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Sun's Semidiameter, Horizontal Parallax, and Latitude, and the Ob

liquity of the Ecliptic, for every 5th day, at noon at Greenwich.

July.

August. D. S. D. H.P. Lat. Ob. of Ecl.

D. 8. D. H.P. Lat. Ob. of Ecl. 5 15 45.526.446 53 N.23 27 31.68 4 15 44.916.466.31 N. 23 32.16 1101 .65 .44 .01 .731 9 48.66.46 .26 S.

.271 15 .89 .44 :) S. .80 14 49.53 .47 .43

.39 20 46.24.44 .31 .87 19 50.49 .48 .02N.

.51 25 .681 .45 .27N. .96 24 51.48.49 .54

.62 30 47.241 .45 .62

32.06 291 52.54 .50 .53

.71

Sun's and Moon's Longitude, and Moon's Latitude, at apparent noon

at Greenwich.

July.

August.
Sun's
Moon's

Sun's

Moon's D. Longitude. Longitude. Latitude. D. Longitude. Longitude. Latitude. 1 99 4 9 235 49 314 31 57 N. 1128 39 45 271 354 52 34 N. 2 100 1 20 37 56 174 54 29 2 9 37 10 84 3 574 20 43 3 0 58 31 50 15 315 3 50 3130 34 35 97 23 4013 34 1 4 1 55 42 62 49 164 58 51 4 1 32 2311 1 342 34 9 5 2 52 53 75 38 15 4 38 52 5 2 29 30 24 55 91 23 59 61 3 50 5 88 42 10 4 4 1 6 3 26 59 39 0 560 736 N. 7 4 47 16 301 59 493 15 22

4 24 30 153 15 61 10 7 s. 8 5 44 27 15 29 38 2 14 59 85 22 2007 33 37/2 23 54 9 6 41 39 29 9 491 5 58 N 6 19 34 21 52 56 3 28 46 10 7 38 52 42 58 520 7 47 S. 10 7 17 8 36 9 564 20 30 11 8 36 4356 55 331 21 52 11 8 14 44 50 22 64 55 58 12 9 33 17010 58 542 31 38 12 9 12 21 64 27 16 5 13 18 13110 30 31 25 7 55 3, 32 38 13 140 10 0 78 23 395 11 59 14 1 27 46| 39 21 94 20 50 14 1 7 40 92 93414 52 41

2 25 11 53 36 33 4 53 2 15 2 5 22 105 43 304 17 11 16 3 22 17 67 50 595 7 7 16 3 3 5 19 4 93 28 11 17 4 19 33 82 0 395 2 22 17 4 0 49 32 10 262 28 57 18 5 16 50 96 1 74 39 32 181 4 58 35 45 1 511 23 7 19 6 14 7109 48 94 0 39 19 5 56 23 57 38 25 0 14 22 s. 20 7 11 26 23 18 173 8 55 20 6 54 12 70 0 580 53 53N. 21 8 8 44 36 29 192 8 3 21 7 52 2 82 81 58 36 22 9 6 3 49 20 371 1 55 S.|| 22 8 49 53 94 11 212 57 11 23120 3 23 61 53 70 5 48 N. 23 9 47 46 206 4 473 47 34 24 1 044 74 9 171 11 56 24 150 45 40 17 55 17 4 28 ) 25 1 58 4 86 12 362 13 48 25 1 43 35 29 47 2 4 57 6 26 2 55 26 98 7 243 98 26 2 41 31 41 44 38 5 13 39

3 52 47 209 58 303 56 4 27 3 39 29 53 52 415 16 34 28 4 50 9' 21 50 534 32 59 28 4 37 29 66 15 38 5 5 2 29 5 47 32 33 49 244 58 22 29 5 35 29 78 57 24 4 38 33 301 6 44 55 45 58 37 5 10 51 30 6 33 311 92 0 593 57 6 31 7 42 19 58 22 235 9 13 31 7 31 34 305 28 43 1 33

15

27

Mooon's Apogee and Perigee. Perigee, 14th day, 3h. M. dist. 229,500 ms. | Perigee, 8th day, 10h. M. dist. 228,300 ms. Apogee, 27th

M. 251,000

Apogee, 24th 0 M. 251,500

Sun's Semidiameter, Harizontal. Parallax, and Latitude, and the Ob

liquity of the Ecliplic, for every 5th day, at noon at Greenwich.

