poetry in general, including the Grecians as Grecians, had the same beginning, at feasts of well as Romans. Though it is plainly otherwise, thanksgiving, as it has been observed : and the that he only described the beginning, and first old comedy of the Greeks which was invective, tudiments of poetry in nis own country. The

and the satire of the Romans which was of the Verees are these, which he cites from the first same nature, were begun on the very same occa

same.

sion, so the fortune of both, in process of time, was tained ; till, being perceived by Polyphemus, they just the same; the old comedy of the Grecians was were made prisoners against the rites of hospiforbidden, for its too much licence in exposing of tality, for which Ulysses eloquently pleaded; were particular persons, and the rude satire of the Ro- afterwards put down in the den, and some of them mans was also punished by a law of the Decemviri, devoured; after whicb, Ulysses, having made him as Horace tells us, in these words :

drunk, when he was asleep, thrust a great fire. Libertasque recurrentes accepta per annos brand into his eye; and so revenging his dead fol. Lusit amabiliter, donec jam sævus apertam lowers, escaped with the remaining party of the In rabiem verti cæpit jocus; & per honestas living: and Silenus, and the satyrs, were freed Ire domos impune miņax: doluere cruento from their servitude under Polyphemus, and reDente lacessiti; fuit intactis quoque cura

mitted to their first liberty of attending and accomConditione super communi, quinetiam lex, panying their patron Bacchus. Pænaque lata, malo quænolit carmine quemquam This was the subject of the tragedy; which being Describi, vertere modum formidine fustis; one of those that end with a happy event, is thereAd bene dicendum delectandumque redacti.

fore by Aristotle judged below the other sort, The law of the Decemviri was this : Si quis

whose success is unfortunate. Notwithstanding eccentassit malum carum, sive condidissit, quod which, the satyrs, who were part of the dramatis infamiam faxit, fagitiumve alteri, capital esto.

personæ, as well as the whole chorus, were proA strange likeness, and barely possible : but the perly introduced into the nature of the poem, which critics being all of the same opinion, it becomes is mixed of farce and tragedy. The adventure of me to be silent, and to submit to better judgments Ulysses was to entertain the judging part of the than my own.

audience, and the uncouth persons of Silenus, and But to return to the Grecians, from whose the satyrs, to divert the conimon people with their satiric dramas, the elder Scaliger and Heinsius will gross railleries. have the Roman satire, to proceed; I am to Your lordship has perceived by this time, that take a view of them first, and see there be any this satyric tragedy, and the Roman satire, bave such descent from them as those authors have little resemblances in any other features. The pretended.

very kinds are different : for what has a pastoral Thespis, or whatsoever he were that invented tragedy to do with a paper of verses satirically tragedy, (for authors differ) mingled with them written? The character and raillery of the satyrs a chorus and dances and satyrs, which had been is the only thing that could pretend to a likeness ; used in the celebration of their festivals; and there

were Scaliger and Heinsius alive to maintain their they were ever afterwar is retained. The tharacter opinion. And the first farces of the Romans, of them was also kept, which was mirth and wanton

which were the rudiments of their poetry, were ness: and this was given, I suppose, to the folly written before they had any communication with of the common audience, who soon grow weary

the Greeks; or indeed, any knowledge of that of good sense; and, as we daily see in our own people. age and country, are apt to forsake poetry, and

And here it will be proper to give the definition still ready to rutirn to buffoonry and farce. From of the Greek satiric poem, from Casaubon, before hence it came, that in the Olympic games, where I leave this subject. The satiric, says he, is a the poets contended for four prizes, the satiric dramatic poem, annexed to a tragedy; having tragedy was the last of them ; for, in the rest,

a chorus, which consists of satyrs : the persons the satyrs were excluded from the chorus. Among represented in it, are illustrious men: the action the plays of Euripides which are yet remaining, of it is great ; the style is partly serious, and partly there is one of these satirics, which is called the jocular; and the event of the action most comCyclops; in which we may see the nature of those monly is happy. poems, and from thence conclude what likeness The Grecians, besides these satiric tragedies, they have to the Roman satire.

had another kind of poem, which they called Silli; The story of this Cyclops, whose name was which were more of kin to the Roman satire: Polyphemus, so famous in the Grecian fables, those Silli were indeed invective poems, but of a was, that Ulysses, who, with his company, was different species from the Roman poems of Ennius, driven on the coast of Sicily, where those Cyclops Pacuvius, Lucilius, Horace, and the rest of their inhabited, coming to ask relief from Silenus, and successors. They were so called, says Casaubon the satyrs, who were herdsmen to that one-eyed in one place, from Silenus, the foster father to giant, was kindly received by them, and enter. 'Bacchus; but in another place, bethinking him.

