of arms in his presence. According to these orders, and on the appointed day, sir John Cornwall entered the lists first, very grandly equipped, and, galloping his horse around, came before the king, whom he gallantly saluted. He was followed by six little pages mounted on as many war-horses, the two first of which were covered with furniture of ermines, and the other four with cloth of gold. When he had made his obeisances, the pages retired without the lists.

Shortly after, the seneschal arrived, attended by the duke of Brabant and his brother, the count de Nevers, each bolding a rein of his horse, on his right and left. The count de Clermont bore his battle-axe, and the count de Penthievre his lance. When he had made the circuit of the lists, and had saluted the king, as sir John Cornwall had done, they prepared to tilt with their lances; but as they were on the point of so doing, the king caused it to be proclaimed that they should not proceed in this matter, which was very displeasing to both of them, and forced them to return to their hotels. It was again proclaimed, by the king's orders, that this deed of arms should not be carried further,—and that in future no one, under pain of capital punishment, should, throughout his realm, challenge another to a duel without a substantial cause. When the king had magnificently feasted these two knights, and shown them much honour at his court, they departed, as it was said, for England, with the intention of completing their deed of arms.

During this time, the cardinal de Bar, son to the duke of Bar, and Guye de Roye, archbishop of Rheims, in company with master Peter d'Ailly, bishop of Cambray, and several other prelates and churchmen, were journeying to the general council which was to be held at Pisa, and took up their lodgings one night at a town called Voltri, on the seacoast, about four leagues from Genoa. At this place the blacksmith of the archbishop had a quarrel with a blacksmith of the town, about the price of shoeing a horse, which proceeded from words to blows, and the archbishop's blacksmith killed the other, and fled instantly for safety to the lodgings of his master. The townsmen immediately rose,-and a great number of them came to revenge the death of their countryman. The archbishop, hearing of the cause of this tumult, left his chamber, and kindly addressed them, promising to have the injury immediately repaired, according to their wishes ; and, the more to appease them, he delivered up his blacksmith into the hands of the magistrate of the place, who was a lieutenant of Boucicaut, marshal of France, then governor of Genoa. But this was of no avail,—for as the archbishop was speaking to them, without the door of his house, one of the mob thrust his javelin right through his body to the heart, so that he dropped down dead without uttering another word. It was a great pity, for he was a religious prelate, and of a noble family.

This deed, however, did not satisfy them ; for instantly after they murdered the magistrate and the aforesaid blacksmith, and also endeavoured to force their way into the house, whither the cardinal de Bar and the greater part of the others had retired, in order to put them likewise to death. They were, however, at length appeased by the principal inhabitants, and it was concluded that the cardinal should grant them his pardon for what they had done against him,- to which, indeed, he was induced by his attendants, from their fears of being all destroyed. They never told him of the murder of the archbishop until he was gone two leagues from the town: on the hearing of it, he was so troubled, and sick at heart, that he was near falling off his mule. His attendants, notwithstanding, made him hasten his pace as much as they could; for they were alarmed for their lives, after the instances they had seen, and from the numbers of people they perceived descending the hills, and the accustomed signs they saw when a town is under any apprehension of danger, and the ringing of bells in the manner usual on these occasions.

These signals were sounded througliout the country, and the peasants were seen running down the hills to overtake them; but when they were arrived within a league of Genoa, the marshal Boucicaut * came out with a handsome company to meet him. The cardinal made

* John le Maingre, second of the name, count of Beau- 1391, having been knighted, nine years before, at the battle fort and viscount of Turenne. He was the son of mareschal of Rosebec in Flanders. He went into Hungary and was Boucicaut the elder, mentioned by Froissart, who died in present at the battle of Nicopolis, and made prisoner with 1371. He was himself made a mareschal of France in John count of Nevers. He was again appointed to the

loud complaints to him of the outrages that had been committed on his people at the town of Voltri, and demanded that he would judicially inquire into it. The marshal replied that he would make so severe an example of that town that all others should take warning from it. The cardinal was then conducted into the city of Genoa, where he was made welcome by the churchmen and other inhabitants; and this same day the body of the archbishop of Rheims was brought thither, and honourably interred,-and his obsequies were performed in the principal church of Genoa. Shortly after, the marshal Boucicaut punished most severely all whom he could apprehend that had committed these outrages, with their accomplices : they were put to death in various ways, and their houses also were razed to the ground, that these executions might serve for warnings to others never to commit such cruel murders.

