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had used, in the compassing that vast design : 1 be executed, on pretence of those libels, which they yet remembered his proscriptions, and the were written by Cassius Severus, against the noslaughter of so many noble Romans, their des Wility; but, in truth, to save himself from such fenders. Amongst the rest, that horrible action defamatory verses. Suetonius likewise makes menof his, when he forced Li: ia from the arms of her 'ion of it thus : Sparsos de se in Curiâ famosos husband, who was constrained to see her married, libellos, nec expavit, & magni curâ redarguit. as Dion relates the story, and, big with child as Ac ne requisitis quidem auctoribus, id modo censhe was, conveyed to the bed of his insulting suit, cognoscendun post hac, de iis qui libellos rival. The same Dion Cassius gives us another aut carmina ad infauniain cujuspiam sub alieno instance of the crime before mentioned: that Cor- uomine edant. Augustus was not afraid of nelius Sisenna, heing reproached in full senate, libris, says that author : yet he took all care with the licentious condart of bis wife, returned imaginable to have them answered ; and then dethis answer; that he had married ber by the creed, th t for the time to come, the authors of counsel of Augustis : intimating, says my author, them should be punished." But Aurelius makes that Augustus had obliged him to that marriage it yet more clear, according to my sense, that this that he might, under that covert, have the more emperor, for his own sake, durst not permit them; free access unto her. His adulteries were still before Fecit id Augustus in speciem, & quasi gratitheir eyes, but they must be patient, where they ficaretur populo Romano, & primoribus urbis; had not power. In other things that emperor was sed revera ut sibi consideret : nam habuit in animo, moderate enough: propriety was generally secur-comprimere nimiam quorundam procacitatem in ed, and the people entertained with public shows, loquendo, à quâ nec ipse exemntus fuit. Narn and donatives, to make them more easily digest suo nomine conpescere erat invidiosum, sub alieno their lost liberty. But Augustus, who was consci-facile & utile. Ergò specie legis tractavit quasi ous to birself of so many crimes which he had | populi Romani majestas infamaretur. This, i committed, thought in the first place to provide think, is a sufficient comment on that passage of for his own reputation, by making an ediet against Tacitus ; I will add only, by the way, that the Jampoons and satirs, and the authors of those whole family of the Cæsars, and all their relations, defamatory writings, which my anthor Tacitus, were included in the law; because the majesty from the law term, calls famosos libellos.
of the Romans, in the time of the empire, was In the first book of his Annals, he gives the folo | wholly in that house ; omnia Cæsar erat: they Jowing account of it, in these words : Primus
were all accounted sacred who belonged to him. Augustus cognitionem de famosis libellis specie As for Cassius Severus, he was contemporary with lezis ejus, tractavit ; commotus Cassii Sereri li- Horace; and was the same poet against whom he bidini, quâ viros fæminasque illustres, procacibus writes in his epodes, under this title, In Casscriptis diffamarorat. Thus, in English: Au- sium Severum maledicum poetam ; perhaps ingustos was the first, who under the colour of that tending to kill two crows, according to our prolaw took cognizance of lampoons ; being provoked verb, with one stone, and revenge both himself to it, by the petulaney of Cassius Severus, who and his emperor together. had defamed many illustrions persons of both From hence I may reasonably conclude, that sexes, in his writings. The law to which Tacitus Augustus, who was not altogether so good as he refers, was lex læsa majestatis : commonly called was wise, had some by-respect in the enacting of for the sake of brevity, ma estas ; or, as we say, this law : for to do any thing for nothing, was not high treason : lic means not that this las had not his maxim. Horace, as he was a cowtier, combeen enacted formerly: for it had been made by / plied with the interest of his master; and avoiding the Decemviri, and was inscribed amongst the rest the lashing of greater crimes, confined himself to in the twelve tables : to prevent the aspersion of the ridiculing of petty vices, and common follies; the Roman majesty, either of the people thein- excepting only some reserved cases, in his odes selves, or their religion, or their magistrates: and and epodes, of his own particular quarrels, which, the infringement of it was capital; that is, the either with permission of the magistrate, or withoffender was whipt to death with the fasces, which out it, every man will revenge, though I say not were borne before the chief officers of Rome. But that he should ; for prior losit, is a good excuse Augustus was the first, who restored that inter- in the civil law, if Christianity bad not taught us mitted law: by the words, “ under colour of that to forgive. However, he was not the proper man law,” he insinuates that Augustus caused it to to arraign great vices, at least if the stories
