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FRANCE. The state of the population of France, according to a recent work by Baron Dupin, in point of increase, has been slower than in other parts of Europe. According to his statement, France contains 31,000,000 of inhabitants, who increase annually at the rate of 6,536 for each million : this would show an annual augmentation of 200,000, or in the twelve years since the peace, of 2,400,000 persons.

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. The population of Great Britain, from data afforded by the three decennial enumerations of 1801, 1811, and 1821, may be taken to have increased at the rate of 200,000 in each year, from 1815 to 1827; or, in the period since the peace, to 2,400,000. In 1821, according to the government estimate, the population of Ireland amounted to 6,800,000, since which, it is believed, the increase has been equal to the proportion which has been ascertained to have taken place in Great Britain the one island, in 1821, containing 14,391,631 inhabitants, and the other 6,801,827. Thus the increase of the United Kingdom, since 1815, appears to be 3,500,000.

ITALY.

The estimate of the increase of inhabitants in Northern Italy is comprehended in that of the dominions of Austria, as far as the territories of that empire extend in it. In the dominions of the King of Naples, according to the official statements to be found in Dupin) in 1817, the population amounted to 6,828,558. Dupin gives for the annual rate of increase 11,111 for each million, which would amount to 75,850 yearly, or for the twelve years since 1815, to 900,000. The middle of Italy, comprehending Sardinia, the Popedom, Tuscany, Modena, Parma, Lucca, and the Islands, contained, in 1817, 8,859,000 inhabitants. The rate of increase in those states has probably corresponded with that of Naples ; consequently they have received an augmentation of 1,200,000.

SPAIN.

By Ancillon's work, published in 1809, the population of Spain is shown to be increasing, and, notwithstanding the internal disastrous occurrences in that country, it is more than probable some slight increase takes place.

PORTUGAL.

According to Balbi, in his " Essai Statistique sur le R. de Portugal et d'Algarve," published in 1822, a progress appears

up to that period. The lists are very imperfect, but it appears that in the years 1815, 16, 17, 18, 19, the excess of births above deaths, and the proportion of both to the whole number of the people, is such as to show a great but uncertain rate of increase.

TURKEY IN EUROPE.

Of the population of Turkey nothing is known. Its European territory is stated to contain 7,000,000 of inhabitants; no improbable estimation, considering what is known of Portugal; it is rational to presume that this country has, in fifteen years, increased five per cent., or one million.

From the statement here exhibited, it appears that the inhabitants of Europe have, within the period that has elapsed since the general peace, been augmented by the number of twenty-eight or twenty-nine millions.

XXV. COMPARATIVE ESTIMATE OF THE AMOUNT OF ANI.

MATE AND INANIMATE FORCE APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS IN FRANCE AND GREAT BRITAIN. [Abridged from M. Charles Dupin's Work on the Productive and Commercial Forces

of France.] Various modes have been adopted for estimating the strength of a nation. Riches, number of population, extent of territory, and military force, have been reckoned among the chief elements of a nation's power. These are subject, however, to so many modifications from other causes, that they can hardly be taken separately into the account. The three great branches of human industry in civilized countries, are agriculture, manufactures, and commerce; and a nation is strong in proportion as these are prosecuted with success. This principle may be illustrated by a brief parallel between the productive force of France and Great Britain.

The 31,800,000 inhabitants which now constitute the population of France, are equivalent to a power of 12,609,057 individuals of the male sex, at the age of full vigor. It is a position generally admitted in France, that two-thirds of the population are employed in agriculture; and that a third only is occupied in manufacturing and commercial pursuits. Hence it results that France possesses A human agricultural power equivalent to that of 8,406,038 laboring men, And a power of industry, manufacturing and commercial, equal to

}4,203,019 Total 12,609,057

Were it not that the industry of man has found the means of calling extraneous force to its aid, its means would be confined to the amount of power above enumerated: but man employs other forces than his own in agricultural labors, and principally that of the horse, of the ass, of the mule, the ox, and the cow; and with the help of these, the animate agricultural force of France has increased to the following sum : — Human race

21,056,667 equivalent to 8,406,038 effective laborers. Horses 1,600,000

11,200,000 Oxen and cows 6,973,000

17,432,000 Asses. 240,000

240,000

Total 37,278,038 On making similar calculations of the agricultural force of Great Britain, and stating at 15,000,000, the number of inhabitants of England and Scotland, of whom a third only are employed in agriculture, and the other two thirds in commerce and manufactures, we shall have, Agricultural force

2,132,446 effective working men. Artisans of all professions

4,264,893

Total 6,397,333 If we proceed in the same way with regard to Great Britain, as we have done with respect to France, and make a comparative calculation of the power in men, and the power in other animals, engaged in agriculture, we shall find, Human race

