« 前へ次へ »
Heedless of verse, and hopeless of the crown, But where's that Roman?
_Somewhat I would say, Scarce half a wit, and more than half a clown, But fear; let fear, for once, to truth give way. Refore the shrine I lay my rugged numbers down. Truth lends the Stoic courage: when I look Who taught the parrot huinan notes to try On human acts, and read in Nature's book, Or with a voice endued the chattering pye? From the first pastimes of our infant-age, 'Twas witty want, fierce hunger to appease:
To elder cares, and man's severer page; Want taught their masters, and their masters these. When stern as tutors, and as ancles hard, Let gain, that gilded bait, be hung on high, We lash the pupil, and defraud the ward : The hungry witlings have it in their eye:
Then, then I say, or would say, if I durst Pyes, crows, and daws, poetic presents bring : But thus provok'd, I must speak out, or burst. You say they squeak; but they will swear they sing. FRIEND. Once more forbear.
PERSIUs. I cannot rule my spleen: My scorn rebels, and tickles me within.
First, to begin at home: our authors write ARGUMENT OF THE FIRST SATIRE.
In lonely rooms, secur'd froin public sight;
Whether in prose, or verse, 'tis all the same: I need not repeat, that the chief aim of the author The prose is fustian, and the numbers lame.
is against bad poets in this satire. But I must All noise, and empty pomp, a storm of words, add, that he includes also bad orators, who Labouring with sound, that little sense affords. began at that time (as Petronius in the beginning They comb, and then they order every hair : of his book tells us) to enervate manly eloquence, A gown, or white, or scour'a to whiteness, wear: by tropes and figures, ill placed and worse
A birth-day jewel bobbing at their ear. applied. Amongst the poets, Persius covertly Next, gargle well their throats, and thus prepard, strikes at Nero; some of whose verses he recites They mount, a God's name, to be seen and heard. with scorn and indignation. He also takes notice From their high scaffold, with a trumpet cheek, of the noblemen and their abominable poetry, And ogling all their audience ere they speak. who, in the luxury of their fortunes, set up for The nauseous nobles, ev'o the chief of Rome, wits and judges. The satire is in dialogue, With gaping mouths to these rehearsals come, betwixt the author and his friend or monitor ; And pant with pleasure, when some lusty line who dissuades him from this dangerous attempt The marrow pierces, and invades the chine. of exposing great men. But Persius, who is of At open fulsome bawdry they rejoice, a free spirit, and has not forgotten that Rome And slimy jest applaud with broken voice. was once a commonwealth, breaks through all Base prostitute, thus do thou gain thy tread? those difficulties, and boldly arraigns the false Thus dost thou feed their ears, and thus art fed? judgment of the age in which he lives. The At his own filthy stufl' he grins and brays : reader may observe that our poet was a stoic And gives the sign where he expects their praise. philosopher; and that all bis moral sentences,
Why have I learn'd say'st 'thou, if, thus both here and in all the rest of his satires, are coutin'd, drawn from the doginas of that sect.
I choke the noble vigour of my mind?
Fine fruits of learning ! old ambitious fool,
Dar’st thou apply that adage of the school:
As if 'tis nothing worth that lies conceald,
Oh, but 'tis brave to be admir'd, to see
A lecture for the noble youth of Rome! Howanxious are our cares, and yet how vain Who, by their fathers, is at feasts renown'd; The bent of our desires !
And often quoted when the bowls go round. FRIEND. Thy spleen contain: Full gorg'd and fush'd, they wantonly rehearse; For none will read thy satires.
And add to wine the luxury of verse.
One, clad in purple, not to lose his time, FRIEND. None; or what's next to none, but two Eats, and recites some lamentable thyme: or three.
Some senseless Phillis, in a broken note, Tis hard, 1 grant.
