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The witness referred to the returns of parochial expenditure, Very considerably, indeed. In the parish of Ewell it was and stated,—“ It appears that the ninety-six city parishes, stated in evidence, if I recollect correctly, before a committee (many of which are extremely wealthy and lightly burthened of this House, that the poor's-rates were reduced one half
, in with poor,) with a population of 55,000, expended for the consequence of the poor being employed on all the roads by relief of the poor in the year 1831, 64,0001. Lambeth, with task-work." 32,000 more people, and many densely-peopled districts Superior Government in large Parishes.—The enlightened containing very poor people, expended on the relief of the management adopted in the large parishes of Liverpool, poor only 37,0001. during the same year. In the wealthy Birmingham, Oldham, &c., has already been referred to. parishes of the city of London the money paid as poor's. It indicates a very superior parochial government to that rates amounted to ll. 38. 3 d. per head; whilst in Lambeth which is to be found in the generality of small parishes, the amount paid is 8s. 6d. and a fraction per head. I believe where there is seldom a paid and responsible officer, or, at that the individuals relieved are much more numerous in any rate, one whose time and attention are exclusively deLambeth than in the city of London. They were so for- voted to the business of the parish. The salary which a small merly, and I believe they are so now. The adults of Lam- parish can afford to pay is quite insufficient to provide a beth parish are now supported in the workhouse at 3s. 11d. man with a respectable maintenance for himself and family; per head; whilst in the city of London, the greater propor- whereas, in a large parish, the magnitude of the concern tion of all classes of poor, including children, are farmed out makes it well worth while engaging competent persons to give at an expense of from 48. 6d. to 7s. each, whilst the expense their whole time and attention to the parish business. of those maintained in the small city workhouses varies from Men of enlarged views, with their thoughts concentrated 58. to 8s. per head per week for all classes.
on the subject, and with the advantage of daily and hourly “ Do you think this statement gives a fair view of the experience, will not waste their time and the funds of the merits of management in small as compared with large town parish in silly squabbles about settlements, but will employ parishes ?-It never occurred to me to make any comparison themselves in devising and carrying into effect plans for of this kind until it was suggested by the question ; but my improving the discipline of paupers, reducing the expense impression is, that it does afford a fair comparison. The of their maintenance, and (where practicable) for removing management of the poor in incorporated hundreds is un- the causes of pauperism. doubtedly superior to the management by independent In Birmingham and Liverpool a provision has been made parishes; but still the good of the hundred management is for taking the children of paupers from the care of their much diminished by the numerous sets of officers, and parents, training them in habits of industry, and giving them quarrels and conflicting interests of the separate parishes." the elements of education, so that they may never follow in
Profitable Work more easily provided in large Parishes.- the track of their parents. Even when the children have left The evidence of the overseer of St. Mary's parish, Reading, the asylum in which they are brought up, and are placed out (which we have given under another head,) is here also as apprentices, an eye is kept over them. Once every year applicable. The following is, moreover, well worthy of con- they are all visited, and the master is questioned as to the sideration; it consists of another extract from Mr. Mott's conduct of his apprentice, while the apprentice is also evidence. (See Report, p. 318.)
examined as to the kind of treatment he receives from his “ It has been stated to us that in St. Paul's, Covent employer; and whenever a case arises in which it appears Garden, the paupers have been usefully employed in that the child has not been kindly dealt with, measures are cleansing the streets more frequently than would be done taken for compelling the master to give him up. by the contractor. Do you not think that much labour of But how can all this be done without that division of that sort might be found for the paupers ?—The mischief is, labour obtained by people acting on a large scale? It is that the superintendence of the paupers, and the applica- evidently impossible. With a separate establishment and tion of their labour, and the management of the roads, are distinct set of officers for every little parish, the expense and usually under distinct trusts. In most cases the surveyors labour attending the adoption of such plans would be enordo not like to be troubled with paupers. Arrangements mous in comparison with the numbers benefited. might, I think, be made, to render the greater proportion of We have already given specimens of mismanagement of the road-labour available for the purpose of employing the parish business. The following short extract from Mr. poor. But this could only be by a union of management of Moylan's Report (p. 179) is all the additional matter of this large districts, in which there would always be a large stock kind for which we have room :of pauper labour available, and in which there could be
Nothing, I think, strikes one more than the unfitness skilful management.
