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LONDON:
Printed by ELLERTON and BYWORTH,
Johnson's Court, Fleet Street,

FOR J. WALKER;
J. Johnson; J. & J. Richardson; R. Faulder & Son;

F.C. & J. Rivington; Vernor, Hood, & Sharpe;
R. Lea; J. Nunn ; Cuthell & Martin ; Lane,
Newman, & Co.; Lackington, Alien, & Co.; Long.
man, Hurst, Rees, & Orme; Cadell & Davies;
Wilkie & Robinson; J. Booker; E. Jeffery; Biack,
Parry, & Kingsbury; H. D. Symonds; J. Asperne;
R. Scboley; and J. Harris.

1807.

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THE

LIFE OF THE TRANSLATOR,

THE REV. PHILIP FRANCIS.

FEW

memoirs have been handed down to us of the able translator of Horace and Demosthenes. He was of Irish extraction, if not born in that kingdom; where his father was a dignified clergyman, and, among other preferments, held the rectory of St. Mary Dublin, from which he was ejected by the court on account of his Tory principles. His son, our author, was also educated for the church, and obtained a doctor's degree. His edition of Horace made his name known in England about the year 1743, and raised him a reputation, as a classical editor and translator, which no subsequent attempts have been able to diminish. Dr. Johnson, many years after other rivals had started, gave him this praise: “ The lyrical part of Horace never can be properly translated ; so much of the excellence is in the numbers and the expression. Francis has done it the best: I'll take his, five out of six, against them all."

Some time after the publication of Horace, he appears to have come over to England; where, in 1753,

he published a translation of part of the Orations of | Demosthenes, intending to comprise the whole in

two quarto volumes. It was a matter of some importance at that time to publish a large work of this kind, and the author had the precaution therefore to secure a copious list of subscribers. Unfortunately,

however, it had to contend with the acknowledgedy merit of Leland's Translation; and, allowing their respective merits to have been nearly equal, Leland's had at least the priority in point of time, and, upon comparison, was preferred by the critics, as being more free and eloquent, and less literally exact. This, however, did not arise from any defect in our author's skill, but was merely an error, if an error at all, in judgment: for he conceived that as few li. berties as possible ought to be taken with the style of his author, and that there was an essential difference between a literal translation, which only he considered as faithful, and an imitation, in which we can never be certain that we have the author's words or precise meaning. In the year 1736, he completed his purpose in a second volume, which was applauded as a difficult work well executed, and acceptable to every friend of genius and literature: but its success was by no means correspondent to the wishes of the author or of his friends.

The year before the first volume of his Demose thenes appeared, he determined to attempt the drama, and his first essay was a tragedy, entitled Eugenia. This is professedly an adaptation of the French Cenie to English feelings and habits, but it had not much success on the stage. Lord Chesterfield, in one of his letters to his son, observes, that he did not think it would have succeeded so well, considering how long our British audiences had been accustomed to murder, racks, and poison, in every tragedy: yet it affected the heart so much, that it triumphed over habit and prejudice. In a subsequent letter, he says that the boxes were crowded till the sixth night, when the pit and gallery were totally deserted, and it was dropped. Distress with. out death, he repeats, was not sufficient to affect a true British audience, so long accustomed to dag. gers, racks, and bowls of poison; contrary to Horace's rule, they desire to see Medea murder her children on the stage. The sentiments were too delicate to move them: and their hearts were to be taken by storm, not by parley.

In 1754,-Mr. Francis brought out another tragedy at Covent-Garden theatre, entitled Constantine, which was equally ansuccessful, but appears to have suffered principally by the improper distribution of the parts among the actors. This he alludes to, in the dedication to lord Chesterfield, with whom he appears to have been acquainted; and intimates, at the same time, that these disappointments had in. duced hiin to take leave of the stage.

During the political contests at the beginning of

the present reign, he employed his pen in defence of he government, and acquired the patronage of lord Hol.

land; who rewarded his services by the rectory of Barrow in Suffolk, and the chaplainship of Chelsea. hospital. What were his publications on political topics, as they were anonymous, and probably dispersed among the periodical journals, cannot now be ascertained. They drew upon him, however, the wrath of Churchill, who in bis * Author" has exhibited a portrait of Mr. Francis probably overcharged by spleen and envy. Churchill indeed was so profuse of his ealumny, that, long before he died, his assertions had begun to lose their value. He is said to

have intended to write a satirical poem, in which ci

Francis was to make his appearance as the ordinary of Newgate. The severity of this satire was better understood at that time, when the ordinaries of Newgate were held in very little esteem, and some

of them were grossly ignorant and dissolute. en

Mr. Francis died at Bath, March 5, 1773, leaving a

son, who in the same year was appointed one of the = Supreme Council of Bengal, and is now sir Philip

Francis, K. B., and N. P. for Appleby.

of all the classical writers, Horace is by general consent allowed to be the most difficult to translate; 1

yet so universal has been the ambition to perform this task, that scarcely an English poet can be named in whose works we do not find some part of Horace. These efforts, however, have not so frequently been directed to give the sense avd local meaning of the author, as to transfuse his satire, and adapt it to modern persons and times. But of the few who have

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