Snuffling at nose, and croaking in his throat: PERSIUS. 'Tis nothing; I can bear Then graciously the mellow audience nod : That paltry scribblers have the public. ear : Is not th' immortal author tnade a god? That this vast universal fool, the town,
Are not his manes blest, such praise to have? Should cry up Labeo's stuff, and cry me down. Lies not the turf more lightly on his grave? They damn themselves; nor will my Muse descend And roses (while his loud applause they sing) To clap with such, who fools and knaves Stand ready from his sepulchre to spriog? commend :
All these, you cry, but light objections are; Their smiles and censures are to me the same : Mere malice, and you drive the jest too far. I care not what they praise, or what they blame. For does there breathe a man, who can reject In full assemblies let the crow prevail :
A general fame, and his own lines neglect ? I weigh no merit by the common scale.
In cedar tablets worthy to appear, The conscience is the test of every mind; That need not fish, or frankincense, to fear? "' Seek not thyself, without thyself, to find.” Thou, whom I made the adverse part, to bear;
FRIEND OR MONITOR.
Be answer'd thus : If I by chance succeed
When thou shalt see the blear-ey'd fathers teach In what I write, (and that's a chance indeed) Their sons, this harsh and mouldy sort of speechi Know, I am not so stupid, or so hard,
Or others, new affected ways to try, Not to feel praise, or fame's deserv'd reward ; Of wanton smoothness, female poetry ; But this I cannot grant, that thy applause One would inquire from whence this motley style Is my work's ultiinate, or only cause.
Did first our Roman purity defile: Prudence can ne'er propose so mean a prize ; For our old dotards cannot keep their seat; For mark what vanity within it lies.
But leap and catch at all that's obsolete. Like Labeo's liads, in whose verse is found
Others, by foolish ostentation led, Nothing but triðing care, and empty sound :
When call'd before the bar, to save their head, Such little elegies as nobles write,
Bring trifling tropes, instead of solid sense : Who would be poets, in Apolla's spite.
And mind their figures more than their defence. Them and their woeful vorks the Muse defies : Are pleas'd to hear their thick-skulld judges cry, Products of citron-beds, and golden canopies. Well mar'd, oh finely said, and decently : To give thee all thy due, thou hast the heart “ Theft" (says th' accuser) “to thy charge I lay, To make a supper, with a fine dessert : (impart. O Pedius ;" what does gentle Pedius say? And to thy thread-bare friend, a cast old suit Studious to please the genius of the times, (crimes: Thus brib'd, thou thus bespeak'st him, “ Tell With periods, points, and tropes, be slurs his me frieod,
“He robb'd not, but he borrow'd from the poor ; (For I love truth, nor can plain speech offend,) And took but with intention to restore." What says the world of me and of my Muse?” He lards with flourishes his long harangue ;
The poor darc nothing tell but Aattering news: 'Tis fine, say'st thou ; what, to be prais'd, and But shall I speak? Thy verse is wretched Effeminate Roman, shall such stuff prevail (bang? rhyme;
To tickle thee, and make thee wag thy tail ? And all thy labours are but loss of time.
Say, should a shipwreck'd sailor sing his woe, Thy strutting belly swells, thy paunch is high; Wouldst thou be mov'd to pity, or bestow Thou writ'st not, but thou pissest poetry.
An alms ? What's more preposterous than to see All authors to their own defects are blind; A merry beggar? Mirth in misery? Hadst thou but, Janus like, a face behind,
Persius. He scems a trap, for charity, to lay : To see the people, what splay-mouths they make; And cons, by night, his lesson for the day. To mark their fingers, pointed at thy back :
FRIEND. But to raw numbers, and uplinish'd Their tongues lolld out, a foot beyond the pitch,
verse, When most a-thirst of an Apulian bitch :
Sweet sound is added now, to make it terse : But noble scribblers are with flattery fed ;
“ 'Tis tagg'd with rhyme, like Berecynthian Atys, For none dare find their faults, who eat their bread. The mid-part chimes with art, which never fat is. To pass the poets of patrician blood,
The dolphin brave, that cuts the liquid wave, What is 't the common reader takes for good > Or he who in his line can chine the long-ribb'd The verse in fashion is, when numbers flow,
PERSIUS. All this is doggrel stuff. FApennine.” Soft without sense, and without spirit slow :
FRIEND. What if I bring So smooth and equal, that no sight can find
A nobler verse? “ Arms and the man I sing." The rivet, where the polish'd piece was join'd. PERSIUs. Why name you Virgil with such fops So even all, with such a steady vjew,
as these? As if he shut one eye to level true.