of the men who (particularly in small places) fill the re" Have you observed that, in the smaller agricultural sponsible office of overseer. From the temporary nature of parishes, one main difficulty in the way of the employment the appointment, it would, indeed, be difficult for them to of the paupers is the want of permanent superintendents of acquire a sufficient knowledge of their duties; to say nothing adequate skill to direct their labours ?— Yes; and the cause of the unreasonableness of expecting from men engaged in is obvious, in the want of sufficient extent of the parish to their own concerns such a devotion of their time, without pay a competent person, and the want of a sufficient amount remuneration, as would qualify them for the discharge of of disposable labour to make it worth while to employ such those duties. It necessarily follows, that the assistant-overa person, even if the parish could afford it."
seer is often left in the exclusive management of the poor, Mr. M.Adam, the celebrated improver of the art of road- and almost unlimited control of the parish funds." making, is of opinion that great public advantage might be In contrast with the ordinary mismanagement of small derived from the introduction of a general system for the parishes, we will now give a description of the way in which employment of paupers in repairing the roads. We extract parochial business is conducted at Liverpool. We extract the following evidence, given by Mr. M'Adam before a from Mr. Henderson's Report, page 346 : committee of the House of Commons, on labourers' wages :- “The permanent usefulness of the select vestry consisting
“ I am of opinion that if several parishes-three or six, in their vigilance and intelligence in administering relief, it according to the size-were consolidated, as to roads, under may be well to state a few details of their proceedings in one management, or rather under one proper and efficient this department. surveyor, paid for his services, and a very small portion (say “ The select vestry is divided into five boards, each of four a fourth part) of the value of the statute labour was taken members ; one of these boards sits in rotation every weekin money, and that was judiciously applied upon the roads, day, except Tuesday, at nine or ten A.m., and the business that they would be in a much better state; the poor would usually lasts till one P.M. A salaried secretary constantly be employed, and the roads would be put into a good con- attends, and takes a principal share in conducting the busidition.
This preserves uniformity in the management of all “ A very fruitful source of employment might be found in the boards, and on changing the select vestry the parish still parishes undertaking to supply the several trusts that run has the benefit of the secretary's experience and knowledge through their parishes with materials prepared for the repair of the cases on the books. of the roads; which materials they might obtain and prepare "On a first application for relief, if entertained at all, the at such times as they were most oppressed with applications name and address of the applicant are taken down on a for relief from persons who could not otherwise obtain card, which is delivered to the visitor, a salaried officer, in employment.
order that he may ascertain the nature of the case at the “Do you find that by putting the labourers to task-work abode of the party; the visitor makes a written report to the you have diminished the poor's-rates in many parishes ?- select vestry, on which, and on a subsequent examination of
the party, relief is granted or refused. In cases of urgent | most satisfactory improvement in morals, appearance, and
“The city magistrates themselves are perhaps civil, but
“I adduce these as instances of the impositions which, General Board of Control.-In addition to an enlarge- though detected and defeated before the board, unavoidably ment of parishes, and the other measures we have pointed succeeded before the magistrates." [Mr. Waite had just out, it appears very desirable that there should be established given some cases of gross fraud on the part of paupers.] a central body, having a certain influence over all the paro- “These characters, males and females, at the office doors chial governments in the kingdom. Until, however, its were often so clamorous and desperate, that it became neadvantages were generally appreciated, and it had secured cessary to let me out from the police office by the private the confidence of the people, it would be well to allow any door. "I have been pursued by them through the streets, parish to obtain exemption from its authority, provided it and obliged to seek sh er in shops. During twenty-seven could be shown that the administration of the poor-laws in years at sea, I encountered many perils in the waves, but the particular parish was in a good state.
