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And all the offices of that estate
His throat half throttled with corrupted phlegm, Perform ; and with thy prudence guide thy fate. And breathring through his jaws a belching steam: Pray justly, to be heard : nor more desire Amidst his caps with fainting shivering seiz'd, Than what the decencies of life require.
His limbs disjointed, and all o'er diseas'd, Learn what thou ow'st thy country, and thy friend; His hand refuses to sustain the bowl; What's requisite to spare, and what to spend : And his teeth chatter, and his eyeballs roll: Learn this; and after, ervy not the store
Till, with his meat, he vomits out his soul : Of the greas'd advocate, that grinds the poor : Then trumpets, torches, and a tedious crew Fat fees from the defended Umbrian draws; Of hireling mourners, for his funeral due. And only gains the wealthy client's cause. Our dear departed brother lies in state, To whom the Marsians more provision send, His heels stretch'd out, and pointing to the gate: Than he and all his family can spend.
And slaves, now manumis'd, on their dead master Gammons, that give a relish to the taste,
wait And potted fowl, and fish, come in so fast,
They hoist him on the bier, and deal the dole : That, ere the first is ont, the second stinks: And there's an end of a luxurious fool. And mouldy mother gathers on the drinks.
But what's thy fulsume parable to me? But, here, some captain of the land or feet, My body is from all diseases free : Stout of his hands, but of a soldier's wit;
My temperate pulse does regularly beat; Cries, “ I have sense to serve my tuin, in store ; Peel, and be satisfy'd, my hands and feet: And he's a rascal who pretends to more.
These are not cold, nor those opprest with heat. Damme, whate'er those book-learn'd blockheads Or lay thy hand upon my naked heart. Solon's the veryest fool in all the play. (say, And thou shalt find me bale in every part. Top-heavý drones, and always looking down, I grant this true: but, still, the deadly wound (As over-baħasted within the crown!)
Is in thy soul; 'tis there thou art not sound. Muttering betwixt their lips some mystic thing, Say, when thou seest a heap of tempting gold, Which, well examin'd, is flat conjuring,
Or a more tempting harlot dost behold; Meer madmen's dreams : for what the schools have Then, when she casts on thee a side-long glance, Is only this, that nothing can be brought (taught, Then try thy heart, and tell me if it dance, From nothing; and, what is, can ne'er be turn'd to Some coarse cold sallad is before thee set; Is it for this they stądy? to grow pale, [rought Bread with the bran, perhaps, and broken meat; And miss the pleasures of a glorious meal ? Fall on, and try thy appetite to eat. For this, in rags accouter'd, are they seen, These are not dishes for thy dainty tooth : And made the may-game of the public spleen ?” What, hast thou got ulcer in thy mouth?
Proceed, my friend, and rail ; but hear me tell Why stand'st thou picking? Is thy palate sore? A story, which is jast thy parallel.
That beet and radishes will make thee roar? A spark, like thee, of the man-killing trade, Such is th’unequal temper of thy mind; Pell sick, and thus to his physician said :
Thy passions in extremes, and unconfin'd : “ Methinks I am not right in every part ;
Thy hair so bristles with unmanly fears, I feel a kind of treinbling at my heart :
As fields of corn, that rise in bearded ears. My pulse unequal, and my breath is strong; And, when thy cheeks with flushing fury glow, Besides a filthy fur upon my tongue."
The rage of boiling caldrons is inore slow; The doctor heard him, exercis'd his skill:
When fed with fuel and with flames below. And, after, bid him for four days be still.
With foam upon thy lips and sparkling eyes, Three days he took good counsel, and began Thou say'st, and dost, in such outrageous wise ; To mend, and look like a recovering man:
That mad Orestes, if he saw the show, The fourth, he could not hold from drink; but sends Would swear thou wert the madder of the two. His boy to one of his old trusty friends : Aljuring him, by all the powers divine, To pity his distress, who could not dine Without a flaggon of bis healing wine.
