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choose such representatives; and that the assembly, worship of God, at all times acknowledging with when chosen, do elect counsellors; and that such gratitude his merciful interposition in their beassembly and council exercise the powers of go- half, devouty confiding in him, as the God of arvernment, until a governor of his majesty's appointmies, by who e favor and protection alone they ment will consent to govern the colony according to its charter."
may hope for success, in their present conflict, And all judges, justices, sheriffs, grand jurors, tything-men, and all other civil officers within this colony, are hereby strictly enjoined and command.
In pursuance of which advice, the good people of this colony have chosen a full and free repre sentation of themselves, who, being convened in fed that they contribute all in their power, by their assembly, have elected a council; who, as the execu. advice, exertions and examples, towards a genetive branch of government, have constituted neces-ral reformation of manners, and that they bring to sary officers through the colony. The present condign punishment every person who shall com. generation, therefore, may be congratulated on the mit any of the crimes or misdemeanors aforesaid, acquisition of a form of government more imme- or that shall be guilty of any immoralities whatsodiately, in all its branches, under the influence ever; and that they use the utmost endeavors to and controul of the people, and therefore more have the resolves of the congress, and the good free and happy than was enjoyed by their ancestors. and wholesome laws of this colony, duly carried into But as a government so popular can be supported only by universal knowledge and virtue in the body of the people, it is the duty of all ranks to promote the means of education, for the rising generation, as well as true religion, purity of manners, and integrity of life, among all orders and degrees.
As an army has become necessary for our defence, and in all free states the civil must provide for and controul the military power, the major part of the council have appointed magistrates and courts of justice in every county, whose happiness is so connected with that of the people, that it is difficult to suppose they can abuse their trust. The business of it is to see those laws enforced which are necessary for the preservation of peace, virtue and good order. And the great and general court expects and requires that all necessary support and assistance be given, and all proper oberience yielded to them; and will deem every person, who shall fail of his duty in this respect towards them, a disturber of the peace of this colony, and deserving of exemplary punishment.
And as the ministers of the gospel, within this colony, have, during the late relaxation of the powers of civil government, exerted themselves for our safety, it is hereby recommended to them, still to continue their virtuous labors for the good of the people, inculcating by their public ministry, and private example, the necessity of religion, morality, and good order.
In COUNCIL, January 19, 1776. Ordered, That the foregoing proclamation be read at the opening of every superior court of judicature, &c. and inferior court of common pleas, and court of general sessions for the peace within this colony, by their respective clerk; and at the annual town meetings in March, in each town.And it is hereby recommended to the several ministers of the gospel, throughout this colony, to read the same in their respective assemblies on the lord's day next after their receiving it, immediately after divine service.
Sent down for concurrence.
PEREZ MORTON, deputy sec.
That piety and virtue, which alone can secure the freedom of any people, may be encouraged, In the house of representatives, Junuary 23, 1776 and vice and immorality suppressed, the great-Read and concurred.
and general court have thought fit to issue this WILLIAM COOPER, speaker, pro tem. consented to.
William Sever, Walter Spooner, Caleb Cush-
By order of the general court,
PEREZ MORTON, deputy set. GOD SAVE THE PEOPLE.
To the Earl of Dartmouth.
&c. and Maryland, all which, except New-York, are almost unanimous in the voice of liberty.
a master can lay no grater burden on a slave than to bind him in all cases whatsoever.-Taese things the united colonies have imbibed, and before this
"My lord-If constitutional allegiance to my Indeed none (save a few officers under the crown) king, a warm attachment to my country, and the are willing to be bound by the British parliament, most sanguine emotions for peace and permanent in all cases whatsoever. The Americans declare, union between the parent state and her colonies, will sufficiently expiate for epistolary freedom, permit a minister of the king of kings to address a minister of the king of Great Britain, France, can reach your lordship, Canada will, in all human Ireland, and North America: for it is the language probability, be added to the thirteen. for St. John's of my soul, that the precious American jewel may and Montreal have, upon capitulation, surrendered, speedily and immoveably be set in the most and the rest of the province, in every other reeffulgent diadem. spect, bids fair for a general surrender, or subjecYour lordship sustains a twofold character: a tion to the American side. In New-York city and soldier of the lord of lords, and secretary of state province, although there are, I verily believe, more for the northern department, under our rightful friends to government (as they call themselves) sovereign. High and honorable offices indeed! but than all the rest of the colonies together can proevery soldier is not an intrepid warrior, or as a duce, yet in the city and province there is, on the noble lord once expressed it, "There are many other side of the question, a majority large enough professors, but few possessors;" nor is every ser to subdue them at any time: for instance, a few vant of the crown infallible: in both these, every weeks ago some of these friends appeared in the man at best is but a fallible being. This doctrine