wit, appear more charming, if he had taken care subject. I know it may be irged in defence of of his words, and of his numbers? But he followed | Horace, that this unity is not necessary ; because Horace so very close, that of necessity he must fall the very word satura signises a dish plentifully with him: and I may safely say it of this present stored with all variety of fruit and grains. Yet age, that if we are not so great wits as Donne, Juvenal, who calls his poems a furrago, which is yet certainly, we are better poets.

a word of the same signification with salura, has But I have said enough, and it may be too chosen to follow the saine method of Persius, and much, on this subject. Will your lordship be not of Horace. And Boilean, whose example pleased to prolong my audience, only so far, till alone is a sufficient authority, has wholly conI tell your my own trivial thonghts bow a modern fined himself, in all his satires, to this unity satire should be made. I will not deviate in the of design. That variety which is not to be found least from the precepts and examples of the in any one satire, is at least, in many, written on ancients, who were always our best masters. I several occasions. And if variety be of absolute will only illustrate them, and discover some of necessity in every one of them, according to the the hidden beauties in their designs, that we thereby etymology of the word; yet it inay arise naturally may form our own in imitation of them. Will from one subject, as it is rsly treated in the you please bat to observe, that Persius, the least several subordinate branches of it; all relating to in dignity of all the three, has notwithstanding the chief. It may be illustrated accordingly with been the first, who has discovered to us this im- variety of examples in the subdivisions of portant secret, in the designing of a perfect satire, it; and with as many precepts as there are that it ought only to treat of one subject; to be members of it; which altogether inay complete confined to one particular theine; or, at least, to that olla, or hotch-potch, which is properly a one principally. If other vices occur in the manage

satire. ment of the chief, they should only be transieutly Under this unity of theme, or subject, is comlashed, and not be insisted on, so as to make prehended another rule for perfecting the design the design double. As in a play of the English of true satire. The poet is bound, and that ex fashion, which we call a tragi-comedy, there is to officio, to give his reader some one precept of be but one main design: and though there be an moral virtue, and to caution him against so:ne underplot, or second walk of comical characters one particular vice or folly. Other virtues, suband adventures, yet they are subservient to the ordinate to the first, may be recommended, under chief fable, carried along under it, and helping to that chief head; and other vices or follies may be it; so that the drama may not scem a monster scourged, besides that which he principally in, with two heads. Thus the Copernican system of tends. But he is chiefly to inculcate one virtue, the planets makes the Moon to be moved by the and insist on that. Thus Juvenal, in every satire, motion of the Earth, and carried about her orb, excepting the first, ties bimself to one principal as a dependent of hers. Mascardi, in his dis- instructive point, or to the shunning of moral evil. course of the Doppia favola, or double tale in Even in the sixth, which seems only an arraignplays, gives an instance of it, in the famous pas- inent of the whole sex of womankind, there is a toral of Guarini, called Il Pastor Fido; where latent admonition to avoid ill women, by showing Corisca and the Satyr are the under-parts: yet we

how very few, who are virtuous and good, are to may ábserve, that Corisca is brouglit into the body be found amongst them. But this, though the of the plot, and made subservient to it. It is cer. wittiest of all his satires, has yet the least of truth tain that the divine wit of Horace was not ignorant or instruction in it. He has run himself into bis of this rule, that a play, though it consists of old declamatory way, and almost forgotten that many parts, must yet be one in the action, and he was now setting up for a moral poet. must drive on the accomplishment of one design;

Persius is never wanting to us in some profitable for he gives this very precept, Sit quodvis sim- doctrine, and in exposing the opposite vices to it. plex duntaxat & unum; yet he seems not much His kind of philosophy is one, which is the stoic; to mind it in his satires, many of them consisting and every satire is a comment on one particular of more arguments than one ; and the second dogma of that sect; unless we will except the first, without dependance on the first. Casaubon has which is against bad writers; and yet even there observed this before me, in his preference of Per- he forgets not the precepts of the porch. In sius to Horace: and will•have his own beloved general, all virtues are every where to be praised author to be the first, who found out, and in- and recommended to practice; and all vices to be troduced this method of confining himself to one reprehended, and made either odious or ridiculous:

or else there is a fundamental errour in the whole hand, that I would prefer the verse of ten sylladesign.

