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REMARKS ON STRABO.

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TO THE EDITOR OF THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL.' I

COMMIT to your candor, a vindication of the text as it stands in some passages of Strabo, which are, as I conceive, unnecessarily, but ingeniously corrected in the second Number of the Museum Crit. Cantabrigiense.

, B. L. In page 255 of the Museum Crit. it is proposed to substitute ΓΡΑΠΤΩΝ for' ΑΟΡΑΤΩΝ in the following passage of Strabo, p. 19. C. Ed. Ainst. είς αποτροπήν δε όταν κολάσεις παρά θεών, και φόβους και απείλας ή δια λόγων, ή δια ΤΥΠΩΝ ΑΟΡΑΤΩΝ τινών προσδέχωνται. Perses Thebanus, Brunck. Analect. t. ii. p. 4. and Porson's Advers. p. 220. and the preceding paragraph, are alleged in support of the above correction. τούς τε γαρ παισι προσφέρομεν τους ηδείς μύθους-ούτε πολλοί των τας πόλεις oικoύντων εις μεν προτροπήν άγονται τους ήδεσι των μύθων

•.. ή νή Δία ορώσι γραφάς, η ξόανα, η πλάσματα. Casaubon suggested áúgwy. Nihil muta, says Toup, figuris áMXoxotos nunquam antea visis. Du Theil renders the words, par des impressions d'objeis invisibles. I understand the words to signify," by means of representations of certain invisible objects," and I had so separatel Túty and ángátwy before I was acquainted with the version of M. Du Theil. These representations were made through the medium « of painting, sculpture, or carving, or the plastic art.” It remains, then, only to show what these objects were, that were thus pourtrayed, and they are to be collected from the succeeding passage : κέραυνός γαρ, και αιγίς, και τρίαινα, και λάμπαδες, και δράκοντες, και θυρσόλογία των θεών όπλα μύθοι, και πάσα θεολογία αρχαϊκή ταύτα δ' απεδέξαντο οι τας πολιτείας καταστησάμενοι μορμολύκας τινας προς τους νηπιόφρονας. I here take notice of a proposed correction in the first passage from Strabo, of λογίων for λόγων, by M. Du Theil. That I also consider as unnecessary. I apprehend Strabo to mean, that these fears and threatenings were excited and conveyed either through descriptions, or by means of material images presented to the eye, such as the lightning of Jove, the torches of the Furies, the agis, &c.

The second passage, which is altered, occurs in p. 65. where διαττόντων is substituted for the common reading : ουχ οράν φησι πως αν είς πράγματα καταστρέφοι (as we ought to read upon the authority of the best ΜSS.) ή ζήτησις αυτή (περί γης ορών) αλλα μόνον έριν ΔΙΑΙΤΩΝΤΩΝ μάλλον κατά Δημόκριτος είναι. Τhe word which is to be substituted imports « to sift as flour." «« Το sift” a controversy or dispute is a mere English notion. It is not, I apprehend, to be admitted because Plato seems to be the only writer who employs this uncommon term. The ordinary reading is a usual forensic expression, and signifies rather to litigate a question, VOL. IX. Cl. .

ΝΟ. ΧVΙΙ.

or to dispute, for the sake of disputing, a meaning perfectly applicable to the tenor of the sentence.

Page 105. C. δήλον ούν εκ της παιδικής μετρήσεως ότι η συμπάσα παραλία υπερέχει ... πεντακοσίοις σταδίοις. For παιδικής several modes of alteracion are suggested by different critics; by Casaubon, εκ της δε της μετρήσεως ; by Villebraun, πρακτικής και by Du Theil, tis uzgixñs, or sicxñs; and by the reviewer in the Mus. Crit. rös nedvaxts. The passage is a part of an extract from Polybius, and the words do not seem to require any alteration, nor is there

any

variation in the reading. “ What is 7.k." says Casaubon. It is “elementary mensuration or geometry,” such knowledge of geometry as is attained by young nien, or is communicated to them in the course of education. A similar phrase occurs in another passage of Polybius, where a problem is proposed respecting castrametation, which occasions surprise, he says, because we forget the rules of geometry, which have been learnt amongst the radixà paljuxta. See Schweighauser's note.