THE FOURTH SATIRE OF He drinks a swilling clraught; and, lin'd withio,
PERSIUS. Will supple in the bath his outward skin : Whom should he find but his physician there, * Who, wisely, bade him once again beware. * Sir, you look wan, you hardly draw your breath; Our author, living in the time of Nero, was con
THE ARGUMENT. Drinking is dangerous, and the bath is death." “ 'Tis nothing,” says the fool. “ But,” says the temporary and friend to the noble poet Lucan : friend,
both of them were sufficiently sensible, with all “This nothing, sir, will bring yon to your end. good men, bow upskilfully he managed the comDo I not see your dropsy belly swell ?
monwealth : and perhaps might guess at his Your yellow skin?"-"No more of that ; I'm well. future tyranny, by some passages, during the I have already bury'd two or three
latter part of his first five years; though he That stood betwixt a fair estate and me,
broke not out into his great excesses, while he And, doctor, I may live to bury thee.
was restrained by the counsels and authority of Thou tell'st me, I look ill; and thou look'st worse."
Seneca. Lucan has not spared him in the poem “ I've done,” says the physician ; " take your
of his Pharsalia ; for his very compliment looked course."
asquint as well as Nero. Persius has been The laughing sot, like all unthinking men,
bolder, but with caution likewise. For here, in Bathes and gets drunk, then bathcs, and drinks the person of young Alcibiades, he arraigns his again:
ambition of meddling with state-affairs, without judgment or experience. It is probable that he | But thou art nobly born, 'tis true; go boast makes Seneca, in this satire, sustain the part Thy pedigree, the thing thou valu'st most: of Socrates, under a borrowed name; and, Besides, thou art a beau: what's that, my child? withal, discovers some secret vices of Nero, | A fop well drest, extravagant, and wild : concerning his lust, his drunkenness, and his She, that cries herbs, has less impertinence ; effeminacy, which had not yet arrived to public And, in her calling, more of common sense. notice. He also reprehends the flattery of his None, none descends into himself, to find courtiers, who endeavoured to make all his vices The secret imperfections of his mind: pass for virtues. Covetousness was undoubtedly But every one is eagle-ey'd, to see none of his faults; but it is bere described as a Another's faults, and his deformity. veil cast over the true meaning of the poet, Say, dost thou know Vectidius ? Who, the wretch which was to satirize his prodigality and volup- Whose lands beyond the Sabines largely stretch ; tuousness; to which he makes a transition. I Cover the country, that a sailing kite find no instance in history of that einperor's Can scarce o'erfly them, in a day and night; being a pathic, though Persius seems to brand Him dost thoa mean, who, spite of all bis store, bim with it. From the two dialogues of Plato, is ever craving, and will still be poor? both called Alcibiades, the poet took the argu- Who cheats for halfpence, and who doffs his coat, ments of the second and third satires, but he To save a farthing in a ferry-boat? inverted the order of them: for the third satire Ever a glutton at another's cost,
is taken from the first of those dialogues. But in whose kitchen dwells perpetual frost? The commentators, before Casaubon, were igno- Who eats and drinks with his domestic slaves;
rant of our author's secret meaning; and thought A verier hind than any of his knaves ?
And that indulgent genius he defrauds ? public magistracy: but this excellent scholiast
At harvest-home, and on the shearing day, has unraveled the whole mystery; and made it When he should thanks to Pan and Pales pay, apparent, that the sting of this satire was par- The little barrel, which he fears to broach :
And better Ceres ; trembling to approach ticularly aimed at Nero.
