second time, Simon son of Jonas, | all things; thou-knowest that I lovest thou me? He saith unto love thee. Jesus saith unto him, him, Yea, Lord: thou knowest Feed my sheep. that I love thee. He saith unto 18 Verily, verily, I say unto him, Feed my sheep.

thee, When thou wast young,

thou 17 He saith unto him the third girdedst thyself, and walkedst whitime, Simon son of Jonas, lovest ther thou wouldest : but when thou thou me? Peter was grieved be- shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth cause he said unto him the third thy hands, and another shall gird time, Lovest thou me? And he thee, and carry thee whither thou said unto him, Lord, thou knowest wouldest not.

1 Cor. iii. 1, 2., “It is in obedience to state of my affections. Thou knowest I this command that Sunday Schools have ann now sincere ; thou knowest, though heen established, and no means of ful- I am frail and liable to fall, that I earfilling the command of the Saviour have nestly love thee, and desire to perform been found so effectual as to extend pat- my duty faithfully.. | Feed. The same ronage to those schools."-Barnes.

word which occurs in ver. 15. 16. Feed. In ver. 15, the word ren- 18. In this verse, Peter is admonished dered feed is boske, (Bóoxe,) meaning that bis faith and love would be put to to provide food, as a shepherd for his a severe trial ; that he would be called flock. Here the word poimaine, (noi- to seal his sincerity with his own blood. parve,) is used, which includes the idea | When thou wast young, &c. Thou of watching over and protecting the hast hitherto been free. Thou hast flock. The apostles (for this command girded thyself according to thine own was not designed for Peter alone) were pleasure, and travelled or not, without to teach men what to believe, to place compulsion. When about to travel, the before them spiritual food, and also to Jews were accustomed to fasten the give directions for the guidance of their outer garment with a girdle, that it conduct. And it is the duty of all Chris- might not impede them in walking. tians, laymen as well as clergymen, not To be girded, or to have the loins girt only to use all proper exertions for about, was a phrase denoting eadiness mutual edification in faith, but also to to travel. Girding one's self, as here watch over, advise, admonish, and up-used, denotes a voluntary preparation hold each other, that none may stumble for a journey, or, more generally, a state and fall, or stray from the fold into the of freedom. Probably, the figure may wilderness of sin. 1 Sheep. A common have been suggested by the circumterm applied to all Christians, old or stance that Peter had so recently girded young, feeble or strong. See note on bimself, before leaping from the boat ver. 15.

into the sea, ver. 7. I When thou shalt '17. The third time. The question is be old. Hereafter ; not immediately, supposed to have been three times re- but at a later period of your life. It is peated, in reference to the fact that said by Eusebius, B. IÍ. ch. xxv., and Peter had three times denied having by other ancient writers, that Peter sufany affection for Jesus, or even knowl- fered martyrdom by crucifixion, in the edge of him. I Peter was grieved. The reign of Nero, about A. D. 64 or 65, that reiteration of the question appeared to is, somewhat more than thirty years imply a doubt of Peter's affection and after he was thus forewarned of his fate. constancy; and he well knew that such | Stretch forth thy hands, &c. A nata doubt was fully justified by his pre- ural interpretation would be simply that vious conduct. He was humbled'be- he should raise his arms so that another fore the searching question of his Mas- might fasten a girdle around him. But, ter, and grieved that any doubt should from ver. 19, it would seem that allusion be entertained of his present sincerity. is had to the position of the arms on the T Thou knowest all things. He asserts cross, We may understand the meannothing on his own veracity. But, ap- ing thus : thou shalt stretch forth thy pealing to him who could see the heart, hands to be fastened to the cross, on he again replies, thou seest the true which also they shall bind thy body,


19 This spake he, signifying by said, Lord, which is he that betraywhat death he should glorify God. eth thee?) And when he had spoken this, he 21 Peter seeing him, saith to saith unto him, Follow me. Jesus, Lord, and what shall this

20 Then Peter, turning about, man do? seeth the disciple whom Jesus 22 Jesus saith unto him, If I loved, following ; (which also will that he tarry till I come, what leaned on his breast at supper, and is that to thee? Follow thou me. and place thee in a posture of pain end- love to Christ, sees and emulates it, be ing only in death, from which humanity it so; but he is not solicitous men should revolts.