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The cardinal de Bar, with his companions, now set out from Genoa, and travelled, by easy day's journeys, to Pisa, where were assembled a prodigious number of cardinals, doctors in theology, and graduates in civil law and other sciences, ambassadors and prelates, in obedience to the two popes, from different kingdoms, and from all parts of Christendom. After many councils had been held on the schism in the church, they came at last to this conclusion : they unanimously condemned the two rival popes as heretics, schismatics, obstinate in evil, and perturbators of the peace of our holy mother the church. This sentence was passed in the presence of twenty-four cardinals, at the gates of Pisa, before all the people, the 15th day of June, in the year aforesaid.

The same cardinals, after invoking the grace and assistance of the holy Spirit, entered into conclave, where they remained until the 16th day of the same month, wlien they finished their election. They chose Peter of Candia, so named from being a native of that island : he was of the order of Friars Minors, created a doctor in theology at Paris, archbishop of Milan and cardinal; and, when consecrated sovereign of the true and holy catholic church, he took the name of Pope Alexander V. 0, most powerful God ! how great was the joy thus caused, through thy never-failing grace ; for it is impossible to relate the shoutings and acclamations that resounded for more than a league round the city of Pisa. But what shall we say of the relief of the emperor of Constantinople in 1399. In 1401, was a poet as well as warrior, and composed many rondeaux he was made governor of Genoa,—and he took the city of and virelays. In his epitaph, he is called Constable to the Famagousta, in Cyprus, for the Genoese. He was made emperor of Constantinople. prisoner at Agincourt, and died in England 1421. He

city of Paris ? Why, when this joyful news was brought thither, on the 8th of July, they incessantly shouted, night and day, “Long live Alexander V. our pope!” in all the squares and streets, and entertained all passengers with meat and drink, from their heartfelt happiness. When the ceremony of consecrating the pope was over, letters were sent to different persons, the more fully to explain the proceedings of the council. I shall insert the one written by the abbot of Saint Maixence to the bishop of Poitiers, the tenor of which was as follows.

“Reverend father, and my redoubted lord, after my humble respects being accepted, I know that your reverence would gladly be informed of the proceedings of the council, which has been held in the city of Pisa, and any intelligence concerning it; and it is for this reason I have indited the following lines to your reverence. First, then, on the 25th day of March, all the cardinals, who had been created by both popes, and all the prelates then in Pisa, assembled in the church of St. Martin, which is situated beyond the river, on the road leading to Florence, and thence, being dressed in their robes with mitres on their heads, they made a grand procession to the cathedral church, which is as distant from that of Saint Martin as our church of Notre Dame at Paris is from that of St. Martin des Champs. There the council always afterwards assembled ; and on this first day, mass was celebrated with great solemnity : the sermon was preached by my lord cardinal of Milan, of the order of Friars Minors, a great theologian. When the service was over, the morrow was fixed on to open the council, and the two popes were summoned to attend on that day at the gates of the church, by two cardinals ; but neither of them appeared, nor any one for them.

“ The council continued to sit till the latter end of March, when the popes were again summoned to appear, but neither of them obeyed. The council therefore having required the two rival popes to come before them, on account of the schism that has reigned in the church, and neither of them appearing, or sending any one to make satisfactory answers for them, and the term allotted for their appearing being elapsed, declared them both guilty of the schism that distresses the church, and of contumacy, by their conduct, toward the council. The council ordered prosecutions to be carried on against both of the popes, on the Monday after Quasimodo-Sunday, the 15th of April, when my lords cardinals celebrated together the service of the holy week. On Good Friday, my lord cardinal d'Orsini celebrated divine service in Saint Martin's church ; and a secular doctor of divinity, from Bologna la Grassa, preached an excellent sermon. My lords cardinals were all present at the ceremonies of Easter Sunday. During the ensuing week they assembled in council, sometimes alone, at others they called in the prelates, to deliberate on the state of affairs, and what line of conduct should be pursued ; and everything was carried on with mutual good will on all sides. This week the ambassadors from the king of the Romans arrived at Pisa.