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self better, be derives their name derò teu rindasvswv, , that sort of poetry, Et Græcis intacti carminis from their scoffing and pelulancy. From some

auctor. Nothing can be clearer than the opinion fragments of the Silli, written by Timon, we may of the poet, and the orator, both the best critics find, that they were satiric poems, full of parodies; of the two best ages of the Roman empire, than that is, of verses patched up from great poets

that satire was wholly of Latin growth, and not and turned into another sense than their author transplanted from Athens to Rome. Yet, as I intended them. Such among the Romans is the have said, Scaliger the father, according to his famous Cento of Ausonius, where the words are

custom, that is, insolently enough, contradicts Virgil's : but by applying them to another sense,

them both ; and gives no better reason, than the they are made the relation of a wedding-night; derivation of Satyrus from oalù, salacilas ; and so, and the act of consummation fulsomely described from the letchery of those fauns, thinks he has in the very words of the most modest amongst sufficiently proved, that satire is derived from all poets. Of the same manner are our songs, them. As if wantonness and lubricity were essenwhich are turned into burlesque, and the serious tial to that sort of poem, which ought to be words of the author perverted into a ridiculous avoided in it. His other allegation, wbich I have meaning. Thus in Timon's Silli, the words are

already mentioned, is as pitiful : that the satyrs generally those of Homer, and the tragic poets; carried platters and canisters full of fruit, in their but he applies them satirically to some customs hands. If they had entered empty-banded, had and kinds of philosophy, which he arraigns. But they been ever the less satyrs? Or were the fruits the Romans not using any of these parodies in and flowers, which they offered, any thing of kin their satires ; sometimes, indeed, repeating verse's

to satire? Or any argument that this poem was of other men, as Persius cites some of Nero's; originally Grecian? Casaubon judged better, and but not turning them into another meaning, 'the his opinion is grounded on sure authority, that Silli cannot be supposed to be the original of Ro-satire was derived from satura, a Roman word, man satire. To these Silli, consisting of parodies, which signifies full, and abundant, and full also we may properly add the satires which were written variety, in which nothing is wanting in its due against particular persons; such as

were the perfection. It is thus, says Dacier, that we lay jambics of Archilochus against Lycambes, which

a full colour, when the wool has taken the whole Horace undoubtedly imitated in some of his odes tincture, and drunk in as much of the dye as it

can receive. According to this derivation from and epodes, whose titles bear a sufficient witness of it: I might also naine the invective of Ovid satur, cornes satura, or satyra, according to the

new spelling; as optumus and maxumus are now against Ibis, and many others : but these are the underwood of satire, rather than the timber-tree, spelled optimus. and maximus. Satura, as I have they are not a general extension, as reaching only formerly noted, is an adjective, and relates to the to some individual person. And Horace seems to word lanx, which is understood. And this lanz, have purged himself from those splenetic reflec- in English, a charger, or large platter, was yearly tions in those odes and epodes, before he under-filled with all sorts of fruits, which were offered took the noble work of satires, which were properly to the gods at their festivals, as the premices, or so called.

first-gatherings. These offerings of several sorts Thus, my lord, I have at length disengaged thus mingled, it is true, were not known to the myself from those antiquities of Greece: and have Grecians, who called them yarzátor busiæv, a proved, I hope, from the best critics, that the sacrifice of all sorts of fruits; and startsquíces, when Roman satire was not borrowed from thence, but they offered all kinds of grain. Virgil has men. of their own manufacture : I am now althost gotten tioned these sacrifices in bis Georgics. into my depth ; at least by the help of Dacier I

Lancibus & pandis fumantia reddimus exta. am swimming towards it. Not that I will pro- and in another place, Lancesque & liba feremus: mise always to follow him, any more than he that is, we ofer the smoking entrails in great platfollows Casaubon ; but to keep him in my eye, ters, and we will offer the chargers and the cakes. as my best and truest guide; and where I think

