thought it was an unfavourable omen of their success; but he was soon raised by the help of those of his guard, and behaved himself honourably the whole day. This knight was a native of Burgundy. The banner of duke William was that day borne by a gallant knight, called sir Hoste d'Escaussines, who behaved himself right well.

When the two armies met, the conflict became very severe on each side, and lasted for upwards of an hour, when many deadly blows were given by both parties. At this moment, the detachment on horseback, with the infantry, according to their orders, advanced to the rear of the Liegeois ; but from the position of their baggage-waggons, they had much difficulty to force their way. At length, by dint of courage, they succeeded, and, having gained an entrance, began to lay about them so vigorously that the army of the enemy was divided, - and they saw full six thousand Liegeois quit their ranks, with their guns and the banners of their guilds, and take flight with all speed towards a village half a league from the field of battle. When the detachment perceived this, they left off the attack they had begun, and pursued the runaways, whom they charged, not once, but several times, beating down and slaying them without mercy, and, in short, routed them so effectually that, through fear of death, they fled here and there, into woods and other places, to hide themselves.

This party of the Liegeois being either killed, dispersed, or taken prisoners, the horsemen returned to their main body, gallantly fighting the enemy, who, it must be said, defended themselves courageously. In truth, the event of this battle was some time doubtful,-for, during one half hour, it could not be known which side would be victorious. The noise of their war-cries was frightful :-the Burgundians and Hainaulters shouted under their banners, “ Our Lady for Burgundy! Our Lady for Hainault;" and the Liegeois, in their turn, shouted, “St. Lambert for Pier-vves !” The men of Liege would perhaps have conquered, if this detachment on horseback, when returned from the defeat of the runaways, had not again fallen on their rear, and behaved so marvellously well that those who opposed them were pierced through, and all attempts to check them were vain. A great slaughter was made by them in a short time, for none were admitted to ransom ; and by their vigour whole ranks fell one over the other, for now all the weight and power of the infantry were brought against them.

The defeat once begun, there were such heaps of dead and wounded that it was melancholy to behold, for they were thicker in many places than stooks of corn in harvest. This ought not to occasion surprise ; for when the common people are assembled, badly armed, and puffed up with their extravagant desires, although they be in great numbers, yet shall they hardly be able to resist an army composed of noblemen well tried in arms, even when God shall permit it so to be. At this period of the battle, and near to the banner of the duke of Burgundy where the conflict was the strongest, fell the lord de Pierre-vves and his two sons,-namely, the one who had been elected bishop of Liege and his brother: they were instantly put to death. The heir of Salmes *, who bore the standard of St. Lambert, namely, the eldest son to the count de Salmes*, who was in the army of the two dukes ; sir John Collet, and many other knights and esquires to the amount of upwards of five hundred ; all the English archers, and about twenty-eight thousand of the commonalty, were left dead on the field, and more perished by arrow-shots than by any other weapon. Sir Baldwin de Montgardin, knight, to save his life, surrendered himself to the duke of Burgundy :-he was led out of the engagement, and afterward given by the duke to sir Wicart de Bours.

I have no need to particularise the great courage and coolness of the duke of Burgundy, nor how he galloped to different parts of the army, exhorting them to act well,—nor how, until the end of the battle, he most gallantly behaved himself,- for in truth, his conduct was such that he was praised and spoken of by all knights and others; and although he was frequently covered with arrows and other missile weapons, he did not on that day lose one drop of blood. When he was asked, after the defeat, if they should cease from slaying the Liegeois, he replied, “Let them all die together! for I will not that any prisoners be made, nor that any be ransomed ! !” In the like gallant manner did duke William, the other princes, and in general the whole

+ Salmes. Q. Salines.

body of the chivalry and nobility of the two dukes, behave themselves. There were slain from five to six hundred of their men; and among the number were, John de la Chapelle, knight to the above duke,-sir Flourimont de Brimeu, John de la Trémouille, who on this day had been made a knight,--Hugotin de Nambon, John de Theune, viscount de Brimequet, a native of Hainault,-Rollant de la Mote, and others, to the amount of one hundred and six score gentlemen : the rest were varlets *.

Just as the dukes had gained the victory, about two thousand men made a sally from Tongres, to assist the Liegemen. When they saw they were defeated, they retreated to their town, but were so closely pursued by the body of horse that had done such essential service, that very many of them were killed.