He's truly great, and must for ever please : Whether the vulgar vice his satire stings,
Nor fierce, but awful, in his manly page ; The people's riots, or the rage of kings,
Bold in his strength, but sober in his rage. The gentle poet is alike in all ;
FRIEND. What poems think you soft? and to be His reader hopes to rise, and fears no fall,
With languishing regards, and bended head? (read/ FRIEND. Hourly we see, some raw pin-feather'd PERSIUS. “ Their crooked horns the Mimallonian
thing Attempt to mount, and fights and heroes sing ; With blasts inspir'd; and Bassaris who slew Who, for false quantities, was whipt at school
The scornful calf, with sword advanc'd on high, But t' other day, and breaking grammar-sule,
Made from his neck his haughty head to fly. Whose trivial art was never try'd above
And Mænas, when, with ivy brilles bound, The brave description of a native grove :
She led the spotted lynx, then Evion rung around, Who knows not how to praise the country store,
Evion from woods and Qoods repairing echos The feasts, the baskets, nor the fatted boar:
sound.” Nor paint the powery fields that paint themselves
Could such rude lines a Roman mouth become, before.
Were any manly greatness left in Rome? Where Romulus was bred, and Quintius born, Mænas and Atys in the mouth were bred ; Whose shining ploughshare was in furrows worn,
And never hatch'd within the labouring head: Met by his trembling wife, returning home,
No blood from bitten nails those poems drew: And rustically joy'd, as chief of Rome :
But churn'd, like spittle, from the lips they few. She wip'd the sweat from the dictator's brow;
FRIEND. 'Tis fustian all ; 'tis execrably bad : And o'er his back his robe did rudely throw ; But if they will be fools, must you be mad? The lictors bore in state their lord's triumphant Your satires, let me tell you, are too fierce; plough.
The great will never bear so blunt a verse. Some love to hear the fustian poet roar; Their doors are barr'd against a bitter Aout: And some on antiquated authors pore:
Snarl, if you please, but you shall snarl without. Rummage for sense; and think those only good Expect such pay as railing rhymes deserve, Who labour most, and least are understood Yare in a very hopeful way to starve.
PERSIUS. Rather than so, uncensur'd let them ve; l'ndoubtedly it gave occasion to Jovenal's tenth All, all is adını.ably well, for me.
satire; and both of them had the r original My harmless rhyme sbal 'scape the dire disgrace from one of Plato's dialogues, called the SeOf common-shores, and every pissing place.
cond Alcibiades. Our author has induced it Two painted serpents shall, on high, appear ; with great mystery of art, by taking his rise 'Tis holy ground ; you must not urine here.
from the birth-day of his friend ; on which ocThis shall be writ to fright the fry away,
casions, prayers were made, and sacrifices of Who draw their little baubles, when they play. fered by the native. Persius, commending the Yet old Lucilius never fear'd the times,
purity of his friend's vows, descends to the imBut laslı'd the city, and dissected crimes.