these never hurt my mind so much as apparent perils The good that would result from a well-appointed Central amongst paupers. Had this system gone on, the expenses Board would be manifold. A Central Board is perhaps of our parish must have materially increased, notwithstanding the only means by which a uniform system of administration the utmost labour that I or any other officer could have becan be obtained. The mere introduction of a general sys- stowed. tem of parish accounts (an arrangement which could be “ Fortunately for our parish, and probably for the other brought about at once by a Central Board) would be at- parishes in the district, a different system was soon after tended with great advantages in preventing fraud and adopted at Lambeth-street Police-office. The parochial bujobbing; and would be of no little value to the country at siness of the office being left to Mr. Walker, and he having large, by enabling it to obtain correct statistical information determined not to receive any appeals from the decisions of on the subject of the poor.
the parish-officers, who were the best acquainted with the
We are far from attributing bad motives to the magistracy Formerly the paupers of the worst class were accustomed to
. I of magistrates.
received more praise from independent labourers than from We could more than fill the remainder of our article with any other classes." evidence of the evil complained of. The following, in addi- By the appointment of a general board of control, imtion to that which has been given, must suffice.
provements made in particular parishes in the adminisMr. Okeden, (pages 101 and 110):
tration of the poor-laws might be readily introduced into “ Soon after the riots of 1830 a new and more liberal scale other parishes. There is no doubt that if the reforms which was made by the magistrates of the division; and in February, have already been effected, and the means by which they 1831, an order was given to the overseers of Hasilbury Bryan, were brought about, were generally known, they would be requiring them to relieve ten families, all able-bodied and followed to a considerable extent. in employ, by the new scale. The overseers contended, and A general board of control would have sufficient inthe clergyman protested, against this order in vain. In this fluence with parliament and government to call attention district, indeed, the overseers know so well the inutility of to defects in the poor-laws requiring legislative enactments resistance, that to avoid trouble, expense, and reproof, they for their remuial ; such, for instance, as the present regulagenerally accede to the demands, and settle all claims, not tions respecting settlements, and the power of interference by character or merit, but by the rules of addition and sub-possessed by magistrates. The general board could also traction. I have already named, in my Report on Dorset- have good opportunities for collecting evidence as to the shire, the district of Sturminster Newton, as the worst regu- causes which affect the condition of the working classes lated as to poor concerns, with the highest proportionate generally. It would have the means of estimating the rates, in the county. It is certain that in no district is there advantages which would be obtained by the adoption of a so much magisterial interference.
system of ni. Cine education; of ascertaining how far certain “ Cranbourne, Dorset, is an instance of a large and taxes tend to injure the labourer and create pauperism, &c. populous parish, which, after suffering for many years by &c. Lastly, when tlie working of the poor-laws was deranged constant magisterial interference, has, by a complete change by the bad state of some other department of government, of system, risen to comfort and content, and in which the ! the general board would at once become aware of the fact,
and would have access to those with whom the remedy lay. | III. THE ABLE-BODIED Pauper
Bread There is no doubt, as we have before remarked, that the
Meat inefficient state of the police of the country, especially in
Loss in cooking 10 rural districts, has been one main cause of the evils fre
21 quently laid to the charge of the poor-laws. Protection is
16 Solid Food. not afforded to life or property; and in such state of
16 - 15loz. people will yield to threats and intimidation.
In addition to the above, which is an aveThe evidence we have given on other points contains many
rage allowance, the iumates of most work. facts connected with the general state of the police. The houses have following also may be quoted : it is taken from Mr. Majen
Vegetables die's Report, page 26 :
3 quarts. “ The riots in the north-east parts of the rape of Hastings
Milk Porridge. 3 commenced simultaneously on the 5th and 6th of November,
7 1830. The farmers observed that their labourers all at once and many other comforts. left their work : they were taken away by night by a system- IV. The SUSPECTED Thiep-(see the Gaol Returns
from Lancaster) atic arrangement; no leader could be identified, but bills
112 were run up at the public-houses in the evening, and in the
Meat morning a stranger came and paid.
