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the ancients; and that satire is a poem of a diffi- fully, will carry the palm from his two antacult nature in itself, and is not written to vulgar gonists. The philosophy in which Persius was readers. And, through the relation which it has educated, and which he professes through bis to comedy, the frequent change of persons makes whole book, is the stoic: the most noble, most the sense perplexed, when we can but divine who generous, most beneficial to human kind, amongst it is that speaks; whether Persius himself, or his all the sects, who have given us the rules of friend and monitor; or, in some places, a third ethics, thereby to form a severe virtue in the person. But Casaubon comes back always to him- soul; to raise in us an undaunted courage, against self, and concludes, that if Persius had not been the assaults of fortune; to esteem as nothing the obscure, there had been no need of him for an things that are without us, because they are not interpreter. Yet when he had once enjoined him- | in our power ; not to value riches, beauty, hoself so hard a task, he then considered the Greek nours, fame, or health, any farther than as conproverb, that he must reaans Paysiv in perin paysīv, veniences, and so many helps to living as we either eat the whole snail, or let it quite alone; ought, and doing good in our generation. In and so he went through with his laborious task, as short, to be any ways happy, while we possess I have done with my difficult translation.
our minds with a goor conscience, or free from Thus far, my lord, you see it has gone very hard the slavery of viccs, and conform our actions and with Persius : I think he cannot be alloned to conversations to the rules of right reason. See stand in competition, either with Juvenal or Ho- here, niy lord, an epitome of Epictetus; the docrace. Yet, for once, I will venture to be so vain, trine of Zeno, and the education of our Persius. as to affirm, that none of his hard metaphors, or And this he expressed, not only in all his satires, forced expressions, are in my translation : but but in the manner of his life. I will not lessen more of this in its proper place, where I shall say this commendation of the stoic philosophy, by somewhat in particular of our general perform- giving you an account of some absurdities in their ance, in making these two authors English. In doctrine, and some, perhaps, impietjes, if we the mean time, I think myself obliged to give consider them by the standard of Christian faith : Persius his undoubted due, and to acquaint the Persius has fallen into none of them; and thereworld, with Casaubon, in what he has equalled, fore is free from those imputations. What he and in wbat excelled, his two competitors.
teaches might be taught from pulpits, with more A man who is resolved to praise an author, with profit to the audience, than all the nice speculaany appearance of justice, must be sure to take tions of divinity, and controversies concerning him on the strongest side, and where he is least faith : which are more for the profit of the shepliable to exceptions. He is therefore obliged to herd, than for the edification of the fock. Paschoose his mediums accordingly ; Casaubon, who sion, interest, ambition, and all their bloody consaw that Persius could not laugh wit a becoming sequences of discord and of war, are banished from grace, that he was not made for jesting, and that this doctrine. Here is nothing proposed but the a merry conceit was not his talent, turned his quiet and tranquillity of the mind : virtue lodged feather, like an Indian, to another light, that he at home, and afterwards diffuised in her genural might give it the better gloss. Moral doctrine, effects, to the improvement and good of human says he, and urbanity, orwell-mannered wit, kind. And therefore I wonder not that the preare the two things which constitute the Roman sent bishop of Salisbury has recommended this mtire. But of the two, that which is most essen- our author, and the tenth satire of Juvenal, in his tial to this poem, and is, as it were, the very soul Pastoral Letter, to the serious perusal and pracwhich animates it, is the scourging of vice, and tice of the divines in his diocese, as the best.com. exhortation to virtue. Thus wit, for a good reafmon-places for their sermons, as the store-houses son, is already almost out of doors ; and allowed and magazines of motal virtues, from whence they only for an instrument, a kind of tool, or a wea- may draw out, as they have occasion, all manner pon, as he calls it, of which the satirist makes of assistance for the accomplishment of a virtuous use, in the compassing of his design. The end life, which the stoics have assigned for the great and aim of our three rivals, is consequently the end and perfection of mankind. Hercia then it same. By what methods they have prosecuted is, that Persius has excelled both Juvenal and their intention, is farther to be considered. Satire Horace. lle sticks to his own philosophy: he is of the nature of moral philosophy, as being in- shifts not sides, like Horace, who is sometimes an structive: he, therefore, who instructs most use. Fpicurean, sometimes a Stoic, sometimos an Ec. lectic, as his present humour leads bim; nor de- | panion for the retirei hours and priracies of a claims, like Juvenal, against vices, inore like an favourite, who was first minister. So that, upon orator, than a philosopher. Persius is every where the whole matter, Persius may be acknowledged the same; true to the doginas of his inaster. What tu be equal with him in those respects, though he has learnt, be t-arhes vehemently; and what better born, and Juvenal inferior to both. If the he traches, that he practises himself. There is a advantage be any where, it is on the side of Hospirit of sincerity in all he says : you may easily race; as much as the court of Augustus Cæsar discern that he is in earnest, and is persuaded of was superior to that of Nero. As for the subjects that truth which he inculcatis. In this I ain of which they treated, it will appear bereafter, that opinion, that he excels Horace, who is commonly Horace writ not vulgariy on vulgar subjects, nor in jest, and laughs while he instructs: and is always chose them. His style is constantly acequal to Juvenal, who was as honest and serious as commodlated to his subject, either high or low: Persius, and more he could not be.
