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241 Receipts and Expenditures 271
Receipts and Expenditures 258 OHIO
The main object of this work is utility. It has been the aim of its conductors to collect within the smallest compass the greatest amount of useful and practical information on those topics, in which the community is generally interested. The work is divided into Five Parts, and its plan and purposes will best be seen by a brief analysis of each of these.
The First Part is devoted to the Calendar, embracing, in addition to the particulars usually inserted in Almanacs, a large mass of important facts in relation to the celestial movements, and tables for nautical and astronomical purposes. The Eclipses and Occultations have been calculated with extraordinary care, and much valuable information will be found connected with the subject of Tides. The Tide Table is followed by a table of the Latitude and Longitude of the principal places in the United States. To suit the calendar pages to every part of the Union, the rising and setting of the Sun and Moon have been calculated for some of the chief cities in different parts. A column in each month is also devoted to useful remarks, and another to remarkable events. Further explanations of this part of the work will be found prefixed to the Calendar.
The Second Part contains information, communicated in a simple and intelligible form, respecting the celestial changes and most common astronomical appearances. An account of Almanacs is followed by an explanation of the division of time into Days, Weeks, Months, and Years; the Holydays of the Church; the variety of the Seasons; the Signs of the Zodiac; Astrology; the Moon's Phases, and Eclipses ; Tides ; Spots on the Sun; the Rotation of the Planets; the Orbits of the Planets; and much information on other kindred topics, designed to elucidate and adapt them to the understanding of persons of all degrees of knowledge.
In Part Third are contained miscellaneous articles and directions of general usefulness; a selection from Washington's Agricultural Notes and Journal; Franklin's Poor Richard
Revived; advice on the Use of Fruit; an Essay on the advantages of Fresh Air in promoting health and comfort; another on Clothing; and Facts concerning Interperance.
The Fourth Part'embraces a selection of statistical matters relating to foreign countries, and particularly a curious and full table of the Statistics of the World. In compiling this part, as well as the others, regard has been had not only to the temporary but permanent value of the facts selected. There will be found tables of the Population, Families, Houses, Land, Canals, and Roads of Great Britain; an essay on the Increase of the Inhabitants of Europe ; on the comparative force of France and England ; the number of books printed in France; the value of money in different countries in Europe, reduced to American currency; the Revenues, Expenditures, Trade, Finance, Commerce, Currency, and Manufactures of Great Britain. All these statements are brought down to the latest dates.
The Fifth Part occupies a much larger portion of the work, than any of the others, and has the same design in regard to the United States, which the fourth part has in reference to foreign countries. As introductory to the main subjects, a short view is taken of the Colonial Statistics, which is followed by a selection of particulars illustrating the Statistics of the Revolution, such as the Expense of the War, amount of Continental Money issued, Loans in France, Troops employed, Presidents of the Old Congress, Adoption of the State Constitutions, and Signers of the Declaration of Independence. Then follow statistical tables and statements respecting the United States since the foundation of the government, and at present; such as a record of the elections of Presidents ; lists of civil officers, Heads of Departments, American Ministers abroad, Foreign Ministers in this country, Judges, Representatives ; also the Receipts and Expenditures of the Government, the Public Debt, the Bank of the United States, Commerce, Public Lands, Indians, Post Office, Coinage, Patents, Military Posts, Vessels of War, Navy Yards, Militia, Internal Improvements, Population, Colleges, Religious Denominations, Meteorology. After this come the statistics of each State, as far as the facts could be collected, comprising an account of the public revenues, banks, schools, civil officers and their salaries, internal improvements, militia, modes of taxation, prisons, and whatever else relates to the practical administration of government, the organization of local communities, and the moral and physical progress of society. At the close is a Chronicle of the Events of the past year.
Such is the outline of our plan, as executed in the present attempt. We confess that our wishes have been but partially realized, especially in regard to the individual states. As little paias are taken in several of the states to collect statistical facts, and less to arrange and present them to the public in a tangible form, it is extremely difficult to carry this head to any degree of completeness. Our enterprise was undertaken, also, at too late a period in the year to enable us to procure intelligence from remote states. In some instances, however, the deficiency must be ascribed rather to the remissness of our correspondents, than to any want of effort on our part. What we have published, will be enough to indicate the extent of our plan, and the manner in which it may be filled out. It is presumed, that the states, for their own convenience, will gradually adopt regulations for collecting and embodying particulars of this sort, and then the task of condensing and combining them into a single work will be comparatively easy.
Should the success of the present volume warrant the continuance of an annual series, we may venture to promise essential improvements as we proceed. It will be seen, that a great deal of matter in this volume is of a permanent character, suited for reference at any future day, as well as for use in the passing year. Facts are unchangeable in their nature, and, when once recorded, their value is never lost. The method of tabular views, for communicating certain kinds of knowledge, has immense advantages over any other, in presenting, at a single glance of the eye, a mass of information, that would be expanded over many pages if exhibited in any other form. In every part of the volume, our chief aim has been to condense the information into as small a space as possible, and at the same time to convey it in so methodical and clear a manner, that it might be easily received by all classes of readers.
The purpose of this work will allow the admission of many facts besides those of a strictly statistical character. The permanent features of geography may be here exhibited from time to time in tabular and compressed forms; such as the extent of different territories and divisions of the earth, the length of rivers, height of mountains, magnitude of seas, lakes, and islands, and all other particulars naturally embraced in comparative geography. The same may be said of chronological records, not merely as denoting the order of a series of events, but as grouping those of a similar kind under particular heads. In this way may be presented the dates at which the sovereigns