which we hear of bim are true, that he practised Thus far that learned critic, Barten Holiday, soine, which I will not here mention, out of ho- whose interpretation and illustrations of Juvenal nour to him. It was not for a Clodius to accuse are as excellent, as the verse of his translation adulterers, especially when Augustus was of that and his English are lame and pitiful. For it is number: so that though his age was not exempted not enough to give us the meaning of a poet, from the worst of villainies, there was no freedom which I acknowledge him to have performed most left to reprehend them, by reason of the edict. faithfully, but he must also imitate his genius And our poet was not fit to represent them in an and his numbers, as far as the English will como odious character, because himself was dipt in the up to the elegance of the original. In few words, samne actions. Upon this account, without farther it is only for a poet to translate a poet. Holiday insisting on the different tempers of Juvenal and and Stapylton bad not enough considered this, Horace, I conclude, that the subjects which Horace when the attempted Juvenal; but I forbear rechose for satire, are of a lower natüre than those sections ; only I beg leave to take notice of this of wisich Juvenal has written.“
sentence, where Holiday says; “a perpetual grin, Thus I have treated, in a new method, the like that of Horace, rather angers than amends a comparison betwixt Horace, Juvenal, and Per- man." I cannot give him up the manner of sius; soinewhat of their particular manner belong- Horace, in low satire, so easily. let the chastiseing to all of them is yet remaining to be con- ment of Juvenal be never so necessary for his new sidered. Persius was grave, and particularly op- kind of satire ; , let him declaim as wittily and posed his gravity to lewdness, which was the pre-| sharply as he pleases, yet still the nicest and most dominant vice in Nero's court, at the time when delicate touches of satire consist in fine raillery. he published his satires, which was before that this, my lord, is your particular talent, to which emperor fell into the excess of cruelty. Horace eren Juvenal could not arrive. It is not reading, was a mild admonisher, a court satirist, fit for the it is not imitation of an author, which can progeatle times of Augustus, and more fit, for the duce his fineness : it inust be inborn, it must proreasons which I have already given. Juvenal was ceed from a genius, and particular way of thinkas proper for his times, as they for theirs : bis ing, which is not to be taught ; and therefore not was an age that deserved a more severe chastise- to be imitated by him who has it not from nature: ment: vices were more gross and open, more how easy is it to call rogue and villain, and that flagitious, more encouraged by the example of a wittily! But how hard to make a man appear tyrant, and more protected by his authority. a fool, a blockbead, or a knave, without using Therefore, wheresoever Juvenali mentions Nero, any of those opprobrious terins! To spare the he means Domitian, whom be dares not attack in grossness of the names, and to do the thing yet his own person, but scourges bim by proxy. Hein- more severely, is to draw a full face, and to make sius urges in praise of Horace, that, according to the nose and cheeks stand out, and yet not to the ancient art and law of satire, it should be employ any depth of shadowing. This is the nearer to comedy than tragedy; not declaiming mystery of that noble trade, which yet no master against vice, but only laughing at it. Neither can teach to his apprentice : he may give the Persius nor Juvenal were ignorant of this, for rules, but the scholar'is never the nearer in his they bad both studied Horace. And the thing practice. Neither is it true, that this fineness itself is plainly true. But as they had read Horace, of raillery is offensive. A witty man is tickled they had likewise read Lucilius, of whom Persius wbile he is burt in this manner; and a fool feels says, secuit urbem ; & genuinum fregit in illis; it not. The occasion of an oiicnce may possibly meaning Mutius and Lupus: and Javenal also be given, but he cannot take it. If it be granted, mentions him in these words: Ense velut stricto, that in effect this way does more mischief, that quoties Lucilius ardens infremuit, &c. So that a man is secretly wounded, and though he be not they thought the imitation of Lucilius was more sensible himself, yet the malicious world will find proper to their purpose than that of florace. it out for him : yet there is still a vast difference “ They changed satire,” says Holiday; “ but betwixt the slovenly butchering of a man, and they changed it for the better : for the business the fineness of a stroke that separates the head being to reform great vices, chastisement goes from the body, and leaves it standing in its place. farther than admonition; whereas a perpetual “A man may be capable, as Jack Ketch's wife grin, like that of Horace, does rather anger than said of his servant, of a plain piece of work, a ainend a man,”