pious and immoral r quests of others. The Mutius and Lupus both by naine he brought; satire is divided into three parts: the first is the He mouth'd them, and betwixt his grinders caught. exordium to Macrinus, which the poet confines Unlike in method, with conceal'd design,
within the compass of four verses. The second Did crafty Horace his low puinbers join :
relates to the matter of the prayers and rors, And, with a sly insinuating grace,
and enumeration of those things, wherein Laugh'd at his friend, and look'd him in the face. men commonly sinned against right reason, Would raise a blush, where secret vice he found; and offended in their requests. The third part And tickle, while he gently probid the wound. consists in showing the repugnances of those With seeming innocence the crowd beguild; prayers and wishes, to those of other men, and But made the desperate passes when he smil'd. inconsistencies with themselves. He shows the
Could he do this, and is my Muse control'd original of these vows, and sharply inveighs By servile awe? Born free, and not be bold ? against them : and lastly, not only corrects the 'At least, I'll dig a hole within the ground;
false opinion of mankind concerning them, but And to the trusty earth commit the sound:
gives the true doctrine of all addresses made to The reeds shall tell you what the poet fears, Heaven, and how they may be made acceptable “ King Midas has a snout, and asses' ears."
to the powers above, in excellent precepts, and * This mean conceit, this darling mystery,
more worthy of a Christian than a Heathen.
THE SECOND SATIRE.
DEDICATED TO HIS FRIEND PLOTIUS MACRINUS, ON HIS
Let this auspicious morning be exprest Who, at enormous villainy, torns pale,
With a white stone, distinguish'd from the rest : And steers against it with a full blown sail,
White as thy fame, and as thy honour clear; Like Aristophanes, let him but smile
And let new joys attend on thy new added ycar. On this my honest work, though writ in homely And if two lines or three in all the vein
Indulge thy genius, and o'erflow thy soul,
Till thy wit sparkle, like the cheerful bowl.
Pray; for thy prayers the test of Heaven will bear;
Nor need'st thou take the gods aside, to hear: Glow in thy ears, and in thy breast ferment.
While others, ev'n the mighty men of Rome, But from the reading of my book and me, Be far, ye foes of virtuons poverty :
Big swell'd with mischief, to the temples come; Who fortune's fault upon the poor can throw;
And in low murmurs, and with costly smoke,
Heaven's help, to prosper their black vows, invoke. Point at the tatter'd coat, and ragged shoe :
So boldly to the gods mankind reveal Lay Nature's failings to their charge, and jeer
What froin each other they, for shame, conceal. The dim weak eye-sight, when the mind is clear,
* Give me good faine, ye powers, and make ine When thou thyself, thus insolent in state, Art but, perhaps, some country magistrate :
Thus much the rogue to public ears will trust : Whose power extends no farther than to speak
In private then :-" When wilt thou, mighty Jore, Big on the bench and scanty weights to break.
My wealthy uncle from this world remove Him, also, for my ctnsor I disdain,
01"(thou thunderer's son, great Hercules, Who thinks all science, as all virtne, vain;
That once thy bounteous deity would please
To guide my rake upon the chinking sound
Of some rast treasure, hidden under ground!"
“ () were my pupil fairly knock do' th' head; A Cynic's beard, and lug him by the hair.
I should possess th' estate, if he were dead ! Such, all the morning, to the pleadings run;
He's so far gone with rickets, and with th' evil, But when the business of the day is done,
That one small dose will send him to the devil." On dice, and drink, and drabs, they spend their
“ This is my neighbour Nerius 's third spouse, afternoon.
Of whom in happy time he rids his house.
But my eternal wite !-Grant, lleaven, I may
Survive to sce the fellow of this day!"
Thus, that thou may'st the better bring about
To wash th' obscenities of night away.
cal argument, concerning prayers and wishes. I With what ill thoughts of Jove art thou possest?
Would'st thou prefer him to some man? Suppose The priests in temples, now, no longer care
This wicked gold has put them all to fight.
Fat minds, and ever groveling on the ground! He'll stare, and, “O) good Jupiter !" will cry; We bring our manners to the blest abodes, “ Canst thou indulge him in this villainy !”
And thiok what pleascs us must please the gods. And think'st thou, Jove himself, with patience then of oil and cassia one th' ingredients takes, Can hear a prayer condemn’d by wicked men ? And, of the mixture, a rich ointment makes : That, void of care, he lolls supine in state,
Another finds the way to dye in grain ; And leaves his business to be done by fate? And makes Calabrian wool receive the Tyrian stain; Because his thunder splits some burley-tree, Or from the shells their orient treasure takes, And is not darted at thy house and thee?