The two dukes, seeing their victory was now complete, met, and returned thanks to the Creator, congratulating with one another for their success. They had tents pitched on the field of battle, and remained there for three days and three nights. The French ambassadors, having now taken their leave, departed for Tournay, and continued their road to Paris to the king and his council ; but prior to their departure, the duke of Burgundy had despatched a messenger to the king of France, with letters to inform him and his good friends in Paris of the fortunate event of the battle. This news was not very agreeable to many who were intending to urge the king to prosecute the duke of Burgundy for the murder of the late duke of Orleans,—and on the contrary, it gave great joy to his friends.

On Monday, the morrow of the battle, about the hour of twelve, John of Bavaria, bishop of Liege, attended by the heir of Heinseberg, and several others, nobles and not nobles, to the number of six hundred helmets, or thereabout, came from the town of Maestricht, wherein they had been besieged, to the camp of the two dukes, and most humbly thanked them for the succour they had afforded him. He and his party were received with much joy; and, on his arrival, he was presented with the head of the lord de Pier-vves, which had been found among the dead, with his two sons, and was fixed to the top of a lance, that all who pleased might see it!

On the following Tuesday, the feast of St. Fremin, a martyr, the inhabitants of Liege, Huy, Dinant and Tongres, and of all the other good towns in the bishopric of Liege, excepting the castle of Bouillon, hearing of the great destruction of their countrymen, and the power of their enemies, were panic-struck, and, seeing no probability of any assistance, surrendered themselves to the obedience of the dukes of Burgundy and of Holland. They sent to them ambassadors to this effect, and also to supplicate John of Bavaria, their bishop and lord, that he would graciously have pity upon them, and grant them his pardon. The bishop, through the intercession of the two dukes, complied with their request, on condition that such as had been most active in promoting the rebellion, many of whom were still alive, whose names they would set down, should be given up to the two dukes, to do by them as they in their justice should think right; and each of the towns gave sufficient hostages for the due performance of the terms. On the ensuing Thursday, the two dukes and the bishop, with the whole army, broke up the camp, and advanced toward the town of Liege. The duke of Burgundy was quartered in the town of Flauye, on the river Meuse, one league distant from Liege, and duke William among the mountains.

On the following Sunday, the dukes and the bishop held a full council, to which all their ministers were admitted, on the present state of affairs. Other councils were continued until the Tuesday, when the bishop made his entry into Liege, and was received with great humility by the remnant of its inhabitants. The most culpable in the late rebellion had been before arrested and thrown into prison in this and in all the other towns. The bishop went first to the cathedral church of St. Lambert to offer his prayers, and reconcile himself with the chapter : after this he went to his palace, when he was most humbly entreated by the people to have mercy on them, which he granted ; and, shortly after, he returned to the camp of the two dukes.

About two o'clock in the afternoon, on the morrow, the dukes and the bishop, with several nobles of the army, assembled on an elevated spot near the camp, whither sir John de Jeumont, marshal to duke William, by the commands of the two dukes and the bishop,

* This battle was fought on the plains of Eichtfeld, near Tongres.

had ordered the heir of Rochefort, a rich nobleman, John de Saramie*, knight, and fifteen other citizens, to be brought from the town, and had their heads cut off, one after another, by the executioner. Many churchmen, and some women, were also drowned in the Meuse

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for having been concerned in the rebellion ! On the morrow, the dukes and the bishop moved with the army to a town three leagues distant, called Beaucloquet, where many conferences were held, on the state of the country. The count de Nevers joined his brother, the duke of Burgundy, at this place, with four hundred combatants. Hither also sir John de Jeumont ordered nineteen citizens from the town of Huy to be brought, who underwent a similar punishment to those of Liege, and for the same cause; and, as before, many churchmen and women were drowned t.

Amé de Viry, a Savoyard, a nobleman well experienced in war, came hither also to aid the duke of Burgundy, and accompanied by three hundred helmets from that country. When the dukes and the bishop had for several days consulted together on the affairs of Liege, it was at length concluded, with the approbation of John of Bavaria, now surnamed John the Pitiless, that they should all meet again in the city of Tournay, on St. Luke's day next ensuing, to deterniine finally on the measures to be pursued touching these matters. After many executions had taken place in the bishopric of Liege on those who had been concerned in the rebellion, and when the fortifications of the towns of Huy, Dinant and others, had been destroyed, the two dukes began their march homeward, taking with them a number of persons from Liege, who had been given as hostages for the observance of all the articles of the treaty that should be made with them. Some of them were sent by duke William to Mons and Valenciennes, and some to Lille, Arras, and other places belonging to the duke of Burgundy, who went to his county of Flanders, and duke William to Hainault, after they had disbanded their men-at-arms. The greater part returned to their homes much enriched by the plunder of the Liegeois, who, thunderstruck by the misfortune that had befallen them, became stupified and indolent.