if his fault be too much lowness, that of Persius Ilitherto I have followed Casaubon, and enlarged is the fault of the hardness of his metapbors and upon him; because I am satisfied that he says no
obscurity: and so they are equal in the failings more than truth; the rest is almost all frivolous of their style; where Juvenal manifestly triumphs For he says, that Horace, being the son of a tax
over both of them. gatherer, or a collector, as we call it, smells every
The comparison betwixt Horace and Jureval is where of the meanness of his birth and education: more difficult; because their forces were more his conceits are rulgar, like the subjects of his qual: a dispute has always been, and ever will satires; that he does plebeinn sapere ; and writes continue, betwixt the favourers of the two poets. not with that elevation which becomes a satirist : Non nostrum est tantas componere lites. I shall that Persius being nobly born, and of an opulent only venture to give my opinion, and leare it for family, had likewise the advantage of a better better judges to determine. If it be only argued master; Cornutus being the most learned of his in general, which of them was the better poet, the time, a man of the most holy life, the chief of the victory is already gained on the side of Horace. stoic sect at Rome; and not only a great philo. Virgil himself must yield to him in the delicacy sopher, but a poet himself; and, in probability, of his turns, bis choice of words, and perhaps the a coadjutor of Persius. That, as for Juvenal, he purity of his Latin. He who says that l'indar is was long a declaimer, came late to poetry, and has inimitable, is himself inimitable in his odes. But not been much conversant in philosophy.
the contention betwixt these two great masters, is It is granted, that the father of Horace was for the prize of satire: in which controversy, all Libertinus, that is, one degree removed from bis the odes and cpodes of Horace are to stand exgrandfather, who had been once a slave : but Ilo- cluded. I say this, because Horace has written race, speaking of him, gives him the best cha- many of them satirically, against his private eneracter of a father, which I ever read in history; mies: yet these, if justly considered, are someand I wish a witty friend of mine, now living, had what of the nature of the Greek Silli, which were such another. He bred him in the best school, invectives against particular sects and persons. and with the best compauy of young noblemen. But Horace has purged himself of this choler, beAnd Horace, by his gratitude to his memory, gives fore he entered on those discourses, which are a certain testimony that his education was inge- more properly called the Roman satire: he has nuous. After this, he formed himself abroad, by not now to do with a Lyce, a Canidia, a Cassius the conversation of great men. Brutus found Sererus, or a Menas; but is to correct the vices him at Athens, and was so pleased with him, that and the follies of his time, and to give the rules be took him thence into the army, and made him of a happy and virtuous life. In a word, that tribunus militum, a colonel in a legion, which was former sort of satire, which is known in England the preferment of an old soldier. All this was be- by the name of lampoon, is a dangerous sort of fore his acquaintance with Mæcenas, and nis in- weapon, and for the most part unlawful. We troduction into the court of Augustus, and the have no moral right on the reputation of other familiarity of that great emperor; which, had he not It is taking from them what we cannot rebeen well-bred before, had been enough to civilize store to them. There are only two reasons, for his conversation, and render him accomplished which we may be perinitted to write lampoons ; and knowing in all the arts of complacency and and I will not promise that they can always justify -good behaviour; and, in short, an agreeable com- us: the first is revenge, when we have been affronted in the same nature, or have been any ways, persons as are the proper subject of satire! and notoriously abused, and can make ourselves no how little wit they bring, for the support of their other reparation. And yet we know, that, in injustice! The weaker sex is their most ordinary Christian charity, all offences are to be forgiven, theme ; and the best and fairest are sure to be as we expect the like pardon for those which we the most severely handled. Amongst men, those daily commit against Almighty God. And this who are prosperously unjust, are entitled to paneconsideration has often made me tremble when I syric; but afflicted virtue is insolently stabbed was saying our Saviour's prayer; fv: the plain with all manner of reproaches; no decency is concondition of the forgiveness which we beg, is the
silered, no fulsomeness omitted; no venom is pardoning of others the offences which they have wanting, as far as vulness can supply it: for thrré done to us: for which reason I have many times is a perpetual dearth of wit; a barrenness of good avoided the commission of that fault, even when
sense and entertainment. The neglect of the I bave been notoriously provoked. Let not this, readers will soon put an end to this sort of scribmy lord, pass for vanity in me; for it is truth. bling. There can be no pleasantry where there More libels have been written against me, than is no wit: no impression can be made, where almost any man now living: and I had reason on