bles, which we call the English heroic, to that of I have already declared who are the only per- eight. This is truly my opinion: for this sort of sons that are the adequate object of private satire, number is more roomy: the thought can turn and who they are that may properly be exposed itself with greater ease in a larger compass. When by name for public examples of vices and follies : the rhyme comes too thick upon us, it straitens and therefore I will trouble your lordship no far- the expression ; we are thinking of the close, ther with them. Of the best and finest manner of when we should be employed in adorning the satire, I have said enougb in the comparison betwixt thought. It makes a poet giddy with turning in Juvenal and Horace: it is that sharp, well-man- a space too narrow for his imagination; he loses nered way of laughing a folly out of countenance, many beauties, without gaining one advantage. of which your lordsbip is the best master in this for a burlesque rhyme, I have already concluded age. I will proceed to the versification, which is to be none ; or if it were, it is more easily purmost proper for it, and add somewhat to what chased in ten syllables than in eight: in both oeI have said already on that subject. The sort of casions it is as in a tennis-court, when the strokes verse which is called burlesque, consisting of eight of greater force are given, when we strike out syllables, or four feet, is that which our excel- and play at length. Tasso and Boileau have lent Hudibrass has chosen. I ought to have men- left us the best examples of this way, in the Sectioned him before, when I spake of Donne; but chia Rapita, and the Lutrin. And next them by a slip of an old man's memory, he was for- Merlin Coccajus in his Baldus. I will speak only gotten. The worth of his poem is too well known of the two former, because the latter is written in to need any commendation, and he is above my Latin verse. The Secchia Rapita is an Italian censure : his satire is of the Varronian kind, poem, a satire of the Varronian kind. It is though unmixed with prose. The choice of his written in the stanza of eight, which is their numbers is suitable enough to his design, as he measure for heroic verse. The words are stately, has managed it: but in any other hand, the short- the numbers smooth, the turn both of thoughts ness of his verse, and the quick returns of rhyme, and words is happy. The first six lines of the bad debased the dignity of style. And besides, stanza seem majestical and severe, but the two the double rhyme (a necessary companion of bur- last turn them all into a pleasant ridicule. Bojlesque writing) is net so proper for manly satire, leau, if I am not much deceived, has modelled for it turns earnest too much to jest, and gives from hence his famous Lutrin. He had read the us a boyish kind of pleasure. It tickles aukwardly burlesque poetry of Scarron, with some kind of with a kind of pain, to the best sort of realers ; | indignation, as witty as it was, and found nothing we are pleased ungratefully, and, if I may say so, in France that was worthy of his imitation. But against our liking. We thank him not for giving he copied the Italian so well, that his own may us that unseasonable delight, when we know he pass for an original. He writes it in the French could have given us a better, and more solid. He heroic verse, and calls it an heroic poem: his might have left that task to others, who, not subject is trivial, but his verse is noble. I doubt being able to put in thonght, can only make us not but he bad Virgil in his eye, for we find grin with the excrescence of a word of two or nany admirable imitations of bim, and some three syllables in the close. It is, indeed, below parodies; as particularly this passage in the fourth 80 great a master to make use of such a little of the Æneids : instrument. But his good sense is perpetually Nec tibi Diva parens; generis nec Dardanus auctor, shining through all be writes; it aftoris is not Perfide; sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens the time of finding faults. We pass through the Caucasus ; Hyrcanæque admôrunt ubera tigres. Jevity of his rhyme, and are immediately carried which he thus translates, keeping to the words, into some admirable useful thought. After all, but altering the sense : de has chosen this kind of verse; and has written the best in it: and had he taken another, he

Non, tou Pere a Paris, ne fut point Boulanger; would always have excelled. As we say of a

Et tu n'es poiut du sang de Gervais Horologer :

Ta Mere ne fut point la Maitresse d'un Coche; court farourite, that whatsoever his office be, he still makes it uppermost, and most beneficial to

Caucase dans ses flancs, te forma d'une Poche:

Uue Tigrisse affreuse, en quelque Antre écarté, himself. The quickness of your imagination, my lord,

Te fit, avec son laict, succer sa Cruauté. has already p:evented me; and you krow before- And, as Virgil in his fourth Georgie of the Bees

petpetually raises the lowness of his subject, by , Homer, whose age had not arrived to that finethe loftiness of his words; and ennobles it by ness, I found in him a true sublimity, lofty comparisons drawn from empires, and from mo- thoughts, which were clothed with admirable Gre. Darchs.

cisms, and ancient words, which he had been Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum,

digging from the mines of Chaucer and Spenser, Magnanimosque Duces, totiusque ordine gentis

and which, with all their rusticity, had somewhat

of venerable in them. But I found not there Mores & studia, & populos, & prælia dicam.

neither that for which I looked. At last I had reAnd again :

course to his master, Spenser, the author of that Sic Genuus immortale manent; multosque

immortal poem called The Fairy Queen; and per annos

there I met with that which I had been looking Stat fortuna domus, & avi numerantur avorum.

for so long in vain. Spenser had studied Virgil We sec Boileau pursuing him in the same flights ; to as much advantage as Milton had done Homers and scarcely yielding to his master. This, I think, and among the rest of his excellencies had copied my lord, to be the most beautiful, and most noble that. Looking farther into the Italian, I found kind of satire. Here is the majesty of the heroic, Tasso had done the same; nay more, that all the finely mixed with the venom of the other; and sonnets in that language are on the turn of the raising the delight, which otherwise would be flat first thought ; which Mr. Walsh, in bis late inand vulgar, by the sublimity of the expression. genious preface to his poems, has observed. In I could say somewhat more of the delicacy of short, Virgil and Ovid are the two principal founthis and some other of his satires; but it might tains of them in Latin poem. And the French turn to his prejudice, if it were carried back to at this day are so fond of them, that they judge France.

them to be the first beauties. Delicate & bien I bave given your lordship but this bare hint, tourné, are the highest commendations which in what manner this sort of satire may best be they bestow on somewhat which they think a managed. Had I time, I could enlarge on the master-piece. beautiful turns of words and thoughts; which are An example on the turn of words, amongst a as requisite in this, as in heroic poetry itself; of thousand others, is that in the last book of Ovid's which the satire is undoubtedly a species. With Metamorphoses : these beautiful turns 1 confess myself to have been Heu quantum scelus est, in viscera, viscera unacquainted, till about twenty years ago, in a condi! conversation which I had with that noble wit of Congestoque avidum pinguescere corpore corpus; Scotland, sir George Mackenzie : be asked me | Alteriusque, animantem animantis vivere leto! why I did not imitate in my verses the turns of

An example on the turn both of thoughts and Mr. Waller and sir John Denbam ; of which he

words is to be found in Catullus; in the complaint repeated many to me.

I had often read with of Ariadne, when she was left by 'Theseus : pleasure, and with some profit, those two fathers Tum jam nulla viro juranti fæmina credat; of our English poetry; but bad not seriously Nulla viri speret sermones esse fideles : enough considered those beauties which give the

Qui dum aliquid cupiens animus prægestit last perfection to their works. Some sprinklings

apisci, of this kind I had also formerly in my plays; but

Nil metuunt jurare ; nihil promittere parcunt. they were casual, and not designed. But this

Sed simul ac cupiilæ mentis satiata libido est, hint, thus seasonably given me, first made me

Dicta vihil metuere; nihil perjuria curant. sensible of my own wants, and brought me after

Au extraordinary turn upon the words, is that wards to seck for the supply of them in other En.

in Ovid's Epistolæ lleroidum of Sappho to Phaon: glish authors. I looked over the darling of my youth, the famous Cowley; there I found, instead

Si nisi quæ formâ poterit te digna videri, of them, the points of wit, and quirks of epigrau,