province in opposition to the American voice; your lordship once loved, being then a real follower whereon a small party went out immediately, who subdued and disarmed them. These freinds, my of the Lamb: for I well remember several opportunities, and the happy and precious moments of each, when we lord, are not worthy of the appellation; they are bowed together at the sacred altar;† at which, when only sycophants; they flatter with their lips and I beheld the right honorable communicant, with his pens, and deceive (I fear) your lordship and others livery servants on his right hand and left, my soul in administration, from packet to packet. They was raised almost to the third Heaven, and my have repeatedly insinuated, that the New England spirits filled with evangelical love! For not many governments have nothing else in view but indemighty, not many noble, are truly Godly. As your pendence. It is totally repugnant to truth. Belordship's condescension was so laudable, honor-fore the sword was drawn, there could not possibly able, and scriptural, as to appear a professor of be greater loyalists. In the year 1769, I arrived Christianity, a witness for God, and the truly hum- first in America; and they daily manifested what ble soul, I trust, and firmly believe, that "the most loving subjects they were: and the dissenting fine gold is not yet become dim." To whom then clergy also, in every opportunity, were particularly shall I write, or speak in behalf of the miserable anxious to invoke the Great Jehovah in behalf of convulsed empire; for your lordship hath (Itrust) their dread sovereign, of whom they spake in terms eternal life at heart, and everlasting felicity, by the most pathetic; also for all his governors and faith, in full view. officers, as well as for others, that peace and hap piness, truth and justice, religion and piety, might still be and flourish under his sceptre. Add to this, I justly may, the several conversations I have
The parliament of Great Britain say, they have a right to tax or bind the Americans in all cases whatsoever, to which they answer, "As they were had with, and the private prayers I have heard by born free, free they will be, or die," and upon many those gentlemen concerning his majesty, his crown of their hats there is this motto, "freedom or death." and dignity; with all which every loyalist could Upon others, "Gød and our rights.”
Since the battle of Lexington, I have been twice in eight of the thirteen united colonies, namely, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, New Castle,
*Born in the city of Oxford. Of the Lock Chapel.
but be perfectly well pleased. To these facis, my lord, I have not only been an eye witness in one colony, but in many, nay even in MassachusettsBay, and her capitol.
Although New Castle, &c. belong to Pennsylvania, yet as they in assembly are distinctly repre sented, and also in the congress, those counties herefore are viewed as, and called one of the unitied colonies.
Now, my lord, for Christ's sake, attend faith- enstrusted them, claim now the following preroga. fully. tives over the united colonies. The continental About two months ago I viewed the camps, congress is over all, under the king; the provincials Roxbury and Cambridge. The lines of both are over the committees, and the committees over the impregnable; with forts (many of which are bomb counties. The congresses and committees have so proof) and redoubts, supposing them to be all in a raised and regulated the militia and minutemen, direction, are about 20 miles; the breastworks of whom they have raised almost in every county, a proper height, and in many places 17 feet in that they mal in every city and town, the most thickness, the trenches wide and deep in proporwarlike appearance. Salt-petre is made in abun tion, before which lay forked impediments, and dance, and powder-mills constantly employed in many of the forts, in every respect, are perfectly many provinces; and many believe that there is now ready for battle, the whole, in a word, an admira. in the possession of the Americans, powder enough tion to every spectator: for verily their fortifica- for three years. This to me is very obvious. Soon tions appear to be the works of seven years, instead after general Gage collected the troops from the of about as many months. At these camps are several provinces into one body at Boston, the conabout 20,000 men, well disciplined. The gene-gresses ordered all the shop-keepers not to sell rals and other officers, in all their military under. their powder to fowlers and hunters, but to keep takings, solid, discreet, and courageous, the men the same for the use of the colonies, which in ge daily raving for action, and seemingly void of fear.neral was faithfully observed. Before this, a perThere are many floating batteries, and also batteaus son might get a large quantity of powder almost in abundance; besides this strength, 10,000 militia at every large store, or merchant's shop, in every are ordered in that government to appear on the city, town, and county on the continent. Now, first summons. Provisions and money there are all this collected together, and what the mills have very plenty, and the soldiers faithfully paid. The made, together with the great quantities taken at army in great order, and very healthy, and about St. John's, Montreal, other forts, and on the seas, six weeks ago lodged in comfortable barracks.-must make an immense quantity: add to this, the Chaplains constantly attend the camps, morning constant employment of the mills, and a great num. and night. Prayers are often offered up for peace ber of privateers faithfully looking out for yours. and reconciliation, and the soldiers very attentive. And, my lord, how is it possible for all store ships The roads, at the time I viewed the camps, were to escape a fleet so large, which, at this time, I almost lined with spectators, and thousands with firmly believe, is composed of 50 sail, and by next me can declare the above, respecting the camps, to spring I shall not marvel if their fleet be doubled. be a just description; but, my lord, I have more facts to mention.