bare hanging; but to make a malefactor die
swèctly, was only belonging to her husband. 1 Horace meant to make his reader laugh; but he wish I could apply it to myself; if the reader is not sure of his experiment. Juvenal always inwould be kind enough to think it belpngs to me. tends to move your indignation ; and be always
The character of Zimri, in my Absalom, is, in brings about his purpose. Horaces for aught ! my opinion, worth the whole poem : it is not know, might have tickled the people of his age ; bloody, but it is ridiculous enough : and be for but amongst the moderns he is not so successful. whom it was intended, was too witty to resent it They who say he entertains so pleasantly, may as an injury. If I had railed, I might have suf. perhaps value themselves on the quickness of their fered for it justly; but I managed mine own works own understandings, that they can see a jest fare more happily, perhaps more dexterously. Ither off than other men : they may food occasion avoided the mention of great crimes, and applied of laughter in the wit-battle of the two buffoons, myself to the representing of blind sides, and Sarmentus and Cicerrus; and hold their sides for little extravagancies : to which, the wittier a man fear of bursting, when Rupilius and Persius are is, he is generally the more obnoxious. It suc- scolding. For my own part, I can only like the ceeded as I wished; the jest went round, and be characters of all four, which are judiciously given: was laughed at in his turn who began the frolic.
but for my heart I cannot so much as smile at And thus, my lord, you see I have preferred their insipid raillery. I see not why Persius should the manner of Horace, and of your lordship, in call upon Brutus to revenge him on his adversary; the kind satire, to that of Juvenal ; and I think, and that because he had killed Julius Cæsar for reasonably. Holiday ought not to have arraigned endeavouring to be a king, therefore he should be so great an author, for that which was his ex- desired to murder Rupilius, only because his name cellency and his merit : or if he did, on such a was Mr. King. A miserable clench, in my opipalpable mistake, he might expect that some one
nion, for Horace to record : I have heard honest might possibly arise, either in his own time, or
Mr. Swan make many a better, and yet have had åfter him, to rectify his errour, and restore to the grace to hold my countenance. But it may Horace that commendation, of which he has so be puns were then in fashion, as they were wit in unjustly robbed him. And let the manes of Juvenal the sermons of the last age, and in the court of king forgive me, if I say, that this way of Horace was
Charles II. I am sorry to say it, for the sake of the best for amending manners, as it is the most
Horace ; but certain it is, that he has no fine difficult. His was, an ense rescindendum ; but palate who can feed so heartily on garbage. that of Horace was a pleasant care, with all
But I have already wearied myself, and doubt the limbs preserved entirely; and, as our mounte- not but I have tired your lordship's patience, with banks tell us in their bills, without keeping the this long, rambling, and I fear trivial discourse. patient within doors for a day. What they pro- Upon the one half of the merits, that is, pleasure, mise only, Horace has effectually performed: yet I cannot but conclude that Juvenal was the better I contradict not the proposition which I formerly satirist : they who will descend into his particular advanced : Juvenal's times required a more pain- praises, may find them at large in the disserta, ful kind of operation : but if he had lived in the tion of the learned Rigaltius to Thuanus. As for age of Horace, I must needs affirm, that he had Persius, I have given the reasons why I think it not about him. He took the method which was him inferior to both of them: yet I have one prescribed him by his own genius; which was thing to add on that subject. sharp and eager ; he could not rally, but he could Barten Holiday, who translated both Juvenal declaim; and as his provocations were great, he and Persius, has made this distinction betwixt has revenged them tragically. This notwithstand
them, which is no less true than witty; That, ing, I am to say another word, which, as true as in Persius, the difficulty is to find a meaning; in it is, will yet displease the partial admirers of our Javenal to choose a meaning: so crabbed is Per. Horace. I have hinted it before ; but it is time sius, and so copious is Juvenal : so much the unfor me now to speak more plainly.