This word satura has been afterwards applied to he may possibly mislead me, there to have re

many other sorts of mixtures; as Festus calls it course to my own lights, as I expect that others

a kind of olla, or hotchpotch, made of several should do by me.

sorts of mcats. Laws were also called legis saluræ, Quintilian says, in plain words, Satira quidem when they were of several heads and titles ; like tota nostra est; and Horace has said the same our tacked bills of parliament. And per saturam thing before his, speaking of bis predecessor in ' legem ferre, in the Roman senate, was to carry a

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law without telling the senators, or counting of it to their audience. Somewhat of this case voices, when they were in haste. Sallust uses tom was afterwards retained in their Saturnalia, the word per saturam sententias exquirere ; when or feasts of Saturn, celebrated in December ; at the majority was visibly on one side. From hence least all kind of freedom jo speech was then allowed it might probably be conjectured, that the dis- to slaves, even against their masters; and we courses or satires of Ennius, Lucilius, and Horace, are not without some imitation of it in our as we now call them, took their name; because Christmas gambols. Soldiers also used those they are full of various matters, and are also written Pescennine verses, after measure and numbers had on various subjects, as Porphyrius says. But been added to them, at the triumph of their Dacier affirms, that it is not immediately from generals : of which we have an example, in the thence that these satires are so called : for that triumph of Julius Cæsar over Gaul, in these exnaine had been used formerly for other things, pressions : Cæsar Gallias subegit, Nicomedes Cæwhich bore a nearer resemblance to those dis sarem ; ecce Cæsar nunc triumphat, qui subegit courses of Horace. In explaining of which (con. Gallias ; Nicomedes non triumphat, qui subegit tinues Dacier) a method is to be pursued, of Cæsarem. The vapours of wine made the first which Casaubon himself has never thought, and satirical poets amongst the Romans; which, says which will put all things into so clear a light, Dacier, we cannot better represent, than by ima. that no farther room will be left for the least gining a company of clowns on a holiday, dancing dispute.

lubberly, and upbraiding one another in extempore During the space of almost four hundred years,

doggrel, with their defects and vices, and the stories since the building of their city, the Romans had

that were told of them in bakehouses and barbers' never known any entertaininents of the state : shops. chance and jollity first found out those verses When they began to be somewhat better bred, which they called Saturnian, and Pescennine : or and were entering, as I may say, into the first rather human nature, which is inclined to poetry, rudiments of civil conversation, they left these first produced them, rude and barbarous, and un- hedge-notes, for another sort of poem, somewhat polished, as all other operations of the soul are in polished, which was also full of pleasant raillery, their beginnings, before they are cultivated with but without any mixture of obscenity. This sort art and study. However, in occasions of merri- of poetry appeared under the name of satire, bement they were first practised; and this rough cast

cause of its variety : and this satire was adorned unhewn poetry was instead of stage-plays, for the

with compositions of music, and with dances ; but space of one hundred and twenty years together.

lascivious postures were banished from it. Jo the They were made extempore, and were, as the Tuscan language, says Livy, the word hister signiFrench call them, impromptus; for which the Tar- fies a player : and therefore those actors, which sians of old were much renowned ; and we see

were first brought from Etruria to Rome, on occa. the daily examples of them in the Italian farces sion of a pestilence; when the Romans were adof Harlequin and Scaramucha. Such was the the monished to avert the anger of the gods by plays, poetry of that savage people, before it was turned in the year ab Urbe Condita cccxc; those actors, into numbers, and the harmony of verse. Lit- I say, were therefore called histriones: and that tle of the Saturnian verses is now remaining; we name has since remained, not only to actors Roonly know from authors, that they were nearer man born, but to all others of every nation. They prose than poetry, without feet or measure. They played not the former extempore stuff of Fescenwere öppuopos, but not impotpor: perhaps they might nine verses, or clownish jests; but what they be used in the solemn part of their ceremonies ; acted was a kind of civil cleanly farce, with music and the Fescennine, which were invented after and dances, and motions that were proper to the them, in their afternoon's debauchery, because subject. they were scoffing and obscene.

In this condition Livius Andronicus found the The Pescennine and Saturnian were the same; stage, when he attempted first, instead of farces, for as they were called Saturnian from their an- to supply it with a nobler entertainment of tragedies cientness, when Saturn reigned in Italy; they were and comedies. This man was a Grecian bom, and also called Fescennine, from Fescennina, a town being made a slave by Livius Salinator, and brought in the same country, where they were first prac- to Rome, had the education of his patron's chile tised. The actors, with a gross and rustic kind dren committed to him. Which trust he disof raillery, reproached each other with their fail. charged so much to the satisfaction of bis master, ing; and at the same time were nothing sparing that he gave him his liberty.