Or, for their golden ore, in rivers rakes; Or that his vengeance falls not at the time,
Then melts the mass: all these are vanities ! Just at the perpetration of thy crime,
Yet still some profit from their pains may rise : And makes thee a sad object of our eyes,
But tell me, priest, if I may be so bold, Fit for Ergenna's prayer and sacrifice?
What are the gods the better for this gold ? What well-fed offering to appease the god,
The wretch that offers from his wealthy store What powerful present to procure a nod,
These presents, bribes the powers to give him more: Hast thou in store? What bribe has thou prepard, As maids to Venus offer baby-toys, To pull him, thus unpunish'd, by the beard ? To bless the marriage-bed with girls and boys. Our superstitions with our life begin :
But let us for the gods a gift prepare, Th' obscene old grundam, or the next of kin, Which the great man's great charges cannot bear?' The new-born infant from the craille takes, A soul, where laws both human and divine, And first of spittle a lustration makes:
In practice more than speculation shine : Then in the spawl her middle-finger dips,
A genuine virtue, of a vigorous kind, Anoints the temples, forehead, and the lips,
Pure in the last recesses of the mind : Pretending force of magic to prevent,
When with such offerings to the gods I come, By virtue of her nasty excrement.
A cake, thus given, is worth a hecatomb.
THE THIRD SATIRE OF
Our author has made two satires concerning study; We teach the gods, in reason, to refuse.
the first and the third : the first related to men; Suppose they were indulgent to thy wish :
this to young students, whom he desired to be Yet the fat entrails, in the spacious dish,
educated in the stoic philosophy: he himself Would stop the grant: the very over-care,
sustains the person of the master, or preceptor, And nauseous pomp, would hinder half the prayer. in this admirable satire ; where he upbraids the Thou hop'st, with sacrifice of oxen slain,
youth of sloth, and negligence in learning. Yet To compass wealth, and bribe the god of gain, he begins with one scholar reproaching bis fel. To give thee flocks and herds, with large increase; low-students with late rising to their books, Fool! to expect them from a bullock's grease! After which he takes upon him the other part And think'st that, when the fatteu'd fames aspire, of the teacher. And addressing himself partj. Thou seest th' accomplishment of thy desire ! calarly to young noblemen, tells them, that by “Now, now, my bearded harvest gilds the plain, reason of their high birth, and the great posThe scanty folds can scarce my sheep contain,
sessions of their fathers, they are careless of And showers of gold come pouring in amain !" adorning their minds with precepts of moral Thus dreams the wretch, and vainly thus dreains on, philosophy: and withal, inculcates to them the Till his lank purse declares his money gone.
miseries which will attend them in the whole Should I present them with rare figur'd plate, course of their life, if they do not apply themOr gold as rich in workmanship as weight;
selves betimes to the knowledge of virtue, and O how thy rising heart would throb and beat,
the end of their creation, which he pathetically And thy left side, with trembling pleasure, sweat ! insinuates to them. The title of this satire, in Thou measur'st by thyself the powers divine; some ancient manuscript, was the Reproach of Thy gods are burnish'd gold, and silver is their Idleness; though in others of the scholiast it is shrine.
inscribed, Against the Luxury and Vices of the Thy puny godlings of inferior race,
Rich. In both of wliich the intention of the Whose humble statues are content with brass, poet is pursued; but principally in the former.Should some of these, in visions purg'd from phlegm, Företel events, or in a morning dream;
[I remember I translated this satire, when I was a Fiv'o those thou would’st in veneration hold;
king's seholar at Westminster-school, for a And, if not faces, give thein beards of gold. Thursday-night's exercise; and believe that it,
and many other of my exercises of this nature, Great father of the gods, when, for our crimes, in English verse, are still in the hands of my Thou send'st some heavy judgment on the times; learned master, the reverend doctor Busby.) Some tyrant-king, the terrour of his age,
The type and true vicegerent of thy rage;
Thus punish him : set Virtue in bis sight, " Is this thy daily course ? The glaring Sun With all her charms adośn'd, with all her graces Breaks in at every chink: the cattle run
bright: To shades, and noon-tide rays of snmmer shun,
But set her distant, make him pale to see
Sicilian tortures, and the brazen bull,
Are emblems, rather than express the full And loudly rings it in his fellow's ears.