admire it. It was addressed to his Mas19. By what death. By what manner ter; and it was enough that he underof death ; that is, by crucifixion. It is stood it. And can any one be himself supposed that Peter was crucified before base enough to imagine that such a man this gospel was written, and that the could spend his life in promoting a perevangelist therefore speaks more con- nicious falsehood, and at last, in his old fidently concerning the import of the age, when his relish for everything but prediction. 9 Glorify God. Honor goodness and immortality was gone, God; that is, by faithfulness and a would so solemnly attest it as he does steadfast adherence to the truth, even in the conclusion of his gospel ? May at the sacrifice of life. This phrase was God deliver every one that reads this frequently used, in the early ages, to from a head so fatally beclouded by the denote martyrdom. I Follow me. The corruptions of the heart."-Doddridge. common meaning of this phrase, when 21. What shall this man do ? " What addressed by Jesus to his hearers, is, shall become of this man ?Campbell. become my followers, or disciples ; be- The import of the question seems to be, lieve and obey me. But, from what what fate is reserved for him ? Shall follows, it seems rather to be a requisi- he also suffer martyrdom? or is a more tion that Peter should follow after Jesus, quiet life and more peaceful death allotas he walked along the shore, in token | ted him? Whether the question was that he was willing to follow him to prompted by kindness to John, or by a the cross, according to the foregoing slightly envious suspicion that favor intimation.

would be shown to the favorite disciple, 20. The disciple. That is, John; as does not appear. is manifest from the explanation which 22. That he tarry. That is, that he follows ; compare John xiii. 23—25, and live. Till I come. “ That is, live till the notes. * Follording. It would I come to destroy the Jewish church seem that when Peter obeyed the com- and state. This John, and he alone of mand to follow Jesus, John also rose and all the apostles, is said to have done."followed, though not specially com- Pearce. Commentators are almost enmanded to do so. After walking a short tirely unanimous on this point. “I told distance, Peter, looking back, perceived you of some that should escape the fury the beloved disciple, and questioned our of the evil times approaching, and conLord, as narrated in ver. 21. There tinue to the time that I shall come in is a spirit and tenderness in this plain judgment against Jerusalem, and depassage, which I can never read with stroy it by the Romans. And what out the most sensible emotion. Christ harm is it to thee? and how art thou orders Peter to follow him in token of concerned to know, if John be one of his readiness to be crucified in his cause; these? Thou art likely to follow me to John stays not for the call; he rises, and the cross, and the cheerful doing of that follows too; but he says not one word becomes thee better than this curiosity.' of his love and his zeal. He chose that Hammond. This was actually equivathe action only should speak that; and lent to saying, if I will that he escape when he records this circumstance, he martyrdom and die in peace, what is tells us not what that action meant ; that to thee? The early persecution but with great simplicity relates the against Christians was almost wholly fact only. If here and there a generous instigated by the Jews; and when their heart, that, like his own, glows with power was broken, by the terrible ca23 Then went this saying abroad 24 This is the disciple which among the brethren, that that dis- testifieth of these things, and wrote ciple should not die: yet Jesus these things : and we know that said not unto him, He shall not his testimony is true. die ; but, If I will that he tarry till 25 And there are also many other I come, what is that to thee? things which Jesus did, the which, lamity which befell them, Matt. xxiv., under such circumstances solemnly atthe disciples had rest for several years. test a known falsehood. The plural T Follow thou me. Here this phrase number here used, we knowo, has induced seems to have its ordinary meaning. some to regard this verse and the next Be a faithful and obedient disciple ; let as an addition by the elders of the this suffice; give yourself no concern church at Ephesus, as an attestation beyond your own duty.

that this gospel was actually written by 23. Then went this saying, &c. The Jolin, and worthy of implicit belief by disciples misunderstood our Lord's all. And others, for similar reasons, meaning here, as they frequently did have supposed this whole chapter to when he mentioned his own death and have been added to the gospel, as originresurrection. It is not improbable that ally written. To this, it has been rethe opinion here indicated became more plied, that " it is not uncommon in the fully established, among the brethren, Apostle John, to speak of himself either when they perceived that John actually in the third person singular, as in ch. escaped martyrdom in the midst of per- xiii. 23, &c. ; xviii. 15, 16 ; xix. 26, 27, secutions, and, after they had ceased, 35 ; xx. 2, &c.; or in the first person pluenjoyed a quiet and peaceful old age ral, as in ch. i. 14, 16; 1 John i. 1, 2, &c. with his church at Ephesus. He thought this notion deserves, therefore, to be it expedient to correct that mistake, lest rated as merely a modern conjecture, ophis death should in any degree shake posed to the testimony of all ecclesiastheir faith. Hence he declares that Jesus tical antiquity, MSS., editions, versions, did not say he should not die, but only commentaries, which uniformly attest that it need not concern Peter, if John | the last chapter, as much as any other should live until the event occurred in the book.”—Campbell. which he often denominated his coming. 23. Many other things, &c. The ref