derstanding is employed in one, and so much the 'This manner of Horace is indeed the best; but judgment in the other. So difficult it is to find Horace has not executed it altogether so happily, any sense in the former, and the best sense of the at least not often. The manner of Jurenal is latter, confessed to be inferior to the former ; but Juvenal If, on the other side, any one suppose I have has excelled him in his performance. Juvenal commended Horace below his merit, when I have bas railed more witily than Horace bas rallied. allowed him but the second place, I desire him
to consider, if Juvenal, a man of excellent natural, the principles and motives of all our actions; and endowments, besides the advantages of diligence to avoid the ridicule, into which all men necesand study, and coming after him, and building sarily fall, who are intoxicated with those notions upon his foundations, might not probably, with which they have received from their masters; all these helps, surpass him? And whether it be and jwhich they obstinately retain, without exaany dishonour to Horace to be thus surpassed ; mining whether or no they be founded on right since no art, or science, is at once begun and reason. perfected, but that it must pass first through “In a word, he labours to render us happy in re many hands, and even through several ages ? If lation to ourselves, agreeable and faithful to our Lucilius could add to Ennius, and Horace to Lu- friends, and discreet, serviceable, and well-bred in cilius, why, without any diminution to the fame relation to those with whom we are obliged to live, of Horace, might not Juvenal give the last per- and to converse. To make his figures intelligible, fection to that work? Or rather, what disreputa- to conduct his readers through the labyrinth of tion is it to Horace, that Juvenal excels in the some perplexed sentence, or obscure parenthesis, tragical satire, as Horace does in the comical? is no great matter : and, as Epictetus says, there I have read over attentively both Heinsius and is nothing of beauty in all this, or what is Dacier, in their commendations of Horace; but worthy of a prudent man. The principal busiI can find no more in either of them, for the pre-ness, and which is of most importance to us, is ference of him to Juvenal, than the instructive to show the use, the reason, and the proof of his part; the part of wisdom, and not that of plea- precepts. sure ; which therefore is here allowed him, not
“They who endeavour not to correct themselves, withstanding what Scaliger and Rigaltius have according to so exact a model, are just like the pleaded to the contrary for Juvenal. And, to patients, who have open before them a book of show that I am impartial, I will here translate admirable receipts for their diseases, and please what Dacier has said on that subject.
theinselves with reading it, without comprehend“I cannot give a more just idea of the two books | ing the nature of the remedies, or how to apply of satires made by Horace, than by comparing them to their cure.” them to the statues of the Sileni, to which Alci
Let Horace go off with these encomiums, which biades compares Socrates, in the Syınposium. he has so well deserved. They were figures which had nothing of agreeable,
To conclude the contention betwixt our three nothing of beauty on their outside : but when any poets, I will use the words of Virgil, in his fifth one took the pains to open them, and search into neid, where Æneas proposes the rewards of the them, he there found the figures of all the deities. foot-race, to the three first who should reach the So, in the shape that Horace presents himself to goal. Tres præmia primi accipient, flavaquc us, in his satires, we see nothing at the first view caput nectentur olivâ: Let these three ancients which deserves our attention. It seems that he is be preferred to all the moderns; as first arriving rather an amusement for children, than for the at the goal : let them all be crowned as victors, serious consideration of men : but when we take with the wreath that properly belongs to satire. away his crust, and that which hides him from But, after that, with this distinction amongst our sight, when we discover him to the bottom, themselves, Primus equum phaleris insignem then we find all the divinities in a full assembly :
victor habeto. Let Juvenal ride first in trithat is to say, all the virtues which ought to be umph. Alter Amazoniam pharetram, plenamthe continual exercise of those, who seriously en
que sagittis Threiciis, lato quam circumplecdeavour to correct their vices."
titur auro balteus, & tereti subnectit figula gemma. It is easy to observe, that Dacier, in this noble Let Horace, who is the second, and but just the similitude, has contined the praise of his author second, carry off the quivers and the arrows, as wholly to the instructive part : the commendation the badges of his satire: and the golden-belt, and turns on this, and so does that which follows.
the diainond-button: Tertius, Argolico hoc Clypco “In these two books of satire, it is the business contentus abito. And let Persius, the last of the of Horace to instruct us how to combat our vices, fist three worthies, le contented with this Grecian to regulate our passions, to follow nature, to give shield, and with victory, not only over all the bounds to our desires, to distinguish betwixt truth Grecians, who were ignorant of the Roman satire, and falschood, and betwixt our conception of but over all the moderns in succeeding agen; exthings and things themselves : to come back from cepting Boileau and your lordship. our prejudicate opinions, to understand exactly And thus I have given the history of satire, and derived it from Ennius, to your lordship; that is, but for the most part figuratively, and occultly ; from its first rudiments of barbarity, to its last consisting in a low familiar way, chiefly in a sharp polishing and perfection: which is, with Virgil, in and pungent manner of speech ; but partly, also, his address to Augustus,
in a facetious and civil way of jesting; by which nomen famâ tot ferre per annos,
either hatred, or laughter, or indignation is Titboni primâ quot abest ab origine Cæsar.