Loss in cooking 8, The mobs generally had written forms containing their demands; they varied a little in the amount of wages, but all
40 agreed in the amount of allowance' of 1s. 6d. for every
Rice child above two; that there should be no assistant-overseer;
4 that they should be paid full wages wet or dry; that they
- 181 would pay their own rents *. There were nine cases of Winchester incendiarism that winter at Battle. The mob which assem
192 bled there, on the day of the magistrates' meeting, amounted to nearly 700 : all the principal magistrates of the division,
Loss in cooking 5
11 - 203 nineteen in number, assembled; the arrival of a troop of
V. THE CONVICTED Tuierhorse established order.
140 “ Though the guilt of one of the incendiaries, J. Bufford,
Meat who was executed, was clear and admitted by himself, yet
Loss in cooking 18 the feeling of the country was so much in his favour that he
38 was considered as a martyr: he was exhibited in his coffin,
28 and a subscription made for his family.
21 “A permanent bench of magistrates was established at
12 - 239 Battle, at which Mr. Courthope presided, at their particular Vi. The Transported Thierrequest, and directed by day and night the measures which
10 lbs. meat per week . = 168 oz.
Loss in cooking . were requisite for public tranquillity.
112 “ This harassing duty continued during a month; but
104 lbs. flour, which will increase, from that period, a certain degree of intimidation has pre
when made into bread
218 - 330" vailed in this district. The assistant-overseers having been then ill-treated by the mobs, are reluctant to make complaints for neglect of work, lest they should become marked men, and their lives rendered uncomfortable or even unsafe.
EDUCATION. Farmers permit their labourers to receive relief, founded on
When we entered on the subject of the poor-laws, we a calculation of a rate of wages lower than that actually paid : they are unwilling to put themselves in collision with the hoped to have had an opportunity of touching on many topics labourers
, and will not give an account of earnings, or if which want of room compels us to pass by. Especially we they do, beg that their names may not be mentioned. A wished to point out some of the immediate and exciting similar feeling prevails in East Kent: at Westwell, the which private or local experience has proved to be successful.
causes of pauperism, and to bring forward the remedies farmers are afraid to express, at vestry-meetings, their opinions against a pauper who applies for relief, for fear their on some of the more remote causes, too, we should have premises should be set fire to. Two of the fires immediately tem of National Education is a matter
which must force itself
liked to dwell. The necessity of the establishment of a sysfollowed such a resistance; one of them happened to a most respectable farmer, a kind and liberal master, and a pro- inquiring into the causes of pauperism. Nor is it less
on the attention of any one who dives below the surface in moter of cottage allotments." We have already referred to one gross abuse, arising, no for the relief of want, and the general ignorance of some of
obvious, when we consider the mismanagement of the fund doubt, in great measure, from the want of a general directing the leading causes of the creation of want, that those who body, and a regular connexion between the police department and that of the poor-laws. We speak of the extraor- administer the poor-laws are in many essential particulars dinary fact, that criminals have in many gaols a greater which is one of great importance, we refer our readers to an
as ill-educated as the poor themselves. Upon this subject, allowance of food than that given to paupers, and that pau. article in the Quarterly Journal of Education, No. XI. which pers in their turn are often better fed than independent labourers. The following striking document has been drawn has just appeared. The concluding passage of that article up by Mr. Chadwick from authentic sources :
may appropriately conclude our own paper, the limits of
which have prevented us dwelling as fully as we had hoped "THE SCALE.
