An Inquiry Into the Various Systems of Political Economy: Their Advantages and Disadvantages; and the Theory Most Favourable to the Increase of National Wealth
Henry Colburn, 1812 - 492 ページ
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abundance Adam Smith advantages afford agricultural amount annual appears bank become benefits bills capital carried causes chap circulation civil classes coin commerce commodities consequently considerable considered consist consumed consumption contribute debts demand derived effects employed England equal equivalent established Europe exchange existence expences extent favour fixed follows force foreign French fund give gold and silver greater importance improvement income increase individuals industry influence interest Italy kind labour land laws least less limited loans manufactures means measure merchants metallic millions nations nature necessary never object observed obtain occasion opinion paid particular political economy population portion possessed principles produce profit progress proportion prosperity proved purchase quantity regard rendered respect riches savings says share success supply supposed surplus things tion trade true wages wants wealth writers
390 ページ - It is the maxim of every prudent master of a family, never to attempt to make at home what it will cost him more to make than to buy.
12 ページ - But it is only for the sake of profit that any man employs a capital in the support of industry ; and he will always, therefore, endeavour to employ it in the support of that industry of which the produce is likely to be of the greatest value, or to exchange for the greatest quantity either of money or of other goods.
390 ページ - The farmer attempts to make neither the one nor the other, but employs those different artificers. All of them find it for their interest to employ their whole industry in a way in which they have some advantage over their neighbours, and to purchase with a part of its produce, or what is the same thing, with the price of a part of it, whatever else they have occasion for. What is prudence in the conduct of every private family, can scarce be folly in that of a great kingdom.
389 ページ - By means of it, the narrowness of the home market does not hinder the division of labour in any particular branch of art or manufacture from being carried to the highest perfection. By opening a more extensive market for whatever part of the produce of their labour may exceed the home consumption, it encourages them to improve its productive powers, and to augment its annual produce to the utmost, and thereby to increase the real revenue and wealth of the society.
259 ページ - I say, that when this man hath subducted his seed out of the proceed of his Harvest, and also, what himself hath both eaten and given to others in exchange for Clothes, and other Natural necessaries; that the remainder of Corn is the natural and true Rent of the Land for that year; and the medium of seven years, or rather of so many years as makes up the Cycle, within which Dearths and Plenties make their revolution, doth give the ordinary Rent of the Land in Corn.
384 ページ - The capital which is employed in purchasing in one part of the country, in order to sell in another the produce of the industry of that country, generally replaces, by every such operation, TWO distinct capitals, that had both been employed in the agriculture or manufactures of that country, and thereby enables them to continue that employment.
294 ページ - MONEY is not, properly speaking, one of the subjects of commerce ; but only the instrument which men have agreed upon to facilitate the exchange of one commodity for another.
421 ページ - ... being substituted in its place, and even the debts too which it contracts in the principal nations with whom it deals may be gradually increasing...
389 ページ - It carries out that surplus part of the produce of their land and labor for which there is no demand among them, and brings back in return for it something else for which there is a demand.