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This shows a diminution of periodical publications of more than 2,000,000 of sheets 'in six years only. In 1820 for a million of sheets published on religion, the sciences, belleslettres, and the arts, there were 352,313 issued from the periodical press; in 1826 for a million of sheets on the same subjects, there were only 182,764 periodical.
M. Dupin supposes this diminution of periodical publications to be owing to two causes; first, their dearness; and secondly, the circumstance of their being burdened with a heavy tax. The subscription price of a daily newspaper in Paris is about sixteen dollars a year.
The extraordinary increase of publications not periodical, within twelve years, he thinks is also to be ascribed to two causes ; first, the people who read have more time than formerly to devote to that occupation; secondly, the number of readers is much augmented.
It was stated in a late publication, that a hundred thousand copies of the entire works of Voltaire and Rousseau had been published during the last twelve years in France, in addition to innumerable copies of separate treatises of both authors.
By a recent French paper, it appears that the following is the present state of the periodical press in France.
There are now in Paris 152 Journals, literary, scientific, and religious, and 17 political, — in all 169. Of these papers 151 are constitutional, or, as they are called, liberal the 18 others being more monarchical in their spirit. The 151 Constitutional Journals have, it is stated, 197,000 subscribers, 1,500,000 readers, and produce an income of 1,155,200 francs; the 18 others have 21,000 subscribers, 192,000 readers, with an income of 437,000 francs. The number of subscribers to the ten principal papers is as follows; - Le Moniteur, the official paper, from 2500 to 4000 subscribers, principally public functionaries. Le Constitutionnel, 18,000 to 20,000 subscribers. Journal des Debats, 13,000 to 14,000. Quotidienne, 5000 subscribers. Courrier Français, 4500. Journal. du Commerce, 3500. Gazette de France, 7000. Messager des Chambres. This paper, which, since ihe accession of the Polignac Ministry, seems to have taken up liberal ideas, has 2,500 subscribers. Tribune des Départemens, a new paper, 100 subscribers. Nouveau Journal de Paris, 1000 to 1500 subscribers. These are all published in the capital; those printed in the provinces it calculates at 75 journals, exclusive of papers of advertisements, and Ministerial bulletins. Of these, 66 are constitutional, supported only by their subscribers of the same way of thinking. One, the Memorial de Toulouse,
is supported by the archbishop of that diocese; four are, it is asserted, paid from the secret funds of the Jesuits; the other four are described as monarchical, but of little influence. With respect to the state of public opinion in France, it averages, according to the same authority, among one hundred electors in one college, twenty-five revocable public functionaries, four judges, five advocates, four attorneys, six notaries, three physicians, ten merchants, and forty-three persons of no distinct profession. These latter give forty votes to constitutional candidates; and with eight merchants, two physicians, four notaries, one attorney, two advocates, three judges and revocable functionaries, make in all sixty constitutional votes out of the one hundred.
XXX. RUSSIAN ARMY.
THERE seems to be no public return, from which a precise knowledge of this subject can be obtained. The following summary, from a recent account of Russia, exhibits as accurate a statement as can be made.
Hassel reckoned the Russian army at 558,120 men, to which has been added, since 1806, a national guard, or militia, of 612,000 men, making an efficient force of 1,170,
,120. Cromé made the land forces 639,415, in time of war. This was the number said to have been in the army in 1811. After alluding to the 612,000 militia, Cromé says Russia can defend herself with more than 1,200,000 warriors.
For a few years past the Russian army has generally been reckoned at a million of men, though the officers themselves vary in their accounts, some estimating it as low as 800,000, and others as high as 1,200,000.
The population of Russia in 1816, according to Hassel, amounted to 45,526,497.
The origin of the use of money, as a medium of exchange, is hidden in the remotest antiquity. Mention is often made of money in the Scriptures. Abraham paid four hundred shekels of silver for the burial place of Saralı. The shekels of silver, which were used as coin at a later day by the Jews of Palestine, had on one side Aaron's rod in blossom, with the inscription, in Hebrew characters, Jerusalem the Holy; and on the other side
an impression of the vessel in which the manna was preserved in the sanctuary, with the words, Money of Israel. From the New Testament we learn, that, in the time of our Saviour, money was in circulation among the Jews, which bore the heads of the Cæsars. Money was in use at Argos 894 years before the Christian
We are told that the Roman copper coins, struck in the time of Servius Tullius, were stamped with animals whose value they represented. Others contained effigies of the divinities, such as Janus and Mercury. The first silver coin was made in Rome in the 485th year from the foundation of the city, and gold coin about the 547th of the same era. On these were first engraved the features of deceased consuls. The head of Cæsar, the Dictator, was the first head of a living person, that was struck on the Roman coins.
