« 前へ次へ »
REMARKS. This rotation, for quantity of grain and the profit arising from it, is more productive than either of the preceding ; and with no more ploughing, excepting No. 1. No field gives more than three com crops in seven years, except the crop of buckwheat ; the last of which, with ihe Indian corn, will be more than adequate for all the demands of the farm. The clover is to be sown with the buckwheat in July; and by being only one year in the ground, may be too expensive on account of the seed. Nor will the fields in this course receive much manure; and the advantages of sowing wheat on a clover lay, in this country, are not well ascertained. Again, preparing two fields for buckwheat may, in practice, be found difficult. Wheat stubble might be ploughed in here for spring food.
By the above rotations, the quantity of grain is nearly equal to that of No. 3, and the value of it greater; occasioned by the increase of wheat. This rotation is effected with as little ploughing'as No. 1, and with less than in either of the other two numbers, 2 and 3. But in this course no green manure is introduced, except ploughing in clover is so considered ; and the quality of the clover on much reduced land is to be questioned, and the practice of sowing on it, as has been observed in some of the other numbers, not much used, nor the advantages of it well ascertained. Besides, there is the expense of clover-seed for 150 acres overy year to be encountered.
4. EXTRACT FROM AN AGRICULTURAL JOURNAL.
For many years Washington kept an Agricultural Journal, in which he recorded from day to day the principal operations on his farms, the state of vegetation, and other particulars. The following short extract is from the journal for April, 1786.
April 18th. Began to plant Irish potatoes in drills between the corn (ten feet apart), four rows allotted therefor, two of which had manure put upon each set, which were at the distance of one foot asunder; the other two rows were planted in all respect like these, but without manure.
Began to sow barley in drills near the Siberian wheat.
20th. Finished sowing fifty rows of barley at Dogue Run, with thirty-five quarts of seed. The ground was prepared in the following manner. 1. Thrice ploughed (or listed as it is called) into five feet ridges. 2. Rolled with thie spiked roller. 3. Harrowed. 4. Sowed with the barrel plough, and harrowed with the small harrow following the plough.
21st Sowed a bushel of orchard-grass seed in the turnip patch, at the Home house: The ground in which these seeds were sown had been twice ploughed, chopped over, and the clods broken with hoes, and twice harrowed. The seeds were scratched in with a light bush.
22d. The heavy rain last night washed, and laid above ground almost all the Albany pease, which had been sown broad-cast. Those which were sown in drills two or three days before were coming up.
Finished sowing barley in the Neck between the corn rows; seventy-six rows, alternately.
Prevented from planting corn and pease with the barrel plough by the wetness of the ground.
25th. 'Planted Irish potatoes, in ground prepared as above, and in the manner described - ground wet.
Timothy seed sown on the oats, and the ground being too wet to roll, it was scratched in with a bush harrow, which was wrong, as the blades and roots were injured thereby.
26th. The drilled wheat from the Cape propped to prevent its lodging.
27th. Irish Potatoes planted in the Neck, ten rows (between the corn rows) as at the other places; the alternations being manured.
28th. Three acres of flax sown in the Neck, and harrowed in.
Pease, consisting ‘of two kinds, sown with the same plough at the same place; the ground in all these operations being wet.
XV. POOR RICHARD REVIVED,
REMARKS ON INDISTRI, ATTENTION TO BUSINESS, AND FRU
[Dr. Franklin published for many years in Philadelphia an Almanac, which he called
Poor Richard's ALMANAC, ard in which he inserted various maxims and proverbs. Although these were much quoted at the time, and have not since been forgoiten, yet no apolo y need be given for reprinting them here, as they were drawn up by the author himself in the form of a preface to one of his Almanacs.]
I have heard, that nothing gives an author so great pleasure, as to find his works respectfully quoted by others. Judge, then, how much I must have been gratified by an incident I am going to relate to you. I stopped my horse lately, where a great number of people were collected, at an auction of merchants' goods. The hour of the sale not being come, they were conversing on the badness of the times; and one of the company called to a plaiii, clean, old man, with white locks, Pray, Father Abraham, what think you of the times ?
Will not these heavy taxes quite ruin the country ?
How shall we ever be able to pay them? What would you advise us to ? Father Abraham stood up, and replied, If you would have my advice, I will give it to you in short, “ for a word to the wise is enough,” as Poor Richard says. They joined in desiring him to speak his mind, and gathering round him, he proceeded as follows.
Friends, says he, the taxes are indeed very heavy, and if those laid on by the government were the only ones we had to pay, we might more easily discharge them ; but we have many others, and much more grievous to some of us. We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly; and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us, by allowing an abatement. However, let us hearken to good advice, and something may be done for us;. “God helps them that help themselves," as Poor Richard says.
I. It would be thought a hard government, that should tax its people one tenth part of their time, to be employed in its service; but idleness taxes many of us much more; sloth, by bringing on diseases, absolutely shortens life. Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labor wears, while the used key is always bright,” as poor Richard says. " But doest thou love
life, then do not squander time, for that is the stuff lise is made of," as poor Richard says. How inuch more than is necessary do we spend in sleep! forgetting, that “the sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there will be sleeping enough in the grave," as poor
says. “ If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be,” as poor Richard says, “the greatest prodigality ; since, as he elsewhere tells us, “ lost time is never found again; and what we call time enough, always proves little enough ; let us then up and be doing, and doing to the purpose ; so by diligence shall we do more, with less perplexity.
66 Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy; and he that riseth late, must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night ; while laziness travels so slowly, that poverty soon overtakes him.
Drive thy business, let not that drive thee; and early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise,” as poor Richard
says. So what signifies wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better, if we bestir ourselves. “ Industry need not wish, and he that lives upon hope will die fasting. There are no gains without pains; then help hands, for I have no lands," or if I have, they are smartly taxed. “He that
“ hath a trade, hath an estate ; and he that hath a calling, hath an office of profit and honor,"
but then the trade must be worked at, and the calling well followed or neither the estate nor the office will enable us to pay our taxes. If we are industrious, we shall never starve ; for, “at the working man's house, hunger looks in, but dares not enter.” Nor will the bailiff or the constable enter, for “industry pays debts, while despair increaseth them."
What though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left legacy,“ diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry. Then plough deep, while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn to sell and to keep." Work while it is called to-day, for you know not how much you may be hindered to-morrow. "One to-day is worth two to-morrows,” as poor Richard says; and farther, never leave that till to-morrow, which you can do to-day.” If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle ? Are you then your own master ? Be ashamed to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be done for yourself, your family, your country, and your king. Handle your tools without mittens ; remember, that “the cat in gloves catches no mice,” as poor Richard says. It is true, there is