to do upon the great remedy of pauperism--the elevation 1. THE INDEPENDENT AGRICULTURAL LABOURER
of the moral and intellectual condition of the people : According to the returns of Labourers'
“ We hold that the poor-laws cannot be better adminisExpenditure, they are unable to get, in
tered until those who administer them are better educated. the shape of solid food, more than the
But we further maintain that the necessity for a vigilant, we average allowance of Bread (daily) 17 02. = per week 119
had almost said a severe, administration of them will never Bacon, per week
cease, until the working classes are raised completely above Loss in cooking
a dependence upon charitable relief, whether forced or vo
3 122 oz. luntary. The poor man must be made a thinking man-a II. The Soldier
man capable of high intellectual pleasures; he must be puBread (daily) 16 oz. = per week
rified in his tastes, and elevated in his understanding; he Meat 12
must be taught to comprehend the real dignity of all useful Loss in cooking 28
employments; he must learn to look upon the distinctions 56 - 168
of society without envy or servility; he must respect them, “ This last point is remarkable : perhaps it may be thus ex- for they are open to him as well as to others, but he must plained, -that the labourers were aware that high rents, paid out respect himself more. The best enjoyments of our nature of the poor-rates, formed part of the system of parish jobbing, of may be common to him and the most favoured by fortune': little advantage to them."
let him be taught how to appreciate them. Diminish the
attractions of his sensual enjoyments, by extending the range | Machinery and improved communication have doubled and of his mental pleasures.
quadrupled the power of every consumer. It is a part of “Let the child be taught some of that knowledge which the general ignorance of which we complain, to believe that may render him happier in his domestic relations, and wiser our condition is deteriorating. Our best hope for the final in his public ones. He cannot be a good citizen if his obe- removal of social evil is the conviction that we are steadily dience to the laws is founded upon ignorance. The greater progressing; that the body is sound, though it is deformed part of the heartburnings of the working classes proceeds by external marks of disease. Mr. Chadwick, whose refrom their utter ignorance of the structure of society, and the searches into the causes and effects of pauperism are beyond principles of social happiness. They believe that every- all praise, gives his testimony to the improved condition even thing is to be done by a government, and nothing by them of the agricultural labourersselves. They know not how much their own powers of in- “The evidence with relation to the labourers in agriculdustry and of self-control influence their own condition and tural districts which I visited appeared to establish these that of all the community. They have no means of com- facts: that the labourers have now the means of obtaining paring their own actual condition, bad as it may be, with as much of necessaries and comforts as at any former period, the worse condition of the past generation, and the still worse if not more:-i. e., that their wages will go as far, if not condition of men less advanced in civilization. They are farther, than at any time known to the present generation : told by the ignorant or factious, that they live in a time of that, although the position of the agricultural labourers may unexampled distress, and that the labouring man is worse off be (as the subsequent evidence will show), relatively to than at any previous period of our history. How can they others, one of great disadvantage, it is nevertheless a position arrive at the rejection of these monstrous falsehoods, unless from which they may fall still lower; and that the single they have a considerable share of accurate knowledge- labourers are aware, that if the factitious inducements to knowledge, indeed, which the rich want as much as them improvident marriages afforded by the ordinary administraselves ? Capable as their condition may be of still further tion of the poor-laws were removed, it would be their interest improvement, it has yet improved in spite of profligate poor- to remain unmarried until they had attained a situation of laws and lavish taxation. The great springs of our national greater comfort and secured the means of providing for their industry have still preserved their elasticity under the loads offspring.' imposed upon them. No one who has examined the history “The condition of the manufacturing population may be of the people can doubt that the humblest among us has now estimated by the following table, which has been communia larger command of the necessaries and comforts of life than cated to us from an authority upon which reliance may be a person of the same class had a quarter of a century ago. | placed :
Wages of Young Women employed in Cotton-Mills at Manchester, compared with the Prices of Articles of Necessity.