Nulla futura tua est; nulla futura tua est. even in the Darideis, an heroic poein, which is of Lastly, a turn which I cannot say is absolutely an opposite nature to those prerilities; but no on worrls, for the thought turns with them, is in elegant turns either on the woril or on the thought. the fourth Georgic of Virgil ; where Orpheus is Then I consulted a greater genius (without ofience to receive his wife from Hell, on express conto the manes of that noble author) I inean Milton; 1 lition not to look on her till she was come on as he endeavours every wlicio tu express

Earth :


Cum subita incantum dementia cepit Amantem; our two great authors be answerable to their fame Ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere manes. and reputation in the world. We have therefore

endeavoured to give the public all the satisfaction I will not burden your Lordship with more of

we are able in this kind. them ; for I write to a master, who understands

And if we are not altogether so faithful to our them better than myself. But I may safely con

author, as our predecessors, Holiday and Stapylclude them to be great beauties: I might descend

ton; yet we may challenge to ourselves this praise, also to the mechanic beauties of heroic verse; but that we shall be far more pleasing to our readers, we have yet no English prosodia, not so much as

We have followed our authors at greater distance, a tolerable dictionary, or a grainmar; so that our

though not step by step, as they have done. For language is in a manner barbaros ; and what oftentimes they have gone so close, that they have government will enconage any one, or more, trodd on the heels of Juvenal and Persius, and hurt who are capable of refiring it, I know not: but them by their too near approach. A noble author nothing under a public expense can go through with would not be pursued too close by a translator. it. And I rather fear a declination of the language, We lose his spirit, when we think to take his than hope an advancement of it in the present body. The grosser part remains with us, but the age.

soul is nown away, in some noble expression, or I am still speaking to you, my lord: though,

some delicate tum of words, or thought. Thus in all probability, you are already out of hearing. Holiday, who made this way his choice, scized Nothing, which my meanness can produce, is the meaning of Juvenal; but the poetry has always worthy of this long attention. But I am come to

scaped him. the last petition of Abraham: if there be ten

They who will not grant me, that pleasure is righteous lines, in this vast preface, spare it for one of the ends of poetry, but that it is only a their sake; and also spare the next city, because

ineans of compassing the only end, which is init is but a little one.

struction; must yet allow, that without the means I would excuse the performance of this transla- of pleasure, the instruction is but a bare and dry tion, if it were all my own ; but the better, though philosophy; a crude preparation of morals, which not the greater part, being the work of some gentle we may have from Aristotle and Epictetus, with men, who have succeeded very happily in their

more profit than from any poet: neither Holiday undertaking ; let their excellencies atone for my

nor Stapylton have imitated Juvenal, in the imperfections, and those of my sons. I have peru- poetical part of him, his diction and his elosed some of the satires, which are done by other cution. Nor had they been poets, as neither of bands; and they seem to me as perfect in their them were; yet in the way they took, it was kind, as any thing I have seen in English verse. impossible for them to have succeeded in the The common way which we have taken, is not a

poetic part. literal translation, but a kind of paraphrase; or

The English verse, which we call heroic, consists somewhat which is yet more loose, betwixt a para- of more than ten syllables; the Latin hexameter phrase and imitation. It was not possible for us, sometimes rises to seventeenr; as for example, this or any men, to have made it pleasant any other

verse in Virgil: way. If rendering the exact sense of those authors,

Pulverulenta putrem sonitu quatit ungula almost line for line, bad been our business, Barten

campum. Holiday had done it already to our hands : and, Here is the difference of no less than seven syllables by the help of his learned notes and illustrations, in a line betwixt the English and the Latin. Now not only Juvenal and Persius, but what is yet

the medium of these, is about fourteen syllables ; more obscure, his own verses, might be under

because the dactyle is a more frequent foot in stood.

hexameters than the spondee. But he wrote for fame, and wrote to scholars :