On Mr. Blomfield's Derivation of the Word itoūv.

We have in the Prometheus,

v. 873. πούμενος ρίζαισιν Αίτναίαις υπο: Itów,says Mr. Blomfield,“ premo, afiligo, incóuevos, tiešbuevos, åvayxašouevos: Photius Lex. MS. inovuzvos ap. Hesych. correxerunt vv. dd. ab Aristoph. Equit. 920. izohusvos tais cio pogais, Pindar. . ΙV. 10. 'Αλλ' ώ Κρόνου παι, ός Αίτναν έχεις ιπον νομόεσσαν εκατονκεφάλα Τυφώνος όβρίμου: Απόω videtur manasse ab ψ, animalculum quod cornua peredit: vid. Valck. Animadvv. ad Ammon. p. 103.” In the Classical Recreations p. 580. I ventured to question this derivation upon

the obvious sense of pressure, which it bears in the passages of Æschylus and Aristophanes, and to assert that it is a verbum fullonibus, upon, the authority of Janus Laurenbergius (uho took his opinion from Jos. Scaliger's Conjectanea in Varronem de L. L.): he says in the Antiquarius, Conciliare, verbum fullonibus, Græce inov, TUSSIV, Juptidov.” I can

1 We could have wished that our correspondent had proved to us by examples that the ordinary reading signities “ to litigate a question, or to dispute for the sake of disputing.” We are aware that somethis signifies an arbiter, but we doubt whether the verb in question erer occurs in the sense, which our correspondent assigns to it. As to dattīv, Ruhnken in the notes on the Lexicon of Timæus has quoted four instances, where the word occurs in Plato, but he certainly does not either quote from, or refer to any instances in other writers, and our correspondent may perhaps be obliged to lis for informing him that it occurs twice in Hippocrates : μυρρίνης αγρίης ρίζας κόψας και διαττήσας, και φυρήσας ελαίω, Περί Ελκών page 516. line 9th Ed. Basil. 1538.: Again in the same page line 18th, Kal This μολυβδαίνης τριψας ας λειότατον διαστήσας, συμμίξας. H. Stephens has omitted this verb, but under & c T 7Eow he quotes a passage from the Cratylus of Plato, which Ruhnken in the notes on Timæus's Lex. refers to drá TTEV. EDITOR.

1 1

now support this idea beyond the possibility of contradiction. Hesych. Toev, nequey, again, iTouuevos, Touevos. It is very remarkable that the Etymolog. Mag., while it derives inos from ίπτω το βλάπτω, adds, παρά το έπος γίνεται από ρήμα, σημαίνον το θλίβω, και 'Αριστοφάνης, Ιπούμενος ταϊς συμφοραίς. Phavorinus under izos has the same explanation as Photius above, but with the addition of θλιβόμενος, and he has also with Hesych. ιπούμεν, πιέζομεν. Zonaras has inÔ OxbBw. Suidas has the same, and also, 110 € TEQOT Wuevas arti Tou Ani... In a MS. Glossarial “ Index in Hippocratis Opera Græce Editionis Basileensis Fol. 1538.” appa-, rently the work of “ Joannis Reekie dinóroyos,” and now in the possession of Dr. Parr, we have these words, “TOTIS 487. 52. Fæs. (Econ. compressio, risois, tanquam ab irów, premo more fullomum, ab intu, sive inw, noceo, lado.The passage of Fæsius is as follows ; “ITTWTK, pressus, aut pressura dicitur, compressio, depressio, idem quod nieris, aut mieruós, L. de Art. p. 621.53. τα μεν γαρ έξεστεώτα ες την χώρων αναγκάζει και η ίππωσις ιέναι, φιά enim excesserunt, compressione in suam sedem redeunt : tanquam ab intów deducitur, cum aliis intów dicitur, quod significat premo more fullonum, unde et imos est fullonum officina et muscipula: est et imos tieghos, onus, pressus, et pressura ; sed Pollux c. II. L. 7. ιπούν et ιπούσθαι επί του αναθλίβεσθαι, και πιέζεσθαι, και κναφεύειν poui scribit, tanquam ab itów, unde et incŪuevos, pressus, ex Cratino ab eo profertur, quanquam apud eum in moule zvos legitur, ut et ap. Hesych. ίππούμεν, πιέζομεν, et ίππούμενος, πιεζόμενος exponitur: εξίπεσθαι tamen tanquam ab ίπω dicitur, et εξίπεται idem εκπιέζεται exponit [ L. έξιπούται ab ιπούσθαι” L. Kuster]: ίπος Galeno in Eregesi i rósis exponitur, et ex Mochlico adducitur, sed vereor ut locus sit integer ; neque enim inos in Mochlico legitur [“THCS, Ý πόσις ap. Hippocr. εν τω μοχλικό i. e. potio, sed pro ή πόσις existimo legendum inucis pressio, seu pressura, alias pro muscipula reperitur usurpatum inos, nec non pro instrumento quodam fullonum et tortorum," Jo. Goræi Definit. Medic. p. 271.], quod illius libelli maximam foedationem satis indicat : videturque hac dictione Galenus ίππωσιν (aut melius ίπωσιν) ex libro de Articulis indicare, ut inos TA Wong dicatur, h. e. pressus et pressura, onus ac velut lignum quo mures opprimuntur, quod etiam irrus Hesychio dicitur το εμπίπτον τοίς μυσό ξύλον: est et ίπος μύαγρα Polluci: hac autem voce compressio aut depulsio quæ per spatham aut asserem fit, et qua in spinæ gibbero compellendo, utitur Hippocr. indicatur, eaque did rñs ravicos in wris Galeno dicitur Com. 4. in L. de Art. p. 658. 26. impulsus et compressio quæ fit per asserem, in repositione luxati posteriorem in parten coxæ articuli