* The lord d'Agimont, son to the lord of Rochefort, insurgents, during the time of their power, having exercised and the lord de Saraing, according to Placentius.

many similar enormities against those of the government † There seems to have been some pretext, on the score faction. of retaliation, for the commission of these barbarities, the

Many great lords attended the duke of Burgundy on this expedition : among them were, from Burgundy, sir John de Châlons *, sir Gaultier de Ruples, the lord de Vergy t, marshal of Burgundy, the lord de St. George, sir John de la Balme I, sir William de Champ-divers, sir James de Courtjambe, the lord de Montagu, and many more. From Picardy, the lords de Croy S, de Heilly, de Fosseux, de Vaurin, sir Bort Guieret and his brothers, the lord of Inchy, the lord of Raisse, the lord de Brimeu, sir Regnault de Crequy lord of Comtes |l, Enguerrand de Bournouville, the lord de Ront, sir Raoul de Flandres, the lord de Poix, sir Wincart de Bours, the lord d'Auxy, the lord de Mailly, the lord de Thiennes and the lord d’Azincourt. From Flanders, sir John and sir Louis de Guystelle, the lord de Hames, sir John de Bailleul, sir Collart de Fosseux, and others, the principal nobles of the country. In like manner, duke William had assembled his nobles, with many others, his allies; among whom was sir John de Bethune, brother to the viscount de Meaux. Common report said, that Anthony duke of Brabant, brother to the duke of Burgundy, and Waleran de Luxembourg count de St. Pol, had refused their assistance, because they had not been made acquainted with the terms and agreements entered into by John of Bavaria on the one part, and the lord de Pier-vves on the other, for the resignation of the bishopric of Liege. They also made other excuses.

When the day appointed for the meeting of the duke of Burgundy, duke William and the bishop of Liege, in the town of Tournay, for the final settlement of the affairs of Liege drew near, the inhabitants of that town sent them a petition, by ambassadors chosen from among the principal citizens, to request they would fix on some other town, as the numbers of their attendants would greatly harass and impoverish them, considering the very small stock of provision that was in Tournay. Their request was granted,—and the town of Lille was chosen for their meeting on the day that had before been fixed on. Thither all the hostages from Liege were conducted, and brought into the presence of the aforesaid dukes and bishop, with several more that had been deputed to hear what judgment should be given, which was as follows:

“The dukes of Burgundy and Holland declare, that this their judgment shall be punctually fulfilled in every respect, with regard to the present time, reserving to themselves the power of making any future alterations in it as often as, and in what manner, they shall please. First, They consent that the inhabitants of Liege, of the towns and country of that bishopric, situated within the district of Liege, the country of Los, the countries of Hasbane, St. Tron, and the territory of Bouillon, shall enjoy their customary franchise and privileges. They order, that the citizens of Liege, and of the other towns above-named, do bring to the monastery des Escolliers, in the town of Mons in Hainault, on the morrow of Martinmas-day next ensuing, all the letters patent and charters of their laws and privileges, which they possess, which they will deliver into the hands of such as may be commissioned by the said dukes to receive them. Those who bring them shall make oath, on the salvation of their own souls, and of the souls of them who sent them, that they have not fraudulently left behind any charters of their laws and privileges.-Item, the dukes aforesaid declare, that should the city of Liege, or any other town, neglect to send, or fraudulently retain, any of their charters, that town so retaining them shall be for ever deprived of its privileges and particular laws.-Item, the lords aforesaid will, that these charters and letters patent be delivered to the commissioners punctually on the morrow of Martinmas-day.-Item, they likewise ordain, that when these charters and privileges shall have been duly examined, and new ones drawn up and delivered, neither the bishop of Liege nor his chapter shall grant any new privileges to the inhabitants, without the consent of the two dukes or their successors.