He, says the wimble, often draws it back,
Aud deals to thirsty servants but a smack. Whoe'er thou art, whose forward years are bent To a short meal he makes a tedious grace, On state atlairs, the guide to government; Before the barley-pudding comes in place : Hear, first, what Socrates of old has said
Then, bids fall on; himself, for saving charges, To the lov'd youth, whom he at Athens bred. A peel'd slic'd onion eats, and tipples verjuice. thou pupil to great Pericles,
Thus fares the drudge: but tbou, whose life's a Our second hope, iny Alcibiades,
Of lazy pleasures, tak’st a worse extreme. (dream What are the grounds, from whence thou dost pre- 'Tis all thy business, business how to shun; To undertake, so young, so vast a care? [pare To bask thy naked body in the sun; Perhaps thy wit (a chance not often heard, Suppling thy stiffen'd joints with fragrant oil; That parts and prudence should prevent the beard): Then, in the spacious garden, walk awhile, 'Tis seldom scen, that senators so young
To suck the moisture up, and soak it in: know when to speak, and when to hold their And this, thou think'st, but vainly think'st, unseen. Sure thou art born to some peculiar fate; (tongue. But, kyow, thou art observ'd: and there are those When the mad people rise against the state, Who, if they durst, would all thy secret sins expose: To look them into duty: and command
The depilation of thy modest part: An awful silence with thy lifted hand.
Thy catamite, the darling of thy heart, Then to bespeak them thus: “Athenians, know His engine-hand, and every lewder art. Against right reason all your counsels go,
When, prone to bear, and patient to receive, This is not fair; nor profitable that ;
Thou tak'st the pleasure which thou canst not give. Nor t’other question proper for debate.”
With odorous oil thy head and hair are sleek ; But thou, no doubt, can'st set the business right, And then thou kemli'st the tuzzes on thy cheek: And give each argument its proper weight : Of these thy barbers take a costly care, Know'st, with an equal band, to hold the scale : While thy salt tail is overgrown with hair.' Secst where the reasons pinch, and where they fail, Not all thy pincers, nor unmanly arts, And where exceptions o'er the general rule prevail, Can smooth the roughness of thy shameful parts. And, taught by inspiration, in a trice,
Not fire, the strongest that the Circus breeds, C'anst punish crimes, and brand oflending vice. From the rank soil can root those wicked weeds :
Leave, leave to fathom such high points as these, Though suppled first with soap, to ease thy pain, Nor be ambitious, cre the time please.
The subborn fern springs up, and sprouts again. Unseasonably wise, till age and cares
Thus others we with defauations wound, Have forin'd thy soul, to manage great aflairs. While they stab us; and so the jest goes round. Thy face, thy shape, thy outside, are but vain; Vain are thy hopes, to 'scape censorious eyes; Thou hast not strength such labours to sustain ; Truth will appear through all the thin disguise : Drink hellebore, my boy, drink deep, and purge Thou bast an ulcer which no leech can beal, thy brain.
Thougli thy broad shoulder-belt the wound conceal. What aim'st thou at, and whither tends thy care, Say thou art sound and hale in every part, In what thy utmost good ? Delicions fare;
We know, we know thee rotten at thy heart, And, then, to sun thyself in open air.
We know thee sullen, impotent, and proud : Hold, hold! are all thy empty wishes such? Nor canst thou chcat thy nerve, who cheat'st the A good old woman would have said as much,
“But when they praise me, in the neighbourhood, When the pleas'd people take me for a god,
THE FIFTH SATIRE. Shall I refuse their incense? Not receive
INSCRIBED TO THE REVEREND DR. BUSBY. The loud applauses wbich the vulgar give?”
- If thou dost wealth, with longing eyes, behold; THE SPEAKERS PER SI US AND CORNUTU S.,
Os ancient use to poets it belongs, (tongues: And thou, with a consenting glance, reply; To wish themselves an hundred mouths and If thou thy own solicitor become,
Whether to the well-lung'd tragedian's rage And bidd'st arise the lumpish pendulum:
They recommend the labours of the stage, If thy lewd lust provokes an empty storm,
Or sing the Parthian, when transfix'd he lies, And prompts to more than nature can perform ;
Wrenching the Roman javelin froin his thighs. If, with thy guards, thou scour'st the streets by night,
CORNUTUS. And dost in murders, rapes, and spoils, delight; And why would'st thou these mighty morsels Please not thyself, the flattering crowd to hear;
chnosc, "Tis fulsome stuff to feed thy itching car.
