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Capital Cities,

with their Population.

Principal Religious Revenue. * Debt.

Armies. Ships.
Denominations. £ Sterling. £ Sterling.

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36,000 20,000 6,000 4,000 48,000 25,000 70,000 100,000

Mequinez, 70,000 . Mahometan
Algiers, 50,000 . Mahometan
Tunis, 100,000 Mahometan
Tripoli, 15,000 Mahometan
Chelicut, 8,000? Copt
Gondar, 40,000? Copt
Bornou, 30,000 Fetichist, Mahometan
Sakkatou, 80,000? . Fetichist, Mahometan
Sego, 30,000 Mahometan, Fetichist
Tjiloga?, 4,000 Mahometan, Fetichist
Coumassie, 15,000 Fetichist
Abomey, 24,000 Fetichist
Benin, 60,000? Fetichist
Zimbaoe,

Fetichist
Emirne, 30,000 Fetichist, Mahometan
Cairo, 260,000 Mahometan
St. Paul de Loanda Fetichist, Catholic
The Cape, 18,000 . Calvinist,Cath.,Ch. of

England, Fetichist
Ceuta, 7,000 Catholic
Fort St. Louis, 10,000 Mahometan, Catholic

85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

100,000
30,000
50,000
30,000
30,000

:

103 104

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[140,000 Rio de Janeiro, Catholic

2,500,000 9,320,000 30,000 Washington, 15,000 Congregational, Pres., 5,539,600 15,836,000 5,779

[(a) Ep., Lu., Cath., Meth. Mexico, 180,000 Catholic

2,950,280 20,340,000 22,750 New Guatem.,40,000 Catholic

400,000 380,000 3,500 Bogotà, 30,000 Catholic

1,712,000 9,160,000 32,370 Lima, 80,000 Catholic

1,200,000 5,899,520 7,500 La Plata, 25,000 Catholic

440,000 640,000 Santiago, 60,000 Catholic

600,000 6,440,000

8,000 Buenos Ayres,80,000 Catholic

600,000 5,360,000 10,000 Port-au-Prin., 30,000 Catholic

1,200,000 6,000,000 45,000 Assumption, 12,000? Catholic

200,000

5,000
Quebec, 22,000 Ch.of Eng.,Cai., Caih.
Havannah, 130,000 Catholic
Fort-Royal, 9,000 Catholic
Reikiavik, 500 Lutheran
Paramaribo, 20,000 Calvinist
St. Paul, 600 Fetichist

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Siak, 8,000? (15,000? Mahometan

122 Telosancaouay, Mahometan

123 Borneo, 15,000 Mahometan

124 Bevan, '6,000 Mahometan

125 Selangan, 10,000 Mahometan

126 Hanarura, 6,000? Fetichist, Methodist

11? 127 Batavia, 46,000. Mahometan

128 Manilla, 140,000 Catholic, Mahometan

129 Sydney, 10,000 Ch.of En.,Pres.,Cath.

130 Dille, 2,000 . Catholic, Fetichist

131 (a) Washington is the seat of Government in the United States, and is therefore the nominal Capital. The Capitals of several of the individual States gre superior in populalation and importance.

XXII. TOTAL POPULATION OF THE EARTH. A summary of the preceding table gives the following results for the surface of the habitable globe (in geographical square miles), and the amount of population.

Surface.

Inhabitants. Europe

2,793,000 227,700,000 Asia

12,118,000 390,000,000 Africa

8,516,000 60,000,000 America

11,046,000 39,000,000 Australasia

3,100,000 20,300,000

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XXIII. INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH, DIVIDED ACCORD.

ING TO THEIR RELIGIOUS BELIEF. The two following estimates are according to the geographers, Malte-Brun and Hassel.

Malte-Brun.

Hassel.
Catholics

116,000,000 134,000,000
Greek Church

70,000,000 62,000,000 Protestants

42,000,000 55,000,000

Total of Christians .
Jews
Mahometans
Pagans

228,000,000

4,000,000 100,000,000 310,000,000

251,000,000

3,000,000 120,000,000 550,000,000

Total of Inhabitants of the Globe 642,000,000

924,000,000

XXIV. INCREASE OF THE INHABITANTS OF EUROPE.

[Abridged from Mr. Jacob's Corn Report.]

RUSSIA.

The accounts of the population of Russia, which are the most to be relied upon, comprehend only a part (though the greatest part) of the inhabitants of that extended empire. The Synod of the Orthodox-Greek Church publish each year the number of Marriages, Births, and Deaths in the year preceding. The following is a comparison of those lists for the years 1820 and 1826 — at which former year the empire had attained its present extended limits : Marriages.

Births. 1820 317,805 1,570,399 917,680 652,719 1826 384,787 1,645,023 1,194,637 450,386

Year.

Doaths.