"Item, they also ordain, that henceforward the commonalty shall not appoint or nominate, in the aforesaid towns and bishopric, any officers, such as governors, masters of trades, doctors of arts,—but that from this day all such offices be annulled.-Item, they ordain, that all bailiffs, provosts, mayors, and others bearing similar titles, shall be nominated by the bishop of Liege and the count de Los; and also, that the sheriffs in such towns as claim the right of shrievalty shall be renewed yearly, and a certain number appointed according to the exigency of the case and size of the towns. In no large town shall father and son, two brothers-in-law, two cousins-german, the uncle and nephew, nor any one who has married the mother of another, be appointed sheriffs at the same time, in order that no improper favours be shown from partiality of kindred. All officers shall swear solemnly, on their creation, to preserve and abide by every article and point contained in the constitution delivered to them.—Item, they ordain, that the bishop of Liege may, each year, at the expiration of the shrievalty, appoint such sheriffs as he shall please, or re-appoint those of the preceding year, others according to his good pleasure, provided they are not any way connected by blood, as has been before-mentioned. All disputes respecting the persons or fortunes of the inhabitants of the different towns having sheriffs, shall be brought before their jurisdictions; and at the end of the year, the sheriffs shall be bound to render an account of their administration before their lord, the bishop of Liege, or his deputies, and before one commissary deputed by the chapter, and another on the part of the different churches.

* John, third son of Louis I. and brother of Louis II. was grand butler of Burgundy in 1430. Perhaps he is de Châlons, counts of Auxerre.

the great lord here meant. + Mentioned in p. 118, ante.

§ Mentioned p. 37, ante. Amblard I. lord of La Baûme, had issue, Peter, Per- ll John III. lord of Crequy and Canaples, is mentioned ceval, John, William, and Louis, John was a monk at by Froissart. He had issue, John IV. lord of Crequy, &c. Ambronnai; but Perceval, who continued the line, had Reginald, killed at Agincourt, and others. Issue, Amblard II. and William, surnamed Morelet, who

"Item, they ordain, that all guilds and fraternities in the city of Liege, and in all the other towns, shall henceforth cease and be annulled; and that the banners of the above guilds in Liege shall be delivered up to commissaries, on an appointed day that shall be made known to them; and the banners of the other towns shall be brought by the inhabitants to a certain place on an appointed day, to the commissioners named to receive them, and who shall do with them as they may judge expedient.-Item, they also ordain, that in the above city, and in the towns within the said bishopric, no one shall be reputed a citizen unless he shall have really resided within such town in which he shall claim his right of citizenship. And all such rights of citizenship are for the present annulled; for although there may be resident citizens in the aforesaid towns, they cannot, in such right, claim any moveables by reason of inheritance, without the cognizance of the lords under whom such persons have lived, and in whose territory such inheritances are situated.— Item, they ordain, that from this moment, and in times to come, the towns of Huy, Dinant, and others within the territory of Liege, the country of Los, the country of Hasbane, and all within the jurisdiction of Liege, shall no longer call together any assembly, or congregation of people, under pretence of holding councils or otherwise, without the consent of their aforesaid bishop and lord, or of the chapter of Liege, should the bishopric at the time be vacant.

“ Item, they ordain, that the bishop of Liege, or any others having the government of the said territory and its dependancies, shall never bear ams against the king or kings of France, their successors; nor against the two said dukes, their successors in the said duchies and counties; nor against the count de Namur for the time being, or his successors; nor against any of the countries of the aforesaid, except when ordered by the emperor, and only when the emperor shall be himself present : provided, nevertheless, that the king of France and the above-mentioned persons do not invade the territories of the bishop and chapter of Liege.

"Item, they likewise ordain, that in perpetual remembrance of this victory, and the conquest made over them by the above two dukes, they and their successors shall have a free passage, whenever they may choose to cross the river Meuse, through all towns in the territory of Liege, fortified or not, and with a body of men-at-arms or with few attendants according to their pleasure-provided they do not permit any of the inhabitants of the said towns, villages, or country through which they shall pass, to be any way molested by their men, and provisions shall be found them for their money, without demanding higher prices for the articles than they are usually sold for.— Item, they ordain, that the coin of the aforesaid dukes and their successors shall have free currency throughout the territories and dependancies of the bishop and chapter of Liege.

"Item, they ordain, that a chapel shall be erected on the spot where the last victory was gained, and funds allotted for the support of four chaplains and two priests ; and the said

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