there is no truth for the foundation. To conclude, my side, to have defended my own innocence: they are like the fruits of the earth in this unI speak not on my poctry, which I bare wholly natural season : the corn which held up its head, given up to the critics ; let them use it as they is spojled with rankness; but the greater part of please; posterity, perhaps, may be more farour the harvest is laid along, and little of good income able to me : for interest and passion will lie and wholesome nourishment is received into the buried in another age; and partiality and pre- barns. This is almost a digression, I confess to judice be forgotten. I speak of my morals, which your lordship; but a just indignation forced it have been sufficiently aspersed ; that any sort of from ine. Now I have removed this rubbish, I reputation ought to be dear to every honest man,
will return to the comparison of Juvenal and and is to me. But let the world witness for me,
Horace. that I have been often wanting to myself in that
I would willingly divide the palm betwixt them, particular; I have seldom answered any scurrilous upon the two heads of profit and delight, which lampoon, when it was in iny power to have ex
are the two ends of poetry in general. It must posed my enemies : and, being naturally vindica- be granted by the favourers of Juvenal, that tive, have suffered in silence, and possessed my
Horace is the more copious and profitabie in his soul in quiet.
instructions of human life: but in my particular Any thing, though never so little, which a man opinion, which I set not up for a standard to speaks of himself, in my opinion, is still too much; better judgments, Juvenal is the more delightful and therefore I will wave this subject, and proceed author. I am profited by both, I am pleased to give the second reason, which may justify a
with both ; but I owe more to Horace, for my poet, when he writes against a particular person: instruction ; and more to Juvenal, for my pleasure. and that is, when he is become a public nuisance. This, as I said, is my particular taste of these And those, whom Horace in his satires, and
two authors; they who will have either of thein Persius and Juvenal have mentioned in theirs, to excel the other in both qualities, can scarce with a brand of infamy, are wholly such. It is give better reasons for their opinion, than I for an action of virtue to make examples of vicious mine; but all unbiassed readers will conclude,
that mem. They may and ought to be upbraided with my moderation is not to be condemned ; to their crimes and follies : both for their own amend-such impartial men I must appeal: for they who ment, if they are not yet incorrigible, and for the have already formed their judgments, may justly terrour of others, to hinder them from falling into stand suspected of prejudice; and though all u ho those enormities, which they see are so severely
are my readers, will set up to be my judges, I punished in the persons of others. The first enter my caveat against them, that they ought reason was only an excuse for revenge ; but this not so much as to be of my jury: or, if they be second is absolutely of a poet's office to perform : admitted, it is but reason that they should first but how few Jampooners are there now living, who hear what I have to urge in the defence of my are capable of this duty! When they come in
opinion. my. way, it is impossible sometimes to avoid read
That Llorace is somewhat the better instructor ing them. But, good God! how remote they of the two, is proved from hence, that his instrucare, in common justice, from the choice of such / tions are nuore general : Juvenal's more limited,
So that granting, that the counsels which they even of the most wise and grave, as well as of the give are equally good for moral use; Horace, who common people; discovering, even in the great gives the inost various advice, and most appli- Trebatius, to whom he addresses the first satire, cable to all occasions which can occur to us in the his hunting after business, and following the court, course of our lives; as including in his discourses as well as in the persecutor Crispinus, his impernot only all the rules of morality, but also tinence and importunity. It is true he exposes of civil conversation ; is undoubtedly to be Crispinus openly, as a common nuisance; but be preferred to him, who is more circumscribed rallies the other as a friend, more finely. The in bis instructions, makes them to fewer people, exhortations of Persius are confined to noblemen ; and on fewer occasions, than the other. I may and the stoic philosophy is that alone which he be pardoned for using an old saying, since it is recommends to them ; Juvenal exhorts to partrue, and to the purpuse, Bonum quo commu- ticular virtues, as they are opposed to those vices nis, eo melius. Juvenal, excepting only his first against which he declaims ; but Horace laughs to satire, is, in all the rest, confined, to the exposing shame all follies, and insinuates virtue, rather of sonie particular vice ; that he lashes, and there by familiar examples, than by the severity of he sticks. His sentences are truly shining and
precepts. instructive; but they are sprinkled here and there.