, ubi tanιen vitiose omnino σήπωσις legitur : ιπούμενος, θλιβόμενος, πιεζόHEVOS, avayxatóuevos exponitur Varino”--taken from the Schol. Aristoph. Equit. v. 920. inohuevos, Oroßóuevos Tais ouvtedelais, tuis απαιτήσεσι πολλά είσφέρειν αναγκαζόμενος, πιεζόμενος. Bergler upon this passage of Aristophanes says, “ inouusvos est ab ipos, quod pres .

sorium significat, ut ex Vet. Gloss. conjicere licet, sive prælum." Alberti on Hesychius cites them thus, “ Gloss. Vet. Inos, prensuτium, scribendum potius έπος,” and Kuhnius on J. Pollux thus, «ίπος, prensurium, Etwtas, prensatum est.” In the Ler. Græco-Lat. Vetus of H. Stephens we have είπωσις, ή σφίγξις. The passage of Pollux referred to above is this, L. VII. C. XI. Segin. 41. έoικε δε και το οπούν, και ιπούσθαι, επί του αποθλίβεσθαι, και πιέζεσθαι, κναφεύσι προσήκειν ουκ άντικρυς μεν επί τούτου ειρημένον, υποδηλούμενον δε, Δώσεις έμοί Καλήν δίκην, πούμενος ταϊς συμφοραίς, Κρατινός που φησί: και ιπον μεν εν Κλεοβουλίνη, και 'Αρχίλοχος δ', έφη, Κέαται εν ίπα, και ύπος δέ τό των κναφέων εργαλείον: έστι δε και μυάγρα ούτω καλουμένη αλλά νύν έoικε μάλλον τω των κναφέων εργαλείο προσήκειν. Again in L. X. c. 31. 8. 185. και ιπός το πιέζον τας εσθήτας εν τω γναφεία, ως 'Αρχίλοχος, Κτέαται εν ίπω. The Ler. Greco-Lat. Vet. of H. Stephens also has-έξείπω, εκθλίβω, erprimo, elido, confligo: upon & Toy H. Stephens in the Thes. L. G. has largely descanted: I add Aristophanes Lysistr. ν. 291. τω ξύλω τον ώμον εξιπώτατον, where the Schol. θλίβουσιν: he mentions Galen, but not Hippocrates, but the Lex. Hippoc. MS. quoted above, has the following reference, "ITów, exprimo, ab éx et inów, premo, ab iitw, sive ίπω, πoceo, ltdo, 489. 14.” Hence αποφυές, ιπποφανές, ιπποφαές, ιππόφυον etc. which, as Fesius says in the Econom. Hippocr., 1s "frutex quo fullones utuntur ad interpolandas vestes, ut scribit Diosc. c. 162. L. 4. eoque vestes curant et carminatione poliunt." H. Stephens has omitted in the Thes. L. G. άπιπούν: “ Ab ο έπος,says Damm, “ est v. Απόω, premo, απιπόω, exprimo, καρπόν κόψαντες άπιπούσι, fructum contundentes erprimunt, ut oleum inde fat, Herod. ΙΙ. 94. de σιλλικυπρίοις, germine Egyptiaco, ejusque fructu.”