“Here, then, is our encouragement to pursue a wiser | be the cases in which relief will be asked; for a moral course with the working population. They have the means and provident race of working men will have a joint stock of comfort in their own hands, if they could be provident purse for the mitigation of casual misfortune. Then will and moral: they cannot be provident and moral while they come the time when the farmer may sleep in peace, without are ignorant. Is there any other course but education-a the dread of waking to the light of his own burning homelarge, comprehensive National Education ? When we have stead ; and then the better-educated lord of thousands of advanced a few years in such a course, the poor will cease acres, whose miserable progenitor now rushes to a foreign to be abject and the rich will cease to be overbearing. That land in the dread of anarchy, (leaving his proxy to be wielded friendly intercourse between man and man, which religion against every improvement by which anarchy may be arand philosophy equally prescribe, will stand in the place of rested,) may look upon a smiling tenantry and happy lathat proud reserve, and that suppressed insolence, which are bourers, nor tremble at the phantom of political convulsion, the remaining badges of feudality. The poor's-rate will then nor dread that all the real distinctions of civilized life will be the refuge of the helpless widow and the fatherless orphan, be swept away, because the artificial pretensions are levelled, of the aged man tottering to his grave, and the infant not by the degradation of the mighty, but by the elevation whose mother is not here to cherish it. Few, indeed, will of the humble.
TABULAR ACCOUNT, showing the Cost of the Poor of ENGLAND and Wales at several Different Periods, also the
Comparative State of the Country, as regards Pressure of Poor-RATES.
[NOTE.— The amounts are given in round numbers.]
MANUFACTURING AND COMMERCIAL COUNTIES.
AGRICULTURAL COUNTIES GENERALLY.
Average Rate ed on the poor Population levied on each
the Poor in the year Population in levied on each in the year in head of popula
ending at Easter, 1831. head of the po. ending at 1831. tion.
pulation. Easter, 1832.
d. 8. d. Bedfordshire
77,000 95,000 16 2 Cornwall 102,000 302,000 6 9
Buckinghamshire 145,000 147,000 198 Derbyshire 81,000 237,000 6 10
Cambridgeshire . 104,000 144,000 14 5 Gloucestershire 173,000 387,000 8 11 Cheshire
105,000 334,000 6 3 Lancashire 301,000 1,340,000 4 8 Devonshire
225,000 494,000 91 Middlesex 688,000 1,360,000 10 1
231,000 314,000 14 9 Nottinghamshire 74,000 225,000 6 7
63,000 111,000 11 4 Staffordshire 133,000 410,000 6 6
96,000 143,000 13 5 Warwickshire 168,000 337,000 100) Huntingdonshire 41,000
53,000 15 6 Yorkshire-West Riding 283,000 976,000
5 10 Leicestershire
116,000 197,000 11 9 Lincolnshire
178,000 317,000 11 3 Totals. 2,003,000 | 5,574,000 7 2 Monmouthshire. 28,000
98,000 5 9 Norfolk.
318,000 390,000 16 Northamptonshire 154,000 180,000 17 1 Oxfordshire.
137,000 152,000 18 0 Rutlandshire
19,000 96 Shropshire 89,000 223,000
8 0 NORTHERN AGRICULTURAL, COUNTIES.
192,000 404,000 96 Suffolk
279,000 296,000 18 10 Surrey
283,000 486,000 118 The people in the northern districts are more generally educated
Worcestershire 87,000 211,000 8 3 than elsewhere. The peasantry, too, are paid for their services in a way which appears to be attended with the happiest effecte.
2,957,000 4,808,000 12 4 They receive the greater portion of their wages in kind, and that too without regard to fluctuations in prices. They are thus secured against the dangers of an irregular income, and the
SOUTHERN AGRICULTURAL COUNTIES. temptations created by the possession of ready money. In point The southern district, especially the eastern part of it, is distinof fact, the northern peasantry are distinguished for frugality, guished for a bad administration of the poor-laws, for a neglect prudence, and sobriety; and for the great length of time they of education, and for the demoralization of the people. The fires remain with the same employer.
of 1830-1 first burst out in this district, and were there carried Rates expend
to the greatest extent. ed on the poor Population levied on each
Rates expended on
Average Rate in the year head of popul.
the Poor in the year Population in levied on each ending at 1831. lation,
ending at Easter, 1831. head of the po. Easter, 1832.
306,000 805,000 7 7
WILLIAM CLOWES, Printer, Duke Street, Lambeth.