H.P.

September.

October. D. S. D. A.P. Lat. Ob. of Ecl. D. S.D.

Lat. Ob. of Ecl. 315 63.716.51 0.03 s. 23 27 32.77 316 1.628.590.36 s. 23 27 32.87 8 54.94 .52 .46 .83 81 3.01 .59 .45

.84 13 56.20 .53 27 .85 13 4.39 .60 .04N.

.79 18 57.52 .54 .33 N. .87 18 5.75 .61 .54

.73 23 58.86 .55 .59 .88 23 7.10 .63 .42

.66 28.16 0.21 .56 .20 .89 28 8.40' .64 .15 S.

.59

Sun's and Moon's Longitude, and Moon's Latitude, at apparent noon

at Greenwich.

September.

October.
Sun's
Moon's

Sun's

Moon's D. Longitude. Longitude. Latitude. D. Longitude. Longitude. Latitude.

1158 29 39 319 18 35 i 53 54 N. 1187 46 55 356 45 i 26 49 s. 2 9 27 45 33 30 25 0 37 36 N. 2 8 45 59011 8 38 2 41 50 3 160 25 53 347 59 300 42 39 S. 3 9 45 5 26 16 413 46 10 4 1 24 3 002 40 42 1 8 4 190 44 13 41 24 12 4 34 37 5 2 22 15 17 25 223 11 56 5 1 43 23 56 21 405 3 41 6 3 20 28 32 8 34 4 9 51 6 2 42 35 71 1 205 12 15 7 4 18 44 46 43 304 51 1 7 3 41 50 85 18 85 1 0 8 5 17 2 61 5 27 5 13 16 8 4 41 899 9 534 32 19 9 6 15 22 75 11 24 5 16 9 9 5 40 27 112 36 503-49 17 10 7 13 41 88 59 52 5 0 35 10 6 39 48 25 41 72 55 20 11 8 12 8 102 30 384 28 34 11 7 39 12 38 25 491 53 57 12 9 10 34 15 44 31/3 42 49 12 8 38 39 50 54 300 48 25 S. 13 170 9 2 28 42 462 46 24 13 9 38 863 10 360 18 12N. 14 1 7 32 41 26 51 1 42 43 14200 37 39 75 17 131 22 58 15 2 6 4 53 58 160 35 7 S. 15 1 37 12 87 16 582 23 18 16 3 4 39 66 18 30/0 33 7 N. 16 2 36 48 99 11 573 16 46 17 4 3 15 78 23 57 1 38 51 17 3 36 25 211 3 564 1 21 18. 5 1 53 90 31 8/2 39 21 18 4 36 4 22 54 334 35 21 19 6 0 33 202 26 533 32 16 19 5 35 46 34 45 234 57 27 20 6 59 15 14 13 17 4 15 40 20 6 35 29 46 38 385 646 21 17 57 59 26 8 0 4 47 59 21 7 35 14 58 36 31 5 2 48 22 8 56 45 37 59 95 8 6 22 8 35 11 70 42 44 45 20 23 9 55 32 49 55 245 15 5 23 9 34 49 82 58 51 4 14 35 24 180 54 2162 0 505 8 19 24 210 34 40 95 30 523 31 7 25 1 53 12 74 19 474 47 24 25 1 34 32 308 22 232 36 0 26 2 52 5 86 56 40/4 12 19 26 2 34 25 21 37 261 30 59 27 3 50 59 99 55 333 23 30 27 3 34 20 35 19 140 18 43 N. 28 4 49 56 313 19 392 22 12 28 4 34 18 349 29 27 0 57 0 S. 29 5 48 54 27 10 44 1 10 42 N. 29 5 34 171004 7 5 2 11 14 30 6 47 53 41 28 27 0 7 18 s. 30 6 34 18 19 7 503 18 16

31 7 34 21 34 24 24 12 12

Moon's Apogee and Perigee. Perigee, 4th day, 10ti. A. dist 225,100 ms. Perigee, 3d day, 3h. M. dist. 222,600 ms. Apogee, 20th 4 A. 252, 100 Apogee, 18th 0 M.