Of words unchewd, and fit to choke the Muse? Reject the pauseous praises of the times;
Let fustian poets, with their stuff, be gone, Give thy base poets back thy cobbled rhymes : And suck the unists that hang o'er Helicon; Survey thy soul, not what thou dost appear, When Proyne or Thyestes' feast they write; But what thou art; and find the beggar there. And, for the mouthing actor, verse indite.
Thou neither, like a bellows, swell'st thy face,
Of melting ore; nor canst thou strain thy throat,
Or murmur in an undistinguish'd note,
Like rolling thunder till it breaks the cloud,
And the sweet accents of the peaceful gown: The judicious. Casaubon, in his proem to this Gentle or sharp, according to thy choice,
satire, tells us, that Aristophanes the grammarian To laugh at follies, or to lash at vice. being asked, what poem of Archilochus's lam- Hence draw thy theme, and to the stage permit bics he preferred before the rest, answered,
Raw-head and bloody-bones, and hands and feet, the longest. His answer may justly be applied fagousts for Tereus or Thyestes drest; to this fifth satire; which, being of a greater 'Tis task enough for thee t' expose a Roman feasts length than any of the rest, is also, by far, the most instructive: for this reason I have selected it from all the others, and inscribed
'Tis not, indeed, my talent to engage it to my learned master, doctor Busby; to
In lofty trifles, or to swell my page whom I am not only obliged myself for the
With wind and noise; but freely to impart, best part of my own education, and that of
As to a friend, the secrets of my heart,
And, in familiar speech, to let thee know my two sons; but have also received from him
I!ow much I love thee, and how much I owe. the first and truest taste of Persius. May he be pleased to find in this translation, the
Knock on my heart : for thou hast skill to find
If it sound solid, or be fill'd with wind; gratitude, or at least some small acknowledgment of his unworthy scholar, at the distance and, through the veil of words, thou view'st the of twenty-four years, from the time when I
for this a hundred voices I desire, (naked mind.
To tell thee what a hundred tongues would tire; departed from under his tuition.
Yet never could be worthily exprest,
contains the prais s of the stoic philosopher When first my childish robe resign'd the charge,
Onc frugal suppor did our studies close
Sure on our birth some friendly planet shone; This is true liberty, as I belicre:
Not more to noble Brutus could belong."
wrong: What star I know not, but some star I find, I grant, true freedom you have well defin'd : Has given thee an ascendant o'er my mind. But, living as you list, and to your mind,
And loosely tack'd, all must be left behind.
What, since the pretor did my fetters loose, Nature is ever various in her frame :
And left me freely at my own dispose, Each has a different will ; and few the same: May I not live without control and awe, The greedy merchants, led by lucre, run
Excepting still the letter of the law?" To the parch'd Indies, and the rising Sun;
Hear me with patience, while thy mind I free From thence hot pepper and rich drugs they bear, From those fond notions of false liberty: Bartering, for spices, their Italian ware ;
'Tis not the pretor's province to bestow The lazy glutton safe at home will keep,
True freedom ; nor to teach mankind to know Indulge his sloth, and batten with his sleep: What to ourselves, or to our friends, we owe. One bribes for high preferments in the state; He could not set thee free from cares and strife, A second shakes the box, and sits up late : Nor give the reins to a lewd vicious life: Another shakes the bed, dissolving there,
As well he for an ass a harp might string, Till knots upon his gouty joint appear,
Which is against the reason of the thing; and chalk is in his crippled fingers found; Por reason still is whispering in your ear, Rots like a dodder'd oak, and piecemeal falls to where you are sure to fail, th' attempt forbeari ground;
No need of public sanctions this to binch, Then his lewd follies he would late repent; Which Nature has implanted in the inind : And his past years, that in a mist were spent. Not to pursue the work, to which we're not de PERSICS.
Unskill'd in hellebore, if thou should'st try But thou art pale, in vightly stndies, grown, To mix it, and mistake the quantity, To make the stoic institutes thy own :
The rules of physic would against thee ory. Thou long with studious care hast tilld our youth, The high-shoe'd ploughman, should be quit the And sown our well purg'd ears with wholesome To take the pilot's rudder in his hand,
Artless of stars, and of the moving sand, From thee both old and young, with profit, learn The gods would leave him to the waves and wind, The bounds of good and evil to discern.
