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Notes “Mewling”—squalling. ‘‘modern instances” — everyday ‘‘sudden’’—impetuous. examples, illustrations. ‘‘sans’’—without. ‘‘strange oaths” — soldiers are “his”—its, which was just coming proverbially profane—probably into use at this time. satirical reference to the affec“formal cut” — trim, near — not tation of foreign oaths by solshaggy as that of the soldier's. diers who have been abroad.
Words and Phrases for Discussion Comparisons: ‘‘creeping like snail” “sighing like furnace” ‘‘bearded like the pard’’ “eyes severe” “woeful ballad’’ ‘‘mere oblivion”
“Seeking the bubble reputation
Even in the cannon's mouth''
3. POLONIUS’S ADVICE
HAMLET, ACT I, SCENE 3.
GIVE thy thoughts no tongue,
Nor any unproportioned thought his act.
Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar:
The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,
5 Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel;
But do not dull thy palm with entertainment
Of each new-hatched, unfledged comrade. Beware
Of entrance to a quarrel; but, being in,
Bear it, that the opposed may beware of thee.
10 Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice:
Take each man’s censure, but reserve thy judgment.
Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not expressed in fancy; rich, not gaudy:
For the apparel oft proclaims the man.
15 Neither a borrower nor a lender be:
For loan oft loses both itself and friend;
And borrowing dulis the edge of husbandry.
This above all,—to thine own self be true;
And it must follow, as the night the day,
20 Thou canst not then be false to any man.
HELPS TO STUDY
Notes and Questions
“unproportioned”—not worthy or “dull thy palm”—lose discriminafitting the occasion. tion. “familiar’’—courteous, friendly. “censure”—opinion. “vulgar’’—unduly familiar. “expressed in fancy” — loud, “their adoption tried”—tested by ostentatious. long acquaintance. ‘‘husbandry”—thrift.
‘‘Give thy thoughts no tongue,
Nor any unproportioned thought his act.”
“Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.”
“The apparel oft proclaims the man.’’
“Borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.”
Words and Phrases for Discussion
“hoops of steel.”
4. MAN HAMLET, ACT II, SCENE 2.
WHAT a piece of work is man! How noble in reason How infinite in faculties' In form and movement, how express and admirable! In action, how like an angel! In apprehension, how like a god! 5 The beauty of the world ! The paragon of animals!
HELPS TO STUDY Words and Phrases for Discussion “express” “paragon” * “infinite” “apprehension”
5. HAMLET’S SOLILOQUY
HAMLET, ACT III, SCENE 1.
To BE or not to be: that is the question:
Whether ’tis nobler in the mind, to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them. To die; to sleep;
No more; and, by a sleep to say we end
The heartache, and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to. 'Tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep;
To sleep? Perchance to dream lay, there's the rub;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay,
The insolence of office and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? Who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscover'd country, from whose bourn
No traveler returns, puzzles the will
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of 2
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pitch and moment,
With this regard their currents turn awry,
And lose the name of action.
“puzzles the will” ‘‘great pitch and moment” “‘native hue of resolution’’
6. REPUTATION OTHELLO, ACT III, SCENE 3.
Good name in man and woman, dear my lord,
Is the immediate jewel of their souls:
Who steals my purse, steals trash; ’tis something, nothing;
'Twas mine, ’tis his, and has been slave to thousands;
5 But he, that filches from me my good name,
Robs me of that which not enriches him,
And makes me poor indeed.
Words and Phrases for Discussion
“immediate jewel of their souls”
“Who steals my purse steals trash”
7. WOLSEY AND CROMWELL
KING HENRY VIII, ACT III, SCENE 2.
WolsFY: Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatness!
This is the state of man: Today he puts forth
The tender leaves of hope; tomorrow blossoms,
And bears his blushing honors thick upon him;
The third day comes a frost, a killing frost,
And—when he thinks, good easy man, full surely
His greatness is a-ripening—nips his root;
And then he falls, as I do. I have ventured,
Like little wanton boys that swim on bladders,
This many summers, in a sea of glory;
But far beyond my depth: my high-blown pride
At length broke under me, and now has left me,
Weary and old with service, to the mercy
Of a rude stream, that must forever hide me.
Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye:
I feel my heart new opened. 0, how wretched
Is that poor man that hangs on princes’ favors!
There is, betwixt that smile we would aspire to,
That sweet aspect of princes, and their ruin,
More pangs and fears than wars or women have;
And when he falls, he falls like Lucifer,
Never to hope again.—
Cromwell, I did not think to shed a tear
In all my miseries; but thou hast forced me,
Out of thy honest truth, to play the woman.
Let's dry our eyes; and thus far hear me, Cromwell;
And—when I am forgotten, as I shall be,
And sleep in dull cold marble, where no mention
Of me more must be heard of—say, I taught thee;
Say, Wolsey—that once trod the ways of glory,
And sounded all the depths and shoals of honor—
Found thee a way, out of his wreck, to rise in ;
A sure and safe one, though thy master missed it.
Mark but my fall, and that that ruined me.
Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambition:
By that sin fell the angels: how can man, then,
The image of his Maker, hope to win by 'to
Love thyself last; cherish those hearts that hate thee;
Corruption wins not more than honesty:
Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace,
To silence envious tongues. Be just, and fear not.
Let all the ends thou aim'st at be thy country’s,