252,500 Perigee, 31st 2

221,600

A.

Sun's Semidiameter, Horizontal Parallax, and Latitude, and the Ob

liquity of the Ecliptic, for every 5th day, at noon at Greenwich.

[blocks in formation]

D. S. D. H. P. Lat. Ob. of Ecl. D. S. D. H. P. Lat. Ob. of Ecl. 216 6.646.65 0.52 s. 23 27 32.50 2 16 15.618.71 6.49 s. 23 27 32.02 10.84 .66.23

.41

16.27 .71 .06N. 31.96 12 11.97 .67 .35 N. .33 12 .811 .72.50

.94 17 13.01 .68.53 .24 17 17.25.72 .29

.921 22 .99 .69 .06 .16|22 .55 .72 .29 S.

.94 27 14.86 .70 48 S. .09|27 .72 72.59

.96 31 .78 .72 37

32.001

Sun's and Moon's Longitude, and Moon's Latitude, at apparent noon at

Greenwich.

[blocks in formation]

Sun's
Moon's

Sun's

Moon's D. Longitude. | Longitude. Latitude. D. Longitude. Longitude. Latitude.

1218 34 26 49 45 50 4 48 13 s. 1 248 50 22 88 '5 "9 8 36 41 s. 2 19 34 32 64 59 125 3 28 249 51 14 102 45 83 58 1 3220 34 40 79 56 24 57 36 3250 52 8 16 57 19 3 5 28 4 21 34 50 94 27 504 32 28 4 51 53 330 39 14 2 3 45 5 22 35 2108 30 293 51 27 5 52 53 59 43 51 430 57 19 S. 6 23 35 17 22 3 25 2 58 34 6 53 54 57 56 37 590 10 0 N. 7 24 35 34 35 8 461 57 54 7 54 55 56 69 2 411 14 59 8 25 35 53 47 50 230 53 6 S. 8 55 56 56 81 11 42 15 7 9 26 36 13 60 12 590 12 35N. 9 56 57 58 93 8 27 3 8 18 10 27 36 36 72 21 261 16 21 10 57 59 0204 59 483 52 47 11 28 37 0 84 20 152 15 46 11 58 0 4 16 49 21 4 27 5 12 29 37 26 96 13 203 8 35 12 260 1 9 28 40 374 49 53 13230 37 55 208 3 543 52 54

13 61

2 14 36 165 0 10 14| 31 38 25 19 54 234 27 2 14 62 3 20 52 38 84 57 15 15| 32 38 56 31 46 364 49 36 15 63 4 27 64 47 21 4 40 51 16 33 39 29| 43 41 544 59 34 16 64 5 34 77 4 40 4 11 13 17 34 40 4 55 41 24 4 56 24 17 65 6 42 89 30 40 3 29 16 18 35 40 41 67 46 274 39 54 18 66 7 50 302 6 72 36 31 19 36 41 19 79 58 39 4 10 23 1967 859 14 52 91 35 2 20 37 41 57 92 20 133 28 55 20 68 10 8 27 50 280 27 33 N. 21 38 42 37 304 53 592 36 33 21 69 11 17 41 3 130 42 45 S. 22 39 43 19 17 43 211 35 13 22 270 12 26 354 32 421 52 15 23/240 44 1 30 51 580 27 18N. 23 71 13 36008 20 532 56 51 24 41 44 45 44 23 200 44 3 S. | 24 72 14 4622 28 433 52 15 251 42 45 30 358 19 59 1 54 55 25 73 15 55 36 55 21 4 34 10 26 43 46 16 012 42 383 0 40 26 74 17 4 5] 37 38 4 58 55 27 44 47 3 27 29 173 56 7 27 75 18 14 66 29 495 3 57 28 45 47 51 42 34 31 4 36 19 28 76 19 24 81 23 58 4 48 28 29 46 48 40 57 49 334 57 25 29 77 20 34 96 11 7 4 13 45 30] 47 49 31 73 3 284 57 23 30 78 21 44 110 42 513 23 0

31 79 22 54 24 52 362 20 42

Moon's Apogee and Perigee. Apogee, 14th day, Oh. M., dist. 252,500 ms. Apogee, 11th day, 1lh. M., dist. 252,100 ms Perigee, 29th 2 222,500 Perigee, 27th 9

225,8110

PART II.