And think all sharoe was lost in human kind. CORNUTUS,
Tell me, my friend, from whence badst thou the
So nicely to distinguish good from ill ? (skill, Unhappy he who does this work adjourn,
Or by the sound to judge of gold and brass, And to to morrow would the search delay:
What piece is tinker's metal, what will pass ? His lazy morrow will be like to day.
And what thou art to follow, what to fly,
This to condemn, and that to ratify?
But never craving, or opprest with care?
The baits of gifts, and money to despise, Yes, sure : for yesterday was once to morrow. And look on wealth with undesiring eyes? That yesterday is gone, and nothing gain'd: When thou can'st truly call these virtues thine, And all thy fruitless days will thus be drain'd; Be wise and free, by Heaven's consent, and mina For thou hast more to morrows yet to ask,
But thou, who lately, of the common strain, And wilt be ever to begin thy task ;
Wert one of us, if still thou dost retain Who, like the hindmost chariot-wheels, art curst, The same ill habits, the same follies too, Still to be near, but ne'er to reach the first. Gloss'd over only with a saint-like show, O freedom ! first delight of human kind!
Then I resume the freedom which I gave, Not that which bondmen from their masters find, Still thou art bound to vice, and still a slave. The privilege of doles : not yet t'inscribe
Thou canst not wag my finger, or begin Their names in this or other Roman tribe :
The least light motion, but it tends to sin. That false enfranchisement with ease is found : “ How's this? Not wag thy finger ?” he replies, Slaves are made citizens, by turning round. No, friend ; nor fuming gums, nor sacrifice, “ How," replies one, can any be more free?
Can ever make a madman free, or wise. Here's Dama, once a groom of low degree,
Virtue and vice are never in one soul : Not worth a farthing, and a sot beside;
A man is wholly wise, or wholly is a fool. So true a rogue, for lying's sake he ly'd ;
A heavy bumkin, taught with daily care, But, with a turn, a fireman he became;
Can never dance three steps with a becoming air. Now Marcus Dama is his worship's name. Good gods! who would refuse to lend a sum, If wealthy Marcus surety will become!
In spite of this, my freedom still remains Marcus is made a judge, and for a proof
CORNUTUS. Of certain truth, he said, it is enough.
Free! whạt, and fetter'd with so many chains ? A will is to be prov'd ; put in your claim ;
Canst thou no other master understand 'Tis clear, if Marcus has subscrib'd his name. Than him that freed thee by the pretor's wand?
Should he, who was thy lord, command thee now, "Sir, take your course: but my advice is plain : With a harsh voice, and supercilious brow,
Once freed, 'tis madness to resume your chain." To servile duties, thou would'st fear no more; Ay; there's the man, who, loos'd from lust and The gallows and the whip are out of door.