“On the Sunday of Quasimodo, an Italian bishop said mass before the cardinals ; and a Cordelier from Languedoc, a doctor in divinity, preached the sermon, in which he greatly praised my lords cardinals from France, and such as were seeking to restore peace to the church,—but very harshly treated the two contending popes, calling them schismatics, heretics, and traitorous enemies to God and to his church. He chose for his text, “Jesus dixit, Pax vobis,' which he handled extraordinarily well. The following Monday, the cardinals, prelates, ambassadors, and procurators then present, made oath to obey the decisions of the council. Mass was then chaunted, and succeeded by many prayers; then the litany was sung, at which all the cardinals and prelates, dressed in their robes and mitres, attended, and so continued as long as the sittings of the council lasted, which made it a handsome sight to see. This same day, the council gave audience to the ambassadors from Robert king of the Romans; and the bishop of Verdun, on the part of Robert, who favoured pope Gregory as much as he could, began his harangue, taking for his theme, “Pax vobis.' He made many mischievous propositions, to divide and distract the council, in obedience to his master, and to serve the false pope Gregory. There were with this bishop an archbishop of a foreign order, and a numerous body of attendants. When the bishop had made his propositions, the ambassadors were required to deliver the same in writing, and to show their procurations from their lord. A day was then fixed to hear the answer of the council to their propositions ; but before this day arrived, the ambassadors went away without taking leave of their host. “ This week of Quasimodo, the lord Malatesta came to Pisa in great state: he had given to pope Gregory one of his castles called Rimini *, and made the following request to the cardinals assembled, as well on the part of pope Gregory as on his own,-namely, that it would please the members of the council to adjourn its sittings, and change the place of its meeting ; that if they would so do, pope Gregory would attend personally, provided the situation were in a place of safety, and that he might have security for his coming to and going from it. In consequence of this request, the cardinals summoned the prelates to notify it to them; but they unanimously declared, they would neither consent that the place of holding the council should be changed nor that the meetings of it should be adjourned. This answer was very agreeable to the cardinals. The lord Malatesta, therefore, returned without having succeeded in his object; but his anger was appeased by some of the cardinals, his friends and acquaintance.

“ From the 15th of April, the council continued sitting to the 23d of the said month, when, after the solemnity of the mass, the advocate-fiscal demanded, that the council should declare, that the conjunction of the two colleges of cardinals of the holy church of Rome had been, and was, lawful and canonical at the time it was formed.-Item, that it should declare, that this holy council is duly canonical, by the cardinals of both colleges assembling for so excellent a purpose. — Item, that this holy council has been called together by the cardinals of both colleges with a good intent.— Item, that it has been assembled at a convenient opportunity.-Item, that it should declare, that this holy council, as representing the universal church of God, has a right to take cognizance of the merits of the two competitors for the papacy.-Item, that a narrative should this day be read of the introduction and commencement of the schism that took place from the time of the death of pope Gregory X. until the convention of this holy general council.-In this narrative were displayed all the tricks and deceits that had been made use of, either individually or conjunctively by the two rival popes.

“ After it had been read, the advocate-fiscal drew several conclusions against the said rivals and their pretensions to the papacy, and ended his harangue by demanding that they should be deposed and punished corporally, and that the council should proceed to the election of a true and holy pope. The sittings were prolonged to Saturday the 27th day of the same month, when the ambassadors from the king of England entered the council with a most magnificent state. The bishop of Salisbury t, in the diocese of Canterbury, made a handsome speech, urging the necessity of peace and union in the church. When he had finished, the advocate-fiscal made an interesting oration, and concluded by demanding, through the procurator of the holy council, that it would please to appoint a commission of certain wise, discreet, and experienced persons to examine witnesses as to the notorious sins charged on the two competitors for the papacy, and his request was granted.

“ The second Sunday after Easter, mass was celebrated before the cardinals, and the sermon was preached by the bishop of Digne in Provence: he was of the order of Friars Minors, a learned doctor in divinity, and had ever been a great friend to Pietro della Luna, and was well acquainted with the tricks and cavils of both popes. This bishop delivered a good sermon from his text of " Mercenarius fugit,' in which he discovered many deceptions of the two rivals, in descanting on the words of his text. The sittings were continued from this Sunday to the 2d day of May, when mass was said before the cardinals; and the sermon was preached by the cardinal Prenestin, more commonly called the cardinal of Poitiers.He delivered a good discourse, and chose for his text, ' Libera Deus Israel ex omnibus tribulationibus suis.' He urged in his sermon eleven conclusive arguments against the two popes, for refusing to give peace to the church; and ended by requiring the council, in consideration of their obstinate contumacy, to proceed against them and provide a pastor for the flock of God.