Damm most ingeniously, and very naturally accounts for this
signification of pressure, which, as we have seen, is uniformly given
to the verb έπούν, and its compounds απιπούν, εξιπούν, and I am
decidedly of the same opinion with him : « ίπος est proprie ή μυάγρα,
lapsu suo opprimens mures, in specie autem onus illud in musci-
pula, quo mus opprimitur, ó ricopós: deinde metaphorice et in
genere est onus quo quis premitur et coercetur cum suu molestia:
sic Ætnam, Typhæo injectam, Pindarus vocat itoy áverbeorav,
altam, 01. 4, 11." This interpretation is supported beyond all
contradiction by Hesychius, who has, under ειλός, manifestly a
corrupt reading of είπος, and that for the same as 'πος, ΠΛΝ ΤΟ
ΕΠΙΠΙΠΤΟΝ ΒΑΡΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΕΝ ΤΑΙΣ ΠΑΓΑΙΣ ΕΠΙΠΙΠΤΟΝ
ΞΥΛΟΝ, and again under είπος for έπος, ΠΑΓΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΝ ΒΑΡΟΣ.
Again γίπον, είπον. Now Hesychius, though the fact has been
overlooked by the commentators, clearly had this very passage of
Pindar in his thoughts, when he wrote those glosses. Heyne's
Note
upon

the
passage

of Pindar is this: “ stov esse onus impositum, dubitari nequit, post illustrationes v. incūobar a vv. dd. pro

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positis, Hemsterhus. ad Aristoph. Plut. p. 279. Brunck. ad Lysistr, 291. tum ap. Æschyl. Prom. 365. et Gedik. Carm. select. ad h. l.:-Scholia recent. Touwgíay xai xólaos ex etymologia argll. tantia.”

E. H. BARKER. Trin. Coll. Cam. 21 Nov. 1813.

REMARKS ON

SOME POINTS OF RESEMBLANCE BETWEEN THE

ENGLISH AND ITALIAN LANGUAGES.

It is indeed full time to remove from our literary men and our language the reproach that no tolerable dictionary of it exists. The new edition of Dr. Johnson's must be expected with impatience : for that undertaking, nature had certainly bestowed on him the most important endowment, a mind sagacious and inquiring, when not under the dominion of the numerous prejudices to which he was a willing slave : but when this is admitted, he possessed, it is apprehended, no one acquirement whatever to fit him for his task, except perhaps his skill in Latin,

The length of time elapsed since the preparation of that booksellers' publication in the middle of the last century, without any correction whatever of the least moment, would alone present a sufficient motive for the improved edition. Blemishes now appear in it, which never could have been retained, had it not been his lot in his latter days to be surrounded by flatterers rather than by friends. Such wilful sallies, for instance, as his defining a pension to be “ Pay given to a state-hireling, for treason against his country,” he himself afterwards becoming a pensioner, and in that character employing his talents little to the benefit of his fame- In consequence of his ridiculous dislike to the northern extremity of our island, his going out of his way to tell us that in England oats are eaten by horses ; but in Scotland, . by the people :-his political definitions subservient to his own prejudices; and his considering his own feelings of sufficient consequence to bring in a salutation to his “great parent,” the town of Lichfield ; with other errors, wilful or involuntary, which may by the present respectable editor be quietly dropped.

But the great defect under which Dr. Johnson labored, and which utterly unfitted him for his task, was his profound ignorance of any sister-dialect of the tongue which he undertook to

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