moved."—Where I cannot but observe, that this
obscure and perplexeil definition, or rather descripI said only from Innins; but I may safely carry
tion of satire, is wholly accommodated to the it higher, as far as Livius Andronicus ; who, as I have said formerly, taught the list play at Rome, and Persius, as foreign from that kind of poem :
Horatian way; and, excluding the works of Juvenal in the year ab urbe conditá cccccxiv. I have since
the clause in the beginning of it ( " without a desired my learned friend, Mr. Maidwell, to com
series of action") distinguishes satire properly pute the difference of times, betwixt Aristophanes from stage-plays, which are all of one action, and and Livius Andronicus ; and he assures me from the best chronologers, that Plutus, the last of of satire is to purse the passions; so far it is com
one continued series of action. The end or scope Aristophanes's plays, was represented at Athens, in the year of the 97th olyn:piad; which agrees
mon to the satires of Juvenal and Persius: the rest with the year urbis condita ccci xiv.
which follows, is also generally belonging to all
So that the difference of years betwixt Aristophanes and An
three; till he comes upon us, with the excluding dronicus is 150 ; from whence I have probably which is the proper character of Horace; and
clause " consisting in a low familiar way of speech," deduced, that Livius Andronicus, who was a Grecian, had read the plays of the old comedy, which
from which, the other two, for their honour be were satirical, and also of the new ; for Menander it spoken, are far distant: but how come low
ness of style, and the familiarity of words, to be was fifty years before him, which must needs be a great light to him, in his own plays, that were of
so much the propriety of satire, that without them,
a poet can be no more a satirist, than without the satirical nature. That the Romans had farces before this, it is true; but then they had no com
risibility he can be a man? Is the fault of Horace
to be made the virtue and standing rule of this munication with Greece: so that Androniciis was the first who wrote after the manner of the old poem? Is the grande sophos of Persius, and the comedy, in his plays; he was initated by Ennius,
sublimity of Juvenal to be circumscribed, with the about thirty years afterwards. Though the for
meanness of words, and vulgarity of expression ? mer writ fables ; the latter, speaking properly, loftiness of figures, are they bound to follow so ill
If Horace refused the pains of mumbers, and the began the Roman satire. According to that description, which Juvenal gives of it in his first ; quic- iv his hand, for his own pleasure ; but let not
a precedent ? Let hiin walk a-foot with his pad quid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, gaudia, discursus, nostri est farrago libelli.
them be accounted no poets, who chuse to mount
This is that in which I have made bold to differ from
and show their horsemanship. Holiday is not Casaubon, Rigaltius, Dacier, and indeed from all
afraid to say, that there never was such a fall, as
from his odes to his satires, and that he, injuriously the modern erities, that not Ennius, but Andronicus was the first, who by the Archaa Comærlia
to himself, untuned his harp. The majestic way
of Persius and Juvenal was new when they began of the Greeks, added many beauties to the first rude and barbarous Roman satire : which sort of with time, received an alteration in their fashion?
it, but it is old to us ; and what poems have not, poem, though we had not derived from Rome, yet wature teaches it mankind, in all ages, and in every
Which alteration, says Holiday, is to after-times,
as good a warrapt as the first. Has not Virgil country. It is but necessary, that, after so much has been changed the manners of Ilomer's heroes in his
Eveid? Certainly he has, and for the better. said of satire, some definition of it should be
For Virgil's age was more civilized, and better given. Heinsius, in his dissertations on Horace,
bred : and he writ according to the politeness of makes it for me, in these words ; " Satire is a kind of poetry, without a series of action, invented for Rome, under the reign of Augustus Cæsar; not
to the rudeness of Agamemnon's age, or the times the purging of our minds; in which buman vices, ignorance, and errours, and all things besides, of Homer. Why should we offer to contine free which are produced from them, in every man, are spirits to one form, when we cannot so much as conseverely reprehended ; partly dramatically, partly fine our bodies to one fashion of apparel? Would simply, and sometimes in both kinds of speaking; not Donne's satires, which abound with so much