Less to the pretor owes, than to himself. (pelf, But if thy passions boru it in thy breast,
Bat write him down a slave, who, humbly proud, Art thou not still a slave, and still opprest? With presents begs preferments from the crowd ; Whether alone, or in thy harlot's lap,
That early suppliant, who salutes the tribes, When thon would'st take a lazy morning's nap; And sets the mob to scramble for his bribes : “ Up, up," says Avarice. Thou snor'st again,
That some old dotard, sitting in the sun, Stretchest thy limbs, and yawn'st, but all in vain; On holidays may tell, that such a feat was done : The tyrant Lucre no denial takes;
In future times this will be counted rare. At his command th' unwilling sluggard wakes : Thy superstition too may claim a sbare: “ What must I do?” he cries:
« What?” says
When flowers are strew'd, and lamps, in order bis lord :
And windows with illuminations grac'd, (plac'd, “ Why, rise, make ready, and go straight abroad: On Herod's day; when sparkling bowls go round, With fish, from Euxine seas, thy vessel freight; And tunnies' tails, in savoury sauce are drown'u, Flax, castor, Coan wines, the precious weight Thou mutterst prayers obscene; nor dost refuse Of pepper, and Sabæan incense, take
The fasts and sabbaths of the curtaiļa Jews. With thy own hands, from the tir'd camel's back: Then a crack'd egg-shell thy sick fancy frights, And with post-haste thy running markets make. Besides the childish fear of walking sprites. Be sure to turn the pemy ; lye and swear; Of o'ergrown gelding priests thou art afraid ; 'T'is wholesome sin: but Jove, thou say'st, will The timbrel, and the squintifego maid hear:
Of Isis, awe thee: lest the gods, for sin, Swear, fool, or starve; for the dilemma's eren: Should, with a swelling dropsy, stuff thy skin : A tradesinan thou! and hope to go to Heaven? Unless three garlic-heads the curse avert, Resolv'd for sea, the slaves thy baggage pack, Eaten each irorn, devoutly, next thy heart. Each saddled with his burden on his back: Preach this arnong the brawny guards, say'st thou, Nothing retards thy voyage, now, unless
And see if they thy doctrine will allow; Thy other lord forbids, Voluptuousness :
The dull fat captain, with a hound's deep throat, And he may ask this civil question : 'Friend, Would bellow out a laugh, in a base note; What dost thou make a ship-board ? to what end? | And prize a hundred Zenos just as much Art thou of Bethlem's noble college free? (sea ; As a clipt sixpence, or a schilling Dutch Stark, staring mad, that thou would'st tempt the Cubb'd in a cabbin, on a mattregs laid, On a brown george, with lowsy swobbers fed, Dead wine, that stinks of the borrachio, sup
THE SIXTH SATIRE OP
This sixth satire treats an admirable common: Does some loose remnant of thy life devour.
place of moral philosopby; of the true use of Live, while thou liv'st; for death will make us all riches. They certainly are intended, by the A name, a nothing but an old wife's tale."
power who bestows them, as instruments and Speak; wilt thou Avarice, or Pleasure, choose helps of living commodiously ourselves; and of To be thy lord ? take one, and one refuse.
administering to the wants of others, who are But hoth, by turns, the rule of thee will have; oppressed by fortune. There are two extremes And thou, betwixt them both, wilt be a slave. in the opinions of men concerning them. One
Nor think, when once thou hast resisted one, errour, though on the right hand, yet a great That all thy marks of servitude arc gone:
one, is, that they are no belps to a virtaous The struggling greyhound ynaws 'his leash in vain; life; the other places all our happiness in the If, when 'tis broken, still he drags the chain. acquisition and possession of them; and this is,
Says Phædra to his man, “ Believe me, friend, undoubtedly, the worse extreme. The mean To this uneasy love I'll put an end :
betwixt these, is the opinion of the Stoics; Shall I run out of all ? my friends disgrace,
which is, that riches may be useful to the leadAnd be the first lewd unthrift of my race?
ing a virtuous life; in case we rightly underShall I the neighbour's nightly rest invade
stand how to give according to right reason; At her deaf doors, with some vile serenade?"
and bow to receive what is given us by others “ Well hast thou freed thyself,” his man replies,
The virtue of giving well, is called liberality : Go, thank the gods, and offer sacrifice.”
and it is of this virtue that Persius writes in " Ah," says the youth, “ if we unkindly part, this satire; wherein he not only shows the law. Will not the poor fond creature break her heart? ful use of riches, but also sharply inveighs Weak soul! and blindly to destruction led!” against the vices which are opposed to it; and “ She break her heart! she'll soouer break your especially of those, which consist in the defects head.
of giving or spending; or in the abuse of riches. She knows her man, and, when you rant and swear,
He writes to Caesius Bassus his friend, and a Can draw you to her, with a single hair."
poet also, inquires first of his health and « But shall I not return? Now, when she sues ! studies; and afterwards informs him of his own, Skall I my own, and her desires refuse?'
and where he is now resident. He gives an ac