“On the 2d day of May, there was a general meeting of the council, when, after the usual solemnities, a very renowned doctor of Bologna made a reply to the insidious propositions of the bishop of Verdun, on the part of the emperor Robert. He condemned, by arguments

• Sce Shepherd's Life of Poggio, p. 42.
† Robert Hallam, cardinal, and chancellor of the university of Oxford.

drawn from divine, canon, and civil law, all that had been advanced by the bishop ; and his reasoning was so just and clear that the council were much satisfied and comforted. The ensuing Sunday, mass was said before the cardinals, and the sermon was preached by the general of the order of Augustins. Ile was a great doctor in divinity, and a native of Italy. He chose for his text, ' Cum venerit ille arguet mundum de peccato, et de justitia, et de judicio. He discussed this subject very well, and with a good intent. The sittings were prolonged from this 2d of May to the 10th.—The patriarch of Alexandria celebrated mass before the cardinals on the feast of the revelation of St. Michael, the 8th of May; and he likewise preached a sermon, taking for his text. Congregata est ecclesia ex filiis Israel et omnes qui fugiebant a malis additi sunt, et facti sunt illis ad firmamentum.' These words are written in the 2d and 5th chapters of the first book of Maccabees. In the course of this sermon, he pressed six arguments against the two rival popes.

“On Friday, the 10th of May, the council, after the usual solemnities, resumed its sittings, when the advocate-fiscal made the following requisitions : that the holy council would be pleased to confirm and approve the demands he had before made, namely, that it should declare that the union of the two colleges of cardinals has been and is legal; and that the council should pronounce definitively on the other demands he had made. The procuratorfiscal made a request to the council, that eight days should be allowed for the production of witnesses; and the council was adjourned to the 16th of May. On the Sunday preceding that day, mass was said before the cardinals by the bishop of Faenza; and the sermon preached by a native of Arragon, a learned doctor in divinity, who had always been of the party of Pietro della Luna. He chose his text from one of St. Paul's epistles, 'Expurgate vetus fermentum ut sitis nova conspersio. He expatiated on this with such ability that all the doctors wondered. Drawing from it certain conclusions, he said that the two rivals were as much popes as his old shoes, calling them worse than Annas and Caiaphas, and comparing them to the devils in hell.

“ Such things passed in the council to the 23d day of this present month, as I have briefly related, on which day the ambassadors from the king of Spain were to come to Pisa. The number of prelates that were present cannot be estimated, for they were daily increased by new ones, who came from all parts of Christendom. I should suppose that at the last sitting of the council there were present of cardinals, bishops, archbishops, and abbots, wearing mitres, one hundred and forty, without counting the non-mitred members. There were also ambassadors from the kings of France, England, Jerusalem, Sicily, Cyprus, and Poland; from the dukes of Brabant, Austria, Stephen of Bavaria, William of Bavaria ; from the counts of Cleves and of Brandac * ; from the marquis of Brandenbourg and de Morainet; from the archbishops of Cologne, Mentz, and Saltzbourg, and from the bishop of Maestricht; from the grand master of the Teutonic order ; from the patriarch of Aquileia, and from many princes in Italy. Numbers of doctors in divinity, and in the canon and civil law, were present, as well from France as from other countries, and very many procurators from divers parts of the world, who, by the grace of God, have held instructive and charitable conversations together from the commencement of the council until this moment.

“ In the city of Pisa are abundance of all sorts of provisions, which are sold at reasonable prices; but they would be much cheaper, were it not for the gabelles and taxes that are levied in these countries. In my mind, Pisa is one of the handsomest cities existing ; it has a navigable river, within a league distant, running into the sea, -and which river brings large vessels, laden with different merchandise, to the town. Around the city are vineyards of white grapes and many fine meadows. We are very well lodged, considering the great number of men-at-arms quartered in it for its guard. The town has been conquered by the Florentines, who have banished many of the Pisans to prevent any treasons, and sent them to Florence, to the amount of two thousand ; and they are obliged to show themselves twice every day to the governor at an appointed place, under pain of death. Four or five thousand of the Pisans went to ask succour from king Lancelot I, who, in compliance with

* Brandac. Q. Brunswic?

I Ladislaus, or Lancelot, son of Charles of Durizzo, † Marquis of Brandenbourg and Moravia. Sce ante, and brother to Joan II. who succeeded to the crown of p. 18.

Naples on his death in 1412. He took up arms on behalf

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