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very close observation. A common fault, in very bad taste, is to give this complex sound in å manner too analytical,-in the worst style of theatrical singing; thus, Faieel, faieeth ; for fail, faith.
A le áce àge, aim day bail, dale fail say, pave tape hail, haze may gaze, late maid nay, vail make fame, tail pay lade, jade gay sail, fate faith daily, fade make gate, take mail sale.
A, as in Far : Au, as in Launch. Marked as the second' sound of a, in Walker's notation.
There are two extremes of sound, occasionally heard, which must be avoided in the pronunciation of the following words,—that of a too broad, and nearly like a in all; thus Fawrm, fawther, smawrt, &c., for farm, father, smart; and a too short, resembling the sound of a in mat, thus: Fărm for fârm, &c.
Arm àh há hàm, bar car far par, tar aunt daunt gaunt, haunt jaunt taunt father, saunter gauntlet barb hark, mar garb harp dart, cart park marl snarl, barn arch harsh balm, palm calf charge charm, psalm farm alarm becalm.
Same sound unaccented : Harmonious carnation incarnation singular popular regularly.
A, as in Fall : Aw, as in Awe: Au, as in Laud.
The error to be avoided in the following class of sounds, is that of making a to resemble o; thus, oll for all. Sometimes this error is so broad and coarse as to divide the sound into two parts; the first of which is the above o, and the second the u in up: oŭll, föŭll, for all, fall. These faults should be carefully avoided, as slovenly and vulgar.
A'll håll båll cáll fall, gall pall tall wall ward, warm wharf quart thwart false, warn walk chalk qualm
halt, war warrior haw daw maw, jaw saw law raw draw, straw brawl drawl dawn lawn, awning yawn daub fraud gauze, vault vaunt fault aught taught, fraught sauce daughter halter lawful.
A, as in Fat.
There are two extremes of error to be avoided in the following words,—that of a too flat, and divided into two sounds; thus, mayún, for măn,--and that of a too broad; thus, pauss* for păss.
Bạt cát hạt mat pát sat, rat vat blab sack lad staff, had mall tan dram scrap pass, have has glass class mass grass, asp grasp clasp vast past fast, last mast ash hash sash mash, waft raft graft grant craft shaft, slant gland latch dance lance glance, trance France chant branch crash slant, man can gather rather alas advance.
Same sound unaccented : Abode abound tabate abash America Cuba, cabal caparison calamity traduce diadem calumniate.
A, as in Wash. Not separately marked by Walker, but given as the same with the fourth sound of o.
The common errors in the articulation of this sound, are that of making it resemble the sound of o in no; thus, whote, or rather wot, for what,—and that of making the a resemble that of the word fat; thus, whatt for what. Wàd squàd swáb,f wan was wasp, want wast swash,
a, as in parse. † The letter liable to error in pronunciation, is marked by italic type, when the word contains more than one of the same name.
The practice on inflection is now varied to the commencing series; the voice sliding upward at the terminating word of each clause, in the manner of incomplete expression, suspended or interrupted sense. The application of these inflections, however, is
quash quantity quality, squall squat swan, squash waspish qualify, what wash wand.
A, Ai, and Ay, before R final, or R, followed by a vowel.
The errors commonly made in the following class of sounds, are (1st,) giving a too broad a sound, or the 'fourth sound, instead of one nearly resembling the first' sound; thus aer, (a, as in at, nearly,) for air,and (2d,) giving the long name sound too exactly, or too flat; thus, aer, (a, as in ale,) for air.
The true sound of a, ai, or ay, situated as mentioned above, avoids these extremes ;—the former, as coarse and vulgar; the latter, as too precise and studied. The true sound approaches nearer to the latter than to the former. It cannot be expressed to the eye, and can only be generally described as the first' sound of a rendered a little obscure, by deviating very slightly towards the fourth.'