Iron guns of the best quality have been made in America, and as they have plenty of iron and lead Continental and provincial currencies, to facilitate mines, they can make what quantity of cannon, this great undertaking, are emitted, which cir-shot, and bullets they please; but administration culate freely, and are daily exchanged for silver have lately supplied them with a very valuable and gold. Their harbors, by spring, will swarm assortment of such stores. Rifles, infinitely better with privateers: an admiral is appointed, a court than those imported, are daily made in many places established, and on the 3d instant the continental flag, in Pennsylvania, and all the gun-smiths every where on board the Black Prince, opposite Philadelphia, was constantly employed. In this country, my lord, hoisted. Many of the captains of those vessels, in the boys, as soon as they can discharge a gun, frethe last war, proved their intrepidity to the world quently exercise themselves therewith, some a by their prizes, and some of them have already fowling, and others a hunting. The great quantities taken many valuable prizes which government had of game, the many kinds and the great privileges ordered to Boston, and thereby must have much of killing, make the Americans the best marksinen distressed the troops: all which the prints will in the world, and thousands support their families particularize. principally by the same, particularly riflemen on the frontiers, whose objects are deer and turkeys. In marching through woods, one thousand of these riflemen would cut to pieces ten thousand of your
The appointment of the continental and provincial congresses and committees, your lordship, without doubt, before now, must be fully acquaintedwith. These sets of gentlemen, by virtue of the great privileges with which the colonies have continental captains.
*Store vessels bound to Boston, taken by the
best troops. I don't, my lord, speak at random, or and convicts in Virginia, provided they repair to write partially; I have travelled too much among the royal standard in due time, have exasperated these men to be insensible of their abilities.-Oh, the Americans beyond description, and made the my lord! if your lordship knew but one half what breach infinitely wider.-A few days ago his lordI know of America, your lordship would not persist, ship's party was repulsed with great loss. His lordbut be instantly for peace, or resign. But, my lord, ship, my lord, can do nothing but cause the men and construe this epistle as you please, nevertheless, treasure now under his command to be sacrificed my meaning is, that it should not in the least and expended in vain; for he is surrounded by convey, or even hint, any thing about the legality hundreds of the best riflemen, who have driven or illegality of the unhappy dispute. Many great his troops out of their intrenchments, &c. Most, if and celebrated writers have moved every nerve, not all, by this time, of his majesty's governors are but hitherto in vain. What then can I do, who afloat, and rendered incapable of fulfilling your am but a babe? Not much truly; but when a house lordships commands." is in flames, all run, without distinction, some with buckets, some with grapplings, and others with engines, wishing they providentially may extinguish the fire. Now, my lord, the British empire is really in flames! I cannot therefore be inactive. Suffer then the insignificant with the most siguificant, to help forward with something. I present therefore for your lordship's acceptance, an engine of facts; Now, right honorable sir, what will you do?~ the carved works are but homely, but the essential Where will your lordship look? Where can adparts are sound, and substantial: try them lawfully ministration fix their ideas with the least view of and faithfully, and I (by God's permission) will success? Say, my lord, that their troops are good; pledge my life they will stand the test; facts are the Americans have again and again repulsed them; at all times proof against the most inveterate foes. not one plan of administration hath had the wished By way of appurtenances, I must add-up the for success; in general they have turned out abor. north river, in the province of New-York, there is tive?-Say further, that 20 or 30,000, nay double erected an impregnable fort, against which vessels the numbers, shall be sent to subdue the Americannot possibly many minutes survive. In the New cans-20,000 (descending to the camp phrase) may England governments, batteries are already made nearly serve for a breakfast, or rather do for a before most of their sea-ports. The minutemen, relish, and so, from time to time, British troops may beforementioned, like firemen, have all things pro- be transported for the American sacrifice. But adper and ready to attend on the first alarm. The ministration can destroy all their sea-ports: I reply, American coast, long as it is, both by land and sea, a few months ago they might have wrought such is faithfully watched, and posts are every where devastation, but now they will find it impracticable. established. Whether, therefore, administration Some harbors are biocked up, batteries before have in view the east or west of the continent, it others erected, as abovementioned, and when the matters not; set but a foot ashore to execute their ice impediments are dissolved in their harbors, no plan, and the same will instantly find enemies; nay, marvel, my lord, if some of the British armament, let thousands be landed, and they will immediately as well as transports or store-ships, be taken: about
an hundred privateers, with the most intrepid marines, and those persons who, last natural war, immortalized their names, again chosen for captains, are (couching their schemes) no contemptible enemy by sea. Convinced I am fully, that an hundred
find swarms of foes; for the electrical posts riding day and night will soon make them sensible there. of. My lord, administration have not one friend they can call their's, in every respect, that is a resident among the Americans; they have several, it is true, who, for sordid gain, act under the rose; thousand of the best troops Europe can raise will but woe to them if they should be discovered.-not subdue the Americans, nor make them acMay examples have been already made, and this quiesce in the parliamentary claims--Let governmay be relied on, that in a few months (as ways ment say what they please in favor of their forces and means are now under consideration) administra.-remember, my lor, the Americans have just tion will in every respect in America be friendless. such blood, the like courage, the same spirits, and The destroying of Falmouth, and lord Dunmore's *Each riding at anchor before his government, proclamation, proclaiming a jubilee to the slaves lor as near as convenience will admit.
The