a considerable space on the banks of the Avon, opposite Chatelherault,* the summer residence of the duke of Hamilton, surrounded by deer parks. During the convulsions which marked the reign of the unhappy Queen Mary, Cadzow Castle was plundered, and partly dilapidated, by the followers of the Regent Murray, when flushed with their recent success at the battle of Langside.t It was to this fortress that Bothwellhaugh escaped into the arms of his party after his assassination of the Regent Murray at Linlithgow, as already described.

The park is remarkable for containing some of the oldest and most stately oak trees in the kingdom, many of which measure thirty feet in circumference, and are considered as the last “ representatives” of the ancient Caledonian forest;# but, like the castle round which for centuries they have drawn a luxuriant curtain, they are now fast hastening to mingle with the soil out of which they sprang. Here is preserved a herd of the ancient breed of Scotch bisons-white as the oxen of Clitumnus—and retaining, in spite of the corrupting effects of luxurious pasture, traces of their original fierceness and love of freedom.

In 1824, a new bridge was erected over the Avon, a few hundred yards below the old one, which is a very ancient structure, and on that account, as well as for the accommodation of the workmen employed at the neighbouring coal-pits, is still kept entire.

In the valley between the town of Hamilton and the Clyde, stands the ducal palace, one of the most magnificent and classical structures in the kingdom. It is in the purest style of the Corinthian order, and in all respects does honour to

• Built in imitation of the French château of that name, the property of the duke's ancestors, and giving title to the family. “ Cadzow" is the subject of a fine poem by Sir Walter Scott, to which the reader is referred.

+ This is a field of paramount interest to all who sympathize in the fate of her to whom the Scottish sceptre was one of many sorrows. It lies about a mile to the south of Glasgow, and is much visited as the scene of Mary's last ineffectual effort to regain the throne of her ancestors. A hawthorn-tree, well known by the appellation of “ Queen Mary's thorn," once marked the fatal spot where all her hopes were blasted. Another has since been planted as a substitute for the original tree, which had decayed from age, and, retaining the same endearing name, is cherished with a fond and almost superstitious regard. The closing scene of this battle has been made the subject of an admirable painting, now exhibiting in the National Gallery (1837). The mention of Langside will suggest that of Cruikstone Castle, hard by, and also identified with Mary, but under very different circumstances. It was to the latter that she was borne in triumph as the bride of Darnley; and here, under a spreading yew tree, according to tradition, the happy pair were often seated during the brief sunshine that followed their nuptials. This yew was removed about the close of last century; but is represented on the reverse of the medal known as the Cruikstone dollar, struck to commemorate that fatal union.

“In this wood of Caledon,” says Bellinden, in his translation of Böece, “ wes sum tym quhit bulls with crisp and curland maine, like feirs lionis," &c. See the original.

the national architecture. The splendid projecting portico, forming its principal front, consists of a double row of six fluted Corinthian columns, with exquisitely formed capitals and corresponding pilasters; while the whole is surmounted by a noble pediment, in the centre of which the arms of the family are superbly emblazoned. The wings are also adorned with Corinthian pilasters; and a deep and extremely rich cornice runs along the whole edifice. The stone of which it is built is of the finest quality, and selected with the greatest care. The columns of the grand portico are each of one block, and when taken from the quarry weighed twenty-six tons. As a whole, the ducal palace of Hamilton is considered the most magnificent residence in Scotland, and, in its internal arrangements, corresponds in all respects with the grandeur and beauty of its exterior. The picture gallery is peculiarly rich in paintings, by the great Italian masters.

Most of our readers have heard of the philanthropic Robert Owen, whose name is so favourably identified with the village of New Lanark, in this neighbourhood. It was here that he began and successfully prosecuted his new system of education-a system which, however visionary in some respects, has certainly done much to instil moral and industrious habits into the youth of this manufacturing establishment. The children are put to school at two years of age, and receive an education from teachers who maintain their authority by gentleness and the force of reason. After they have grown up and become fit for labour, their more toilsome duties are relieved by a course of mental instruction, calculated to produce habits of industry and rectitude. In proof of the success with which this system has been crowned, it has become the subject of general remark, that the members of the little community live in practical illustration of the excellent precepts which they have thus imbibed. The population of the place is estimated at nearly three thousand.

As our observations must be necessarily confined to the subjects chosen for illustration, we must here omit numerous localities to which history and tradition have given many powerful attractions. To have described this county with the minuteness to which even its scenery entitles it, would have far exceeded the limits to which this work is restricted, and in which our chief object is to present specimens of its local history and landscape-detached features of that great moral and physical picture which it presents as a whole, but which it would require an ample volume to embody. Our indulgent readers will therefore accept this cogent reason for any omissions observed in the literary or pictorial departments. Among the more distinguished individuals to whom this county has given birth—and some of whom are still adorning the walks of literature and

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science-we need only enumerate those of Joanna Baillie, Thomas Campbell, Ramsay, Graham, and Findlay ; William and John Hunter, Dr. Moore, and his son, the gallant Sir John Moore, who fell at Corunna, Professor Young, and the patriotic Lord Archibald Campbell.



BEFORE passing the boundaries of the first of these, the “ Kingdom of Fife,” we shall here, in addition to those already presented, introduce two illustrations of Perthshire, which arrived too late to be included under that particular head. The first of these, Castle Campbell, near the now classic village of Dollar, * has long enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most picturesque and romantic ruins in the kingdom. The advantages of situation have been greatly enhanced by the associations of history; and in a survey of this noble relic of a chivalrous age, the eye is fascinated with the natural scenery, while the mind is furnished with ample materials for meditation.

.... “C'est un vieux fort, qui, du haut des collines,
Tyran de la contrée, effroi de ses vassaux,
Portait jusqu'au ciel l'orgueil de ses créneaux :
Qui, dans ces temps affreux de discorde et d'alarmes,
Vit les grands coups de lance et les nobles faits d'armes
De nos preux chevaliers." ...

Castle Campbell never recovered from the ravage of the civil war, when the troops under Montrose laid waste the country, and wreaked their vengeance in a more particular manner on this baronial fastness—the lowland residence of the rival chief Campbell, marquess of Argyll, from whom the castle derives its modern name. Before the invention of gunpowder, it must have been a place nearly impregnable ; being surrounded on three sides by a profound natural fosse, down the shaggy sides of which numerous torrents are precipitated into

• TENNANT, the author of " Anster Fair," the “ Thane of Fife," and other well-known works-all admirable in their kind-is Master of the Dollar ACADEMY, and a man whose acquaintance is eagerly courted. VOL. II


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