This last consideration secms to incline the Horace is teaching us in every line, and is per- balance on the side of Horace, and to give bim petually moral ; he had found out the skill of Vir- the preference to Juvenal, not only in profit, but gil, to hide his sentences : to give you the virtue in pleasure. But, after all, I must confess that of them, without showing them in their full ex.
the delight which Horace gives me, is but lantent: which is the ostentation of a poet, and not guishing. Be pleased still to understand, that I his art: and this Petronius charges on the authors speak of my own taste only: he may rarish other of his time, as a vice of writing, which was then men ; but I am too stupid and insensible to he growing on the age. Ne sententiæ extra corpus tickled. Where he barely grins himself, and as orationis emineant : he would have them reavcd Scaliger says, only shows his white teeth, he into the body of the work, and not appear ein
cannot provoke me to any laughter. His urbanity, bossed upon it, and striking directly on the reader's that is, his good manners, are to be commended; view. Folly was the proper quarry of Horace, but his wit is faint; and his salt, if I may dare and not vice : and, as there are but few notori- to say so, almost insipid. Juvenal is of a more ously wicked men, in comparison with a shoal of vigorous and masculine wit; he gives me as much fools and fops ; so it is a harder thing to make a pleasure as I can bear : he fully satisfies my exman wise, than to make him honest : for the will pectation ; he treats his subject home : his spleen is only to be reclaimed in the one ; but the un- is raised, and he raises mine : I have the pleaderstanding is to be informed in the other. There sure of concernment in all he says : he drives his are blind sides and follies, even in the professors reader along with him; and when he is at the end of moral philosophy; and there is not any one of his way, I willingly stup with him. If he went sect of them that Horace has not exposed. Which, another stage, it would be too far, it would make as it was not the design of Juvenal, who was a journey of a progress, and tum delight into fawholly employed in lashing vices, some of them tigue. When he gives over, it is a sign the subthe most enormous that can be imagined; so peroject is exhausted, and the wit of man can carry haps, it was not so much his talent.
Omne it no farther. If a fault can justly be found in valer vitiam ridenti Flaccus amico, langit, & ad him, it is that he is sometimes too luxuriant, too missus circum præcordia ludit.
