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Another Sort of Concession is, when fearing we cannot obtain all we de fire, we give up one Part to carry the rest. When Dido despairs of prevailing with Æneas to settle with her at Carthage, the only intreats he would stay a little longer, to allow her some time to afswage her Grief, and prepare to bear his Departure.
Tell my perfidious Lover, I implore
'Tis by this Figure that oppressed People in the Extremity of their Indignation provoke their Enemies to do them all the Mischief they can, and proceed still to farther Degrees of Barbarity; that such lively Representations of their Injustice and Cruelty, may strike them with Horror and Shame, and dispose them to relent. The Complaints and Upbraidings of jarring Friends and Lovers, are most emphatically expressed in this Figure : The Design of which is to give the guilty Person a deep Sense of his Unkindness, and to kindle all the old Paffion and Tenderness.
Proceed, inhuman Parent, in thy Scorn,
To this Figure may be referred that eloquent Insinuation, whereby the Orator, after he has used all his Arguments to perfuade his Hearers, at it were once more sets them at Liberty, and leaves them to their own Election; it being the Nature of Man to stick inore stedfastly to what is not violently imposed, but is our own free and deliberate Choice. If it seem evil “ unto you to serve the Lord, chuse you this Day whom you
Pitt's Virg. Æn. iv.
ự will serve p." When the great Jabua had, under God, in the most astonishing Manner, conquered the People of Ca.. naan, and conducted the Ifraelites into their Land; he exhorts them to a fteddy Adherence to the Worship of the true God, who had so visibly appeared for them; and made them so glorioully triumph over their Enemies. In the Conclusion of his Speech, well knoing the Advantage and Merits of his Cause, and that he might safely appeal to their Conscience and Experience for the Truth of what he said, he leaves them to their own Liberty and Choice. As if that brave Man had faid, My Friends and Countrymen! if I should enlarge on a Matter so plain, it might seem a Distruft upon both your Understanding and Ingenuity. I leave all to you, not in the least suspecting that you can refift such Arguments as cannot fail to work upon any one, who has either Reason or Gratitude.
$. 11. Repetition is a Figure wbich gracefully and emphatically repeats either the fame Word, or the fame Sense in different Words. Care is to be taken that we run not into infipid Tautologies, nor affect a triling Sound and Chime of infignificant Words. All Turns and Repetitions are so, that do not contribute to the Strength and Lustre of the Discourse ; or at least one of them. The Nature and Design of this Fi. gure is to make deep Impressions on those we address. It expresses Anger and Indignation ; full Assurance of what we affirm, and vehement Concern for what we have espoused.
The most charming Repetitions are those, whereby the principal Words in a Sentence, either the same in Sound or Signification, are repeated with such Advantage and Improvement, as raises a new Thought, or gives a musical Cadence and Harmony to the Period. These in English are called fine Turns ; and are either upon the Words or the Thought, or both. A dextrous Turn upon Words is pretty ; the Turn upon the Thought substantial; but the Consummation and Crown of all, is, when both the Sound of the Words is grateful, and their Meaning comprehensive; when both the Reason and the Ear are entertained with a noble Thought vigorously expressed, and beautifully finished. That in Mr. Prior's Henry and Emma is a very agreeable Turn.
Are there no Poisons, Racks, and Flames, and Swords,
may be reigure, whins, and have Place of admit Tur
RHETOR I C. Strong and vehement Paffions will not admit Turns upon Words ; nor ought they to have Place in Heroic Poems, or in grave Exhortations, and solemn Discourses of Morality. To this Figure, which has great Variety and many Branches, may be referr'd the using of many Words of the same Signification to express one important Thing. When a Man is full of his Subject, and eager to communicate his Thoughts with Vigour, he is not satisfy'd with one Expresfion, tho' never so strong ; but uses all the fignificant Variety he can recollect. So Tully for Milo', “ The Affaffin was baffled, « Force repelld by Force, or rather Boldness overcome by
Bravery. If Reason prescribes this to the Learn'd, and Nee “ ceflity to Barbarians, Custom to Nations, and Nature itself “ to brute Beasts, always to beat off all manner of Violence, " by all possible Ways from their Body, from their Head, “ from their Life; you cannot judge this to be a criminal and “ wicked Action, but at the same time you must judge that « all Persons, who fall amongst Robbers and Bravoes, muft $c either perish by their Weapons, or your Sentence.” An Orator in the Heat of his Engagement, in the Vehemence of his Indignation against an insolent and unreasonabic Adversary, and his earnest Concern for the Preservation of a dear Friend in Danger, exerts the utmost Power of his Eloquence, redoubles his Strokes, and eagerly pushes on all his Advantages.
$. 12. Periphrasis or Circumlocution uses more and sometimes lers plain Words to avoid fome Inconvenience and ill Effect, which would proceed from expressing a thing in fewer and plainer Words."