24. This is that disciple, &c. If there erence is prohably to miracles in partiwere the slightest doubt that John re- cular. See Johnxx. 30. John may ferred to himself in ch. xiii. 23-25, this also have intended to include the disdeclaration, compared with ver. 20, courses delivered by our Lord, as things would remove it. T Which testifieth done by him. Some of these are reand porote, &c. That is, the disciple corded by the other evangelists. Many, who leaned on the breast of Jesus, ver. beyond all doubt, were never record20, and of whom it was at least sug- ed. Yet we have abundant reason to gested that he should live until after rejoice that so many, both of disJerusalem was overthrown, was the courses and miracles, have been placed same person who wrote this gospel. on record, as to furnish full proof that He was a personal witness of what he Jesus was the Son of God, or the Mesrelated. * We knowo, &c. He here siah, and to instruct us in all we absopledges his veracity that his narrative is lutely need to know, in this life, contrue. He is generally supposed to have cerning the character and purposes of been now bending under the weight of our heavenly Father, and our own duty almost a hundred years; and, at the and destination. T I suppose, &c. Eviclose of his long and laborious life, he dently an hyperbole, such as is not ungave this dying testimony to the truth usual among writers of all nations. of that gospel which he had preached “This is a very strong eastern expres. for about seventy years. Whatever sion to represent the great number of might be thought of an ambitious man, miracles, which Jesus wrought. But, in the strength and pride of life, it is however strong and strange this expresbeyond all reasonable suspicion that one sion may seem to us of the western in extreme old age, about to fall into the world, we find sacred and other authors grave, having no possible advantage to using hyperboles of the like kind and hope from deception, should then and I signification.”—Pearce. 1 Amen. This

if they should be written every one,

could not contain the books that I suppose that even the world itself should be written. Amen. word is almost universally rejected here 1 Cor. xv. 6. This is omitted by all by critics, as spurious.

the evangelists; but Paul asserts that 191. The evangelists uniformly as- "the greater part” of those five hunsert that our Lord repeatedly" showed dred witnesses were then living, and himself alive after his passion, by many ready to testify the fact. (10.) By infallible proofs,” Acts i. 3; that is, James. 1 Cor. xv. 7. (11.) By the he was seen and handled by his disci- whole number of the apostles, on the ples ; he conversed with them; and mount of Olives ; and “while they finally they witnessed his departure beheld, he was taken up, and a cloud from the earth. As the fact asserted is received him out of their sight." Mark of such vital importance, and repre- xvi. 19; Luke xxiv. 50, 51; Acts sented by the apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 3—8, i. 1-9; 1 Cor. xv. 7. To these may as lying at the very foundation of not improperly be added, (12.) his apChristianity, a methodical summary, pearance to Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 8. Such gathered from the four evangelists, was the evidence, which, during " forty may form an appropriate conclusion days,”, Acts i. 3, was given to the aposof the present volume. (1.) The first tles, that their 'Master was truly alive interview with himself, after his resur- from the dead. And when it is rerection, was granted by our Lord to membered, that they did not expect his Mary Magdalene, who forsook him not resurrection, that they were slow to bewhile he lived, even in his hour of lieve, that they would not believe even utmost distress, and who was the first on the testimony of their associates, to visit his sepulchre after the sabbath and that each of them subsequently behad passed. Mark xvi. 9; John xx. 11 came ready to testify the fact at the -18. (2.) He was next seen by the hazard and actual loss of life,—there other women ; namely, Mary the mother remains no room for doubt that they of James, Salome, Joanna, and others. had ample and conclusive proof of Matt. xviij. 9. Compare Matt. xxviii. their Lord's identity. We need not hesi1; Mark xvi. 1 ; Luke xxiv. 1, 10. (3.) | tate in believing the apostolic testiBy two disciples, on their way to Em- mony. Regarded merely, as history,

Mark xvi. 12; Luke xxiv. 13– apart from the authority of inspiration, 31. (4.) By Peter, or Cephas. Luke it is entitled to the most unlimited crexxiv. 34; i Cor. xv. 5. (5.) By ten dit. We cannot disbelieve it, without disciples, Thomas being absent. Mark renouncing all faith in human testimoxvi. 14 ; Luke xxiv. 36; John xx. 19, ny. But besides the stamp of truth 24. To this appearancé Paul is sup- impressed on the narrative, regarded posed to refer, 1 Cor. xv. 5. Five as human testimony, it is sealed also times, on the day of his resurrection, with the signet of the Holy Spirit. he was seen in different places by dif- Thanks be to God for the full assurance ferent individuals, not one of whom he hath given of the resurrection of our doubted his identity. (6.) He was Lord, and the cheering and sustaining next seen, about a week afterwards, hope of immortality which that assurby the Eleven, Thomas being pres- ance imparts and confirms. "For if we ent and obtaining the actual demonstra- / believe that Jesus died and rose again, tion which he demanded as the con- even so them also which sleep in Jesus dition of believing that his Master was will God bring with him.” And when truly alive. John xx. 26–29. (7.) By thus brought, their deliverance from sin Peter, Thomas, Nathanael, James, John, and death, and misery, shall be com" and two other of his disciples," the leted ; “neither can they sea of Tiberias. John xxi. 1-14. (8.) more ; for they are equal unto the anBy the Eleven, at a mountain in Gali- gels, and are the children of God, being lee. Matt. xxviji. 16-18. (9.) By the children of the resurrection.” Luke " above five hundred brethren at once." xx. 36 ; 1 Thess. iv. 14.


die any


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