Increase,

less so

It is difficult to account for the lesser increase in 1826 than in 1820, unless it be attributed to the great difference in fertility between the respective years. The years 1819 and 1820 were highly productive in the east of Europe - that of 1825 rather

- and that of 1826 was, in all the sandy districts, from the great drought that prevailed, very deficient. These years, however, may be taken as the standard of annual increase : thus the excess of births over deaths consists of 551,552 souls; this comprehends only the increase in the greater religious sect over whom the Synod presides. When the whole poulation in 1806 amounted to 41,252,000 persons, the excess of births over deaths, as published by the Synod, was 542,701. Since that year, countries have been added to the empire whose inhabitants did not profess the Orthodox Greek Religion, and are therefore not noticed in the annual reports of the Synod. Amongst these may be classed Finland, whose inhabitants are Lutherans ; Bialystock, where they are either Catholics, or Heterodox Greeks ; Caucasus provinces, where the majority are Mahometans and Jews; and Poland, where they are mostly Catholics and Jews :— the proportion which those of the dissident sects bear to the Orthodox Church, is estimated as 2 to 7. At this ratio, the annual increase of the population of Russia must be at the rate of 697,758 persons, exclusive of the inhabitants of the Asiatic provinces of Russia, who bear to those in the European provinces the proportion of 2 to 11. Thus, for the annual increase of the whole empire of 697,758 persons, must be subtracted two-elevenths, or 98,673, leaving, as yearly augmentation, by the excess of births over deaths in European Russia, 598,085. Thus, from 1815 to the present time, averaging 600,000 for twelve years (being a few months short of the real time), we may, without fear of any material error, assume the population of European Russia to have increased about seven millions. In Russia, the increase seems to depend less on the increased number of births than on the more extended length of life. in the returns of the Synod, the deaths of persons above a hundred years old appear to have been, in the year

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PRUSSIA.

By the official papers of Prussia; whose accuracy in its statistical communications cannot be surpassed, we learn that in the ten years, from 1817 to 1827, the increase amounted to 1,849,561, at which rate the inhabitants would double themselves in little more than thirty-six years.

This is the most extraordinary instance of increase in any old-settled country.

SWEDEN, DENMARK, AND NORWAY. In Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, population is making rapid advances. In a brief account respecting the increase in Sweden, extracted from the “ Révue Encyclopédique" for March, 1825, the excess of births above deaths, in 1823, is stated to be 42,205. — Denmark has increased at the rate of two per cent., and Sweden and Norway may be estimated at two thirds of that proportion. Assuming this estimate, the increase in Denmark being taken at 20,000, and that of Sweden and Norway at 40,000, for each year, from the peace of 1815 to the end of 1827, the increase will have been 720,000. (The other dominions of Denmark will be viewed as a part of Germany.)

AUSTRIA. In determining the increase of the population in the dominions of Austria, there is some difficulty, arising from the different periods when the number of inhabitants was ascertained in the several provinces. Thus, in the archduchy of Austria, in the provinces on the Ens and the Stevermark, the census is dated from 1815 - in Illyria, from 1818 -- in the Tyrol, from 1806 — in Gallicia and Moravia, from 1813 – in Hungary, from 1794 — in Siebenburgen, from 1794 - in the military frontier, from 1815 — in Temeswar, from 1814 – and in the kingdom of Venetian Lombardy, from 1815. The aggregate number taken from these returns, as enumerated by Baron Lichtenstein, in 1820, amounted to 29,699,724 individuals. According to the local returns, as published by the Geographical Board of Vienna in 1822, edited by Colonel Fallon, and framed in the preceding year, the rate of the increase of population appears to be as follows: In Hungary and Siebenburgen

1400 annually. In Austria Proper, the Stermark, and Sieben

do. burgen Bohemia, Gallicia, Illyria, and Moravia

213do. Dalmatia, Tyrol, and Venetian Lombardy

210o do.

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This statement gives as a result an increase, in twelve years, on the population of 1815, calculated at 27,000,000, of more than twenty-seven per cent., in fact, nearly 7,000,000. Different authorities agree, up to the year 1821, in a rate of increase which, if continued to 1828, would make that increase more than 7,000,000.

GERMANY.

Those parts of Germany which are comprehended in neither the Austrian empire nor the Prussian kingdom, contained, at the time of the Congress of Vienna, a population of 13,600,000. By exact returns, for a series of years, from each Province in. Hanover, is shown an increase, in ten years, at the rate of twelve per cent., or somewhat more than fourteen per cent. in the twelve years since the peace. By official statements we learn the inhabitants of Bavaria amounted, in 1821, to 3,743,330, and in 1826, to 4,301,004. An official account from the Grand Duchy of Baden, states the population, in 1822, as 1,090,910, and in 1826, as 1,145,357, showing an increase at the rate of one and forty-eight one-hundredths annually. From the best works describing the States of Saxony, Wirtemberg, Hesse Cassel, Hesse Darmstadt, Nassau, and the smaller sovereignties, and from oral information, the increase of population in these states may be rated much below that of Austria and of Prussia, and nearer that of Baden; taking it at the rate of seventeen and a half per cent in the twelve years since the peace, the increase in the portions of Germany under consideration may be assumed at 2,100,000 at the present time.

SWITZERLAND.

By a census taken in Switzerland, in 1821, the inhabitants were found to be 1,783,231 ; and in 1827 they were 2,037,030, showing an increase in six years, of 253,799. The whole augmentation, during the twelve years of peace, may therefore be estimated at 500,000,

NETHERLANDS.

In the kingdom of the Netherlands a census is taken every five years, and at the end of each intermediate year the births are added and the deaths subtracted, which is adjusted by the enumerations of the fifth years. By an account printed for the information of the legislature, it is seen that the population, which, Jan. 1, 1815, was 5,424,502, had advanced, by Jan. 1, 1825, to 6,013,478; and adding for the three years to Jan 1, . 1828, at the same rate, the increase since the peace is shown to be 760,000.

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