The first money issued by the Popes was about the Before the tenth century there was no money known in Russia, either native or foreign. This medium of exchange came first to that country from Tartary. Before the fifteenth century silver was so rare in Russia, that the German historian, John de Müller, speaks of towns that were bought for five crowns. The first silver money coined in Russia was in 1485. Rubles were first coined there in 1634.
The first name of a Doge, which appears on the Venetian coins, was that of Henry Dandolo, who died in the year 1205. The gold ducats, which had been struck in Italy, were the models of the Venetian pieces, called sequins, which appeared for the first time in Venice under the reign of the Doge, John Dandolo, who died in 1580.
The most ancient Swedish money was silver. Gold was not coined before the sixteenth century; and copper was first put in circulation by the Queen Christina. The coins of the ancient Saxon kings are much more common in Sweden, than even in England, which is accounted for from the tribute which was paid for a long time to the Danish kings by the sovereigns of Great Britain.
In England the value of money augmented 18 times from the
year 1290 to 1640; and 12 times from 1530 to 1800. The value of silver has increased 30 fold since the Norman conquest. Gold and silver coin began to circulate in Scotland, A. D. 233. The first Gold coin of England was struck in 1087. In the year 1347 a pound of silver was made into 22 shillings; in 1352 it was increased to 25 shillings; in 1414 to 30; in 1505 to 40; and in 1530 to 65 shillings. Copper money was introduced into England in the year 1560. The first Guineas were
coined out of gold brought from the coast of Africa. The Sovereign, a recent English gold coin, contains 20 shillings, or a pound sterling. This term sterling, which is used to designate English money, it is said, was in early times applied to the Germans who lived in England, and as these Germans were much occupied in manufacturing coin, the name of the workmen was transferred to the money itself.
The most ancient money, known to have been fabricated in France, is supposed to have been struck by Theodoret, king of Metz, and grandson of Clovis, who died in 547. In some collections are found gold sous of Louis the Debonnaire. The first laws in France against counterfeit money were issued by this prince. In 957, when Hugh Capet was proclaimed king of France, there were more than 150 different kinds of money in the country. The florin was an ancient coin of Florence, upon which was represented a flower. It was introduced into France in 1068. Francis the First, in the year 1539, had a project for designating the different kinds of money by the letters of the Alphabet.
Uncivilized nations have various mediums of exchange, which answer the purpose of money. In some parts of Africa blocks of salt are used in this way, and thus become the standard of value for other articles. Small shells also circulate as money. Historians relate, that paper money was issued in China as early as A. D. 997. It was used also in Japan. In modern times it has ceased to circulate in both countries.
XXXII. THE VALUE OF MONEY IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
OF EUROPE, ESTIMATED IN DOLLARS AND CENTS.
As the Comparative value of money in different countries is subject to slight and irregular changes, it cannot be precisely fixed for any given time. The following tables are believed to approach as near to it, as the nature of the subject will admit. The asterisks denote, that the denomination to which they are annexed is only nominal, and not represented by any real coin. The fractional parts of the cents are decimals.
HOLLAND. Stiver Scalin Guilder, or Florin Rix dollar Ducat Gold Ducat.
01.04 06.24 16.66 20.83 25.00
66.66 1 00.00 8 83.34
PORTUGAL. Re Vintin Testoon Crusade of ex Milre* Moidore Joanese
DENMARK. 11.64 Skilling 38.80 Duggen
97.00 Marc* 2 07.86 Rix marc 8 00.00 Rix ort
PRUSSIA. 50.00 Grosh 1 25.00 Coustic 6 00.00 Tinse 8 00.00 Ort
RUSSIA. 79.60 | Altin
92.60 Grievener 1 36.12 | Polpotin 3 20.00 | Poltin
TURKEY. 02.77 Mangar
55.55 Asper* 1 00.00 Parac
00.86 04.32 12.96 15.55 25.92
77.76 2 07.40 3 88.80
03.00 10.00 25.00
50.00 1 00.00 2 00.00
00.28 01.12 03.33 05.55 11.11 22.22
88.88 1 11.10 2 22.20
Cruitzer Grosh Batzen Gould