Of what he feels : yet what he fears is more: The yawning youth, scarce half awake, essays The wretch, who, sitting at his plenteous board, His lazy limbs and dozy head to raise :
Look'd up, and view'd on high the pointed sword Then rubs his gummy eyes, and scrubs his pate; Hang o'er his head, and hanging by a twine, And cries, “ I thought it had not been so late : Did with less read, and more securely dine: My clothes, make haste!” Why then, if noņe be Ey'n in his sleep he starts, and fears the knife, near,
And, trembling, in his arms takes his accomplice He mutters first, and then begins to swear:
wife; And brays aloud, with a more clamorous note, Down, down he goes; and from his darling friend Than an Arcadian ass can stretch his throat. Conceals the woes his guilty dreams portend.
With much ado, his book before him laid, When I was young, I, like a lazy fool, And parchment with the smoother side display'd ; Would blear my eyes with oil, to stay from school: He takes the papers ; lays théin down again; Averse from pains, and loath to lean the part And, with unwilling fingers, tries the pen : Of Cato, dying with a dauntless heart: Some peevish quarrel straight he strives to pick; Though much my master that storn virtue praisid, His quill writes double, or bis ink's too thick; Which o'er the ranquisher the vanquish'd rais'd: Infuse more water; now 'tis grown so thin
And my pleas'd father came, with pride, to see
His boy defend the Roman l;berty.
To shun ames-ace, that swept my stakes away;
And watch the box, for fear they should convey Eat
par and spoon-meat ; for thy gewgaws cry : False bones, and put upon me in the play. Be sullen, and refuse the lullaby.
Careful, besides, the whirling top to whip,
Thy years are ripe, nor art thou yet to learn
Hast heard the dogmas of great Zeno read :
The conquerid Medians in trunk-breeches stand. *T'is hollot, and returns a jarring sound.
Where the shorn youth to midnight lectures rise, Yet, thy moist clay is pliant to coinmand; Rous'd from their slumbers to be early wise : Unwrought, and easy to the potter's hand : Where the coarse cake, and hoinely husks of beans, Now take the mould; now bend thy mind to feel From pampering riot the young stomach weans: The first sharp motions of the forming wheel. And where the Samian Y directs thy steps to run
But thou hast land; a country-seat, secure To Virtue's narrow steep, and broad-way Vice to By a just title; costly furniture;
(breath, A furning-pan thy Lares to appease :
And yet thou spor'st; thou draw'st thy drunken What need of learning, when a man's at ease ? Sour with debauch; and sleep'st the sleep of death: If this be not enough to swell thy soul,
Thy chaps are fallen, and thy frame disjoin'd;
Hast thou not, yet, propos'd some certain end,
With pellets, and with stones, from tree to tree: Such pageantry be to the people shown:
A fruitless toil; and liv'st erlengre
The dropsy rages, and extends the skin,
In vain for hellebore the patient cries, Dost thou not blush to live so like a beast,
And fees the doctor; but too late is wise: So trim, so dissolute, so loosely drest?
Too late, for cure, he profiers half his wealth; But'tis in vain : the wretch is drench'd too deep; | Conquest and Guibbons cannot give him health. His soul is stupid, and his heart asleep ;
Learn, wretches, learn the motions of the mind, Fatten'd in vice; so callous, and so gross, Why you were made, for what you were design'd; He sins, and sees not; senseless of bis loss.
And the great moral end of human kind, Down goes the wretch at once, unskill'd to swiin, Study thyself: what rank or what degree Hopeless to bubble up, and reach the water's Uriin,! The wise Creator bas ordain'd for thce;