Androuicus, thus become a freeman of Rome, particular persons. For if this be granted me, added to his own name that of Livius his master; which is a most probable supposition, it is easy to and, as I observed, was the first author of a infer, that the first light which was given to the regular play in that commonwealth. Being al- Roman theatrical satire, was from the plays of ready instructed, in his native country, in the Livius Andronicus. Which will be more manifestly manners and decencies of the Athenian theatre, discovered, when I come to speak of Ennius. la and conversant in the Archæ comedia, or old the meantime I will return to Dacier. comedy of Aristophanes, and the rest of the The people, says he, ran in crowds to these Grecian poets; he took from that model his own new entertainments of Andronicus, as to pieces designing of plays for the Roman stage. The first which were more noble in their kind, and more of which was represented in the year cccccxiv perfect than their former satires, which for some since the building of Rome, as Tully, from the time they neglected and abandoned. But not long

commentaries of Atticus, has assured us: it was after, they took them up again, and then they after the end of the first Punic war, the year be joined them to their comedies : playing them at fore Ennius was born. Dacier has not carried the the end of every drama; as the French continue matter altogether thus far; he only says, that at this day to act their farces ; in the nature of a one Livius Andronicus was the first stage-poet at separate entertainment from their tragedies. But Rome: but I will adventure on this hint, to ad- more particularly they were joined to the Attellane vance another proposition, which I hope the learn- fables, says Casaubon; which were plays invented ed will approve. And though we have not any | by the Osci. Those fables, says Valerius Maxithing of Andronicus remaining to justify my con- mus, out of Livy, were tempered with the Italian jecture, yet it is exceeding probable, that having severity, and free from any note of infamy or read the works of those Grecian wits, his country. obsceneness; and, as an old commentator on men, he imitated not only the ground-work, but Juvenal aftirms, the Exordiarii, which were singers also the manner of their writing. And how grave and dancers, entered to entertain the people with soever bis tragedies might be, yet in his comedies light songs, and mimical gestures, that they might he expressed the way of Aristophanes, Eupolis, not go away oppressed with melancholy, from and the rest, which was to call some persons by those serious pieces of the theatre. So that the

ancient satire of the Romans was in extemporary their own names, and to expose their defects to the laughter of the people. The examples of reproaches: the next was farce, which was brought which we have in the forementioned Aristophanes, from Tuscany: to that succeeded the plays of who turned the wise Socrates into ridicule ; and Andronicus, from the old comedy of the Grecians: is also very free with the management of Cleon, and out of all these, sprung two several branches Alcibiades, and other ministers of the Athenian of new Roman satire; like different cions from government. Now if this be granted, we may the same root : which I shall prove with as much casily suppose, that the first hint of satirical brevity as the subject will allow. plays on the Roman stage, was given by the A year after Andronicus had opened the Roman Greeks. Not from the Satyrica, for that has stage with his new dramas, Ennius was born; who, been reasonably exploded in the former part of when he was grown to man's estate, having this discourse; but from their old comedy, which seriously considered the genius of the people, and was imitated first by Livius Andronicus. And how eagerly they followed the first satires, thought then Quintilian and Horace must be cautiously it would be worth his pains to refine upon the interpreted, where they affirm, that satire is wholly project, and to write satires, not to be acted on Roman; and a sort of verse, which was not

the theatre, but read. He preserved the groundtouched on by the Grecians. The reconcilement work of their pleasantry, their venom, and their of my opinion to the standard of their judgment, raillery on particular persons, and general vices : is not, however, very difficult, since they spake and by this means, avoiding the danger of any ill of satire, not as in its first elements, but as it success in a public representation, he hoped to was formed into a separate work; begun by be as well received in the cabinet as Andronicus Ennius, pursued by Lucilius, and completed had been upon the stage. The event was answerafterwards by. Horace. The proof depends only on able to bis expectation. He made discourses in this postulatum : that the comedies of Andronicus, several sorts of verse, varied often in the same which were imitations the Greek, were also paper; retaining still in the title their original imitations of their railleries, and reflections on name of satire. Both in relation to the subjects

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