INFORMATION CONNECTED WITH THE CALENDAR, CELESTIAL CHANGES, AND ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA.

I. ALMANACS.

The following account of the present state of Almanacs, compared with that of former times, is taken from the Companion to the British Almanac, for 1829, published under the superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.

The history of Almanacs, and even the etymology of the word Almanac, are involved in considerable obscurity. By some, the name is derived from the Arabic al manach, to count. Verstegan makes the word of German origin, Almonat ; and says that our Saxon ancestors were in the practice of carving the annual courses of the moon upon a square piece of wood, which they called Almonaught (al-moon-heed). Almanacs became generally used in Europe, within a short time after the invention of printing; and they were very early remarkable, as some are now in England, for the mixture of truth and falsehood which they contained. In 1579, their effects in France were found so mischievous, from the pretended prophecies which they published, that an edict was promulgated by Henry III., forbidding any predictions to be inserted in them, relating to civil affairs, whether those of the state or of private persons. No such law was ever enacted in England. It is singular that the earliest English Almanacs were printed in Holland, on small folio sheets; and these have occasionally been preserved, from having been pasted within the covers of old books. In the reign of James I. letters patent were granted to the two Universities and the Stationers' Company, for an exclusive right of printing Almanacs. These, in 1775, were declared to be illegal. During the civil wars of Charles I, and thence onward to our own times, English Almanacs became conspicuous for the unblushing boldness of their astrological predictions, and their determined perpetuation of popular errors. At the present day, none of the Almanacs of the continental states contain any misleading matters of this nature; and the Almanacs most similar to some of those extensively circulated amongst our intelligent fellow-countrymen,

are produced in Persia. A modern Persian Almanac is thus described in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana :— The first page contains a list of fortunate days for certain purposes; as, for example, to buy, to sell, to take medicine, to marry, to go a journey, &c. &c.; then follow predictions of events, as earthquakes, storms, political affairs, &c., after the manner of Moore's Almanac, except being apparently more concise.' This resemblance between the productions of a highly cultivated nation, and one which is remarkable for its general ignorance, is certainly no proof of our boasted emancipation from ancient prejudices.

Our popular superstitions with regard to the weather — the lingering belief, in which some still indulge, of the doctrine of nativities — and the settled opinion in a few minds, that what are called malignant aspects of the stars, as well as comets and meteors, portend evils to mankind, were the most cherished convictions of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ; and it may not be entirely fanciful to consider the prevalence of such notions still among us, as shoots of the tree of ancient prognostication. Mr. Sharon Turner, in his History of the Anglo-Saxons, has an interesting passage upon this subject :

Their prognostics, from the sun and moon, from thunder and from dreams, were so numerous, as to display and to perpetuate a most lamentable debility of mind. Every day of every month was catalogued as a propitious or unpropitious season for certain transactions. We have AngloSaxon treatises which contain rules for discovering the future fortune and disposition of a child, from the day of his nativity. One day was useful for all things ; another, though good to tame animals, was baleful to sow seeds. One day was favorable to the commencement of business ; another to let blood;

nd oth wore a forbidding aspect to these and other things. On this day they were to buy, on a second to sell, on a third to hunt, on a fourth, to do nothing. If a child was born on such a day, it would live; if on another, its life would be sickly; if on another, it would perish early. In a word, the most alarming fears, and the most extravagant hopes, were perpetually raised by these foolish superstitions, which tended to keep the mind in the dreary bondage of ignorance and absurdity, which prevented the growth of knowledge, by the incessant war of prejudice, and the slavish effects of the most imbecile apprehensions.'

Many of our English Almanacs have had no inconsiderable share in keeping alive errors like those of a thousand years ago errors which are equally opposed to the progress of knowledge, and to a pious confidence in the wisdom and goodness of an Almighty providence. It may be curious, and not uninstructive, to observe how very similar are the prejudices which still maintain a decrepit existence among us,

to those of our forefathers; and how very little the general progress of education has done towards the destruction of evil publications which long habit has rendered

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