This was the redundant, says more than he needs, like my commendation which Persias gave biin; wliere by friend the Plaiu-dealer, but never citium, he means those little vices, which we call pleases. Add to this, that his thoughts are as Follies, the defects of human understanding, or at just as those of Horace, and much more clevated. most the peccadillos of life, rather than the tragi- llis expressions are sonorous and more noble ; his cal vices, to which men are hurried by their un
verse more numerous, and his words are suitable ruly passions and exorbitant desires. But in the to his thoughts, sublime and lofty. All these word omne, which is universıl, he concludes with contribute to the pleasure of the reader: and the me, that the divine wit of Horace left nothing greater the soul of him who reads, his transports antouched ; that he entered into the inmost are the greater. Horace is always on the amble, Tyresses of nature ; found out the inperfections Jurenal va the gallop; but his way is perpetually
o cerpet-ground. He goes with more impetuosity we are more delighted with him. And besides than Horace, but as securely; and the swiftness this, the sauce of Juvenal is more poignant, to adds a more lively agitation to the spirits. The create in us an appetite of reading him. The low style of Horace is according to his subject, meat of Horace is more nourishing; but the that is generally grave: I question pot but he cookery of Juvenal more exquisite ; so that grantcould have raised it: for the first epistle of the ing Horace to be the more general philosopher, second l ook, wbich' he writes to Augustus, (a we cannot deny that Juvenal was the greater poet, most instructive satire concerning poetry,) is of so I mean in satire. His thoughts are sharper, his much dignity in the words, and of so much elegancy | indignation against vice is more vehement; his in the numbers, that the author plainly shows, spirit has more of the commonwealth genins ; hé the sermo pedestris, in his other satires, treats tyranny, and all the vices attending it, as rather his choice than his necessity. He was they deserve, with the utmost rigour. and cona rival to Lucilius, his predecessor, and was re- sequently a noble soul is better pleased with a solved to surpass him in his own manner. Lu- zealons vindicator of Roman liberty than with a cilius, as we see by his remaining fragments, temporizing poet, a well-mannered court slave, minded neither his style nor his numbers, nor his and a man who is often afraid of laughing in the purity of words, nor his run of verse ; Horace right place; who is ever decent, because he is therefore copes with him in that humble way of naturally servile. After all, Horace had the dissatire, writes under his own force, and carries a advantage of the times in which he lived ; they dead weight, that he may match his competitor were better for the man, but worse for the sain the race. This I imagine was the chief reason; tirist. It is generally said, that those enormous why he minded only the clearness of his satire, vices which were practised under the reign of Doand the cleanness of expression, without ascending mitian, were not known in the time of Augustus to those heights, to which his own vigour might Cæsar : that therefore Juvenal had a larger field have carried him. But limiting his desires only than Horace. Little follies were out of doors, to the conquest of Lucilius, he had the ends of his when oppression was to be scourged instead of rival, who lived before him; but made way for a avarice; it was no longer time to turn into ridinew conquest over himself, by Juvenal his suc- cule the false opinions of philosophers, when the cessor. He could not give an equal pleasure to Roman liberty was to be asserted. There was his reader, because he used not equal instruments. more need of a Brutus in Domitian's days, to reThe fault was in the tools, and not in the work deem or mend, than of a Horace, if he had been man. But versifications and numbers are the then living, to laugh at a fly-catcher. · This reflecgreatest pleasures of poetry : Virgil knew it, and, tion at the same time excuses Horace, but exalte practised both so happily, that, for aught I know, Juvenal. I bave ended, before I was aware, the his greatest excellency is his diction. In all comparison of Horace and Juvenal, upon the to, other parts of poetry, he is faultless ; but in this pics of pleasure and delight; and, indeed, I may he placed his chief perfection. And, give me safely here conclude that common-place; for if we leave, my lord, since I have here an apt occasion, make Horace our minister of state in satire, and say, that Virgil could have written sharper sa
Juvenal of our private pleasures; I think the lat. tires, than either Horace or Juvenal, if he would ter has no ill bargain of it. Let profit have the have employed his talent that way. I will pro- pre-eminence of honour, in the end of poetry. duce a verse and a half of his, in one of his Pleasure, though but the second in degree, is the eclogues, to justify my opinion; and with com
first in favour. Apd who would not chuse to be mas after every word, to show, that he has given loved better, rather than to be more esteemed? almost as many lashes, as be has written sylla- But I am entered already upon another topio; bles; it is against a bad poet, whose ill verses he
which concerns the particular merits of these two describes : Non tu, in triviis, indocte, solebas,
satirists. However, I will pursue my business stridenti, miserum, stipula, disperdere, carmen ?
where I left it; and carry it farther than that But to return to my purpose : when there is any
common observation of the several ages in which thing deficient in Qumbers and sound, the reader
these authors flourished. When Horace writ his is uneasy and unsatisfied; he wants something of satires
, the monarchy of his Cæsar was in its his compliment, desires somewhat which he finds
newness, and the government but just made easy not: and this being the manifest defect of Horave, have forgotten the usurpation of that prince upon
to the conquered people. They could not possibly it is no wonder that, finding it supplied in Juvenal, their freedom, nor the violent methods wbich be.