But Holiday, without considering that he writ we write ouly for the pleasure and entertainment with the disadvantage of four syllables less in every of those gentlemen and ladies, wlio, though they verse, endeavours to make one of his lines to comare not scholars, are not ignorant: persons of un

prehend the sense of one of Juvenal's. According derstanding and good sense ; who, not having been conversɔnt in the original, or at least not having He was forced to crowd his verse with ill-sounding

to the falsity of the proposition was the success. made Latin verse so much their business as to be

monosyllables, of which our barbarous language critics in it, would be glad to find, if the wit of affords him a wild plenty ; and by that means he


arrived at his pedantic end, which was to make this work, and the thankful acknowl:dgments, a literal translation : his verses have nothing of prayers, and perpetual good wishes, of, verse in them, but only the worst part of it, the

my lord, thyme ; and that, into the bargain, is far from

your lordship's good. But, which is more intolerable, by cramming

most obliged, most humble,

and most obedient servant, his ill-chosen, and worse sounding monosyllables

JOHN DRYDEN. so close together, the very sense which he en-Aug. 18, 1692. deavours to explain, is become more obscure than that of his author. So that Holiday himself cannot be understood, without as large a commentary, as that which he makes on his two authors. For

JUVENAL. my own part, I can make a shift to find the meaning of Juvenal without his notes but his translation is more difficult than bis author. And I find

THE ARGUMENT. beauties in the Latin to recompense my pains ; but in Holiday and Stapylton, my ears, in the The poet gives us first a kind of humorous reason first place, are mortally offended ; and then their for his writing : that being provoked by hearing

so many ill poets rehearse their works, he does sense is so perplexed, that I return to the original,

himself justice on them, by giving them as bad as the more pleasing task, as well as the more

as they bring. But, since no man will rank easy.

himself with ill writers, it is easy to conclude, This must be said for our translation, that if we

that if such wretches could draw an audience,

he thought it no hard matter to excel them, give not the whole sense of Juvenal, yet we give

and gain a greater esteem with the public. Next the most considerable part of it, we give it, in he informs us more openly, why he rather general, so clearly, that few notes are sufficient to addicts himself to satire, than any other kind

of poetry. And here he discovers that it is make us intelligible. We make our author at

not so much bis indignation to ill poets, as to least appear in a poetic dress. We have actually

ill men, which has prompted him to write. made him more sounding, and more elegant, than He therefore give us a summary and general

view of the vices and follies reigning in he was before in English : and have endeavoured

his time. So that this first satire the natural to make him speak that kind of English, which he

ground-work of all the rest. Hereiu he confiues would have spoken had he lived in England, and himself to no one subject, but strikes indifferently had written to this age. If sometimes any of us

at all men in his way: in every following

satire he has chosen some particular moral which (and it is but seldom) make him express the customs

he would inculcate ; and lashes some particular and manners of our native country, rather than of vice or folly (an art with which our lampooners are Rome, it is, either when there was some kind of not much acquainted). But our poet being

desirous to reform his own age, but not daring analogy, betwixt their customs and ours; or when,

to attempt it by an overt-act of naming living perto make him more easy to vulgar understandings,

sons, inveighs only against those who were inwe give him those manners which are familiar to famous in the times immediately preceding his, us. But I defend not this innovation, it is enough whereby he not only gives a fair warning to

great men, that their memory lies at the if I can excuse it. Por, to speak sincerely, the

mercy of future poets and historians, but also, manners of nations and ages are uot to be con- with a tiner stroke of his pen, brands even the founded: we should either make them English, or living, and personates them under dead men's

naines. leave them Roman. If this can neither be de

[ have avoided as much as I could possibly the fended, nor excused, let it be pardoned, at least.

borrowed learning of marginal notes and illustrabecause it is acknowledged : and so much the more tions, and for that reasou have translated this easily, as being a fault which is nerer committed

satire somewhat largely. And freely own (it it

be a fault) that I have likewise omitted most of without some pleasure to the reader.

the proper names, bei ause I thought they would Thus, my lord, having troubled you with a

not much edify the reader. To conclude, if in tedious visit, the best manners will be shown in two or three piaces I have deserted all the comthe least ceremony. I will slip away while

mentators, it is because they first deserted iny your

author, or at least have left him in so much back is turned, and while you are otherwise em

obscurity, that too much room is left for ployed: with great confusion, for having enter- guessing. tained you so long with this discourse ; and for having no other recompense to make you, than | Stili, shall I hear, and never quit the score, the worthy labours of my fellow-undertakers in Stunu'd with hoarse Codrus' Theseid, o'er and o'er? VOL XIX


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