When Tully u cou'd not deny the Death of Clodius, and was defending Milo charg'd with his Murder, he says, Milo's Servants, without the Command, Knowledge, or Presence of their Master, did what every Master wou'd expect his Sera vants pou'd do in the like Case. He avoids the Word kill'd or stabbed, for fear of offending the People. This Method of treating a Subject gives the Audience a good Opinion of the Prudence and Modesty of the Pleader : One unguarded and distasteful Word, has fometimes lost the Speaker the Fayour of the Audience before well inclin'd to hiin; and ruin'd a promising Cause.
• Seleal. Orat. in ufum Del. Lond. 1706. p. 316. g.7.
Very often Circumlocution is uş’d, not merely out of Prudence or Neceflity to conceal a Secret, or cover an Indecency; but for Variety and Ornament, to give Pomp and Dignity to our Expressions, to enrich a Discourse with new Thoughts, and to multiply the Graces of a Description.
The Night's bright Empress in her golden Car,
$. 13. Amplification is, when every chief Expression in a-Peried adds Etrength and Advantage to what went before; and jo the Sense all along heightens, till the Period be vigorously and agreeably clos’d.
« Tis pleasant to be virtuous and good, because that is to s excel many others : 'Tis pleasant to grow better, because « that is to excel ourselves : Nay 'tis pleasant even to mor• tify and fubdue our Lusts, because that is Victory: 'Tis be pleafant to command our Appetites and Paffions, and to u keep them in due Order, within the Bounds of Reason and « Religion, because this is Empire w.” When an Author thus improves upon us in his Discourse, we are extremely pleas'd and attentive while he continues it; and perfectly satisfy'd when he concludes. We are edify'd and charm'd with the Instruction of one, whom we find to be complete Master of his Subject. What Reputation must it be to the Writer, what Pleasure to the Reader, when one fays every thing in the best manner it can be said; and the other is entertain'd with every thing that can be desir’d? But 'tis the utmost Reproach to an Author, and a most intolerable Disappointment to the Reader, when the one Aags and faulters every Step; and so the other is fatigu'd and mortify'd, with a continual Series of heavy and lifeless Periods. There are various Ways of contriving and forming this Figure, which have great Force and Elegance ; tho' perhaps they cannot nicely be 'adapted to every part of the Definition. I shall name three
very lively Ways of expressing an Amplification, m 1. We amplify or raise a Discourse by selecting a Number of the most emphatical and strongest 'Words of the Language we use ; every one of which add something new to the Sentence; and all join'd, heighten it to the utmost De
Archbishop Tillotson, Serm. 12. p. i38
ome small imate Person, Kihen that great way of Compa
gree of Perfe£tion. That Passage in Terence ® is upon thia Account universally admir’d.
Hæc verba meherculè una falsa lacrymula,
Restinguet 2. This Figure is sometimes express'd by, way of Comparison or Appofition- When that great Man P. Scipio, “ tho' but a private Person, kill'd Tiberius Gracchus, making “ some small Innovation and Disturbance in the State ; Ihall " we who are Consuls, bear Catiline, who is endeavouring and « plotting to lay the World waste with Fire and Sword y?
3. A Discourse is very happily and beautifully heighten'd by way of Argument or rational Inference. Quintilian z excellently observes, that Homer gives us a very exalted Idea of Helen's sovereign Charms, when he introduces Priam's grave Counsellors owning, that it was not to be complain'd of or resented, that the Trojans and Greeks had sustain'd the Calamities of a long and cruel War for such a Woman ; and makes the King himself place her by him, call her, Dear Child, and treat her with all possible Tenderness and Respect. Must not every judicious Reader infer that her Beauty must be incomparable, which was admir'd and prais'd to such a Degree by Men cool and unpassionate, of mature Wisdom and great Age, who had been deep Sufferers by it ? Must not that
Face be superlatively lovely, and those Eyes sparkle with re· fiftless Lustre, that cou'd be view'd with Pleasure and Vene
ration by that miserable Prince ; tho' they had kindled the Flames of War in his Country, and blasted the Prosperity, and all the Hopes of his late flourishing Family?
To this we may refer Climax or Gradation. Which is, when the Word or Expression which ends the first Member of a Period, begins the fecond, and so on; so that every Member will make a distinct Sentence, taking its Rise from the next foregoing, till the Argument and Period be beautifully finish'd. Or in the Terms of the Schools, 'Tis when the Word or Express fion, which was Predicate in the first Member of a Period, is Subject in the second, and so on, till the Argument ond Period be brought to a noble Conclusion. This Figure, when natural and vigorous, furnishes the Mind with variety of Ideas, and
* Eunuch. 1. i. v. 22, &c.
Tully aşainn Catiline.