5,000,000 equivalent to 2,132,446 effective laborers. Horses of full growth 1,250,000

8,750,000 Oxen, cows, &c. 5,500,000

13,750,000

Total 24,632,446 Ireland ; approximating estimate

7,455,701 Total for the United Kingdom 32,088,147 Taking the proportion of this total force of 24,632,446 to the human force applicable to agriculture, we find it to be as 12. Whence it appears, that the agriculturists of England and Scotland have discovered the means of creating a force, twelve times the amount of their personal corporeal force, by the use they make of domestic animals; while the additional force obtained through similar means by the French agriculturists does not amount to five times their own. It is calculated that in France there are 46,000,000 hectares * of land made to

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A hectare contains 10,000 square metres, or 100 ares. An English acre is very nearly equal to 40'ares; therefore a 'hectare is about 24 acres.

yield produce; so that there is an animate power equal to that of 810 laborers, for the cultivation of every thousand hectares. The total number of hectares of productive land in Great Britain is 21,643,000; so that there is an animate power equal to that of 1138 working men for every thousand hectares. The produce of the land, in the respective countries, is in proportion to the power employed respectively in its cultivation. The case is the same in regard to manufactures.

T'he human force in France employed in commercial and manufacturing industry, is equivalent, according to the calculations already stated, to 4,203,019 effective working men; to this power must be added that supplied by the use of horses, the number of which is computed at 300,000 employed in transport, for the saddle, in draught, &c. whereby the animate force of France is raised to 6,303,019 power of men.

The human force of Great Britain employed in commerce and manufactures, is equivalent to 4,264,893 effective men; to this power, then, must also be added the power of 250,000 animals, employed in divers works of industry. These will raise the animate force of England and Scotland to 6,014,893; to which there must be superadded the approximating value of 1,260,604 effective men for Ireland : so that the commercial and manufacturing animate power of the United Kingdom must be computed at 7,275,497 laboring men.

The comparative results of the animate forces will be as follows:

United Kingdom. Animate agricultural force

37,278,038 32,088,147 Animate commercial and manufacturing force 6,303,019 7,275,497

Total 43,581,057 39,363,644 It thus appears, that in considering the animate forces alone, France has the advantage over Great Britain in a ratio nearly of one seventh. But if the superficial extent of the countries be considered, it will be seen, that Great Britain gives subsistence to a much larger animate force in proportion than France.

To these animate powers should be joined also, in the case of both the countries, the inanimate powers, or the force sup plied by water, wind, and steam; and the whole productive and commercial manufacturing power of England and France will be ascertained.

The total number of mills in France has been computed by the French authors on statistics at 76,000, of which about 10,000 may be set down as windmills; the total force of hydraulic machines employed for forges, furnaces, and machinery

France.

of every kind, is equal to the third part of that of the 10,000 windmills; the wind, as employed in navigation, is equivalent to the power of 3,000,000 of men ; and, lastly, the steamengines in operation in France exceed the power of 60,000 dynames,* equivalent to the power of 480,000 working men turning a winch

It has been calculated also, by the same writers, that besides windmills, hydraulic machines, &c., Great Britain possesses, in steam-engines alone, a moving power of at least 800,000 dynames, the effect of which is equal to the power of 6,400,000 men employed at the windlass. The commercial and manufacturing power of France is, therefore, in proportion to that of Great Britain, as follows:

France.

G. Britain.
Animate force

6,303,019 men power 7,275,497 inen power. Mills & hydraulic engines 1,500,000

1,200,000 Windmills

253,333

240,000 Wind and Navigation : 3,000,000

12,000,000 Steam-engines

480,000

6,400,000

Inanimate powers.

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Total 28,118,164 Thus, the total of the inanimate force applied to the arts of all descriptions in France, scarcely exceeds the fourth of the same power applied to the same purposes in Great Britain ; and the whole animate and inanimate power of Great Britain, applied to manufactures and commerce, is nearly treble the amount of that so applied in France. The agricultural power and the manufacturing and commercial power of the two countries bear a corresponding proportion to the total of the agricultural and manufactured produce, and their value in commerce.

By comparing the total of the forces of the two countries, we shall have

France. Great Britain. Agricultural force

37,278,038 32,088,147 Commercial and manufacturing force

11,536,352 28,118,164

Total 48,814,390
Deduct animate force 43,581,057

60,206,311 39,363,644

Inanimate force

5,233,333

20,842,667

* A dyname is equal to a thousand kilograms raised to the height of a thousand metres ; eight men employed at a winch can in one day raise a thousand kilograms to the height of a thousand metres, or, in other words, can produce a dyname of labor.

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