Båre care dare fáre, mare pare tare ware, yare air fair lair, hair rare layer prayer, parent apparent repair stare, snare spare careful careless, rarely beware ensnare prepare, compare pair stair daring.
E, as in Me: Ee, as in Eel: Ea, as in Eat: le, as in Field: or the 'first' sound of e, in Walker's notation.
The errors in the articulation of this sound, arise, chiefly, from not observing the nature of the consonant which follows it, and consequently making it too long or too short. E, as a final sound, or occurring before a liquid, is long, as in Bee, eel, seem, seen; and, before a palatic letter or consonant, it is short, as in Week, seek, sleet.
Deè feè théme mète feél, supreme seem team feature plea, yield wield weep seen queen, beef weed not strictly necessary, and may, as mentioned before, be omitted, if found difficult and embarrassing.
sleet cheek repeat, fief shriek fiend wheel wheat, liege priest grieve year fear, rear dream glean weave heath, each heave least greet veer.
Same sound unaccented: Debate estate esteem establish beware, reduce seclude epitome apostrophe committee.
E, as in Met: Ea, as in Head. Or the second' sound of e, in Walker's notation.
The error to be avoided in this class of sounds, is that of allowing e to become somewhat like a in fate; or thus, Baid, aig; for bed, egg; stade for stead.
Ell elk elm else hènce fénce, let get yet yest yesterday kept, felled abed measure pleasure felt set, less rest guest bread ready steady, peg bell beg ten den red, generous genuine general guess protest effect, collect preface prelude prelate prelacy prebend, knell tell fell tent thence propel.
Same sound unaccented : Recreation relaxation reputation testimonial rectangular extracting, theorem nutshell outlet onset blackness efface.
E, as in Err: Ear, as in Heard : Ir, as in Firm. .
Marked in the orthoepy of Walker, as the second' sound of e, but explained as not being precisely that sound, nor yet that of u in turn, as it is very commonly but erroneously pronounced. The true sound of e before r followed by a consonant, is thus described in Smart's Practice of Elocution. “Er and ir are pronounced by unpolished speakers just like ur, as indeed, in some common words, such as her sir, &c. they are pronounced, even by the most cultivated : but in words of less common occurrence, there is a medium between ur and air, which elegant usage has established, as the just utterance of e and i joined to the smooth r."*
* The Practice of Elocution, &c. by D. H. Smart, London, 1826, 8vo.
There are two errors to be avoided in practising the following words,-1st, that of making no discrimination between er followed by a consonant and er followed by a vowel, which leads to the fault of pronouncing the word mercy with the same sound of e as the word merit,-a fault which characterises the pronunciation of foreigners who are learning to speak the English language, and who are guided by analogy, instead of custom, in this point. This sound should be carefully avoided, as not belonging to English enunciation, or as being too analytical and pedantic. At the same time, the second error, that of substituting the sound of u in turn for that of e, should be avoided as a careless vulgarism.
Hérd earn, term germ, earth stern, earl fern, learn eternal, person mercy, servant firmly, confirm internal, service fervor, virginal virtue, verdure personate, fir whirl, perfect discern, concern aspersion, disperse universal infirmity defer, prefer terse, pearl erst, mirth girt, girl sermon.
Same sound unaccented : Certificate termination, vermicular perpendicular, postern goatherd.
[The following words may be used as aids of contrast, to illustrate one of the sounds which should be avoided in the above class of words,—Merit very merry error terror; and the following to illustrate the other incorrect sound, which is also to be avoided, Bird first her sir. ]
I, as in Pine : Y, as in Rhyme. The 'first' sound of i, in Walker's notation.
There are two extremes to be avoided in the enunciation of this vowel,—the coarse error of giving it a broad and drawling sound, dwelling on the first part of the letter, and thus making it resemble the a of fall; the too nice or flat sound, which commences with nearly the sound of a in ale,--the result of avoiding too anxiously the errors just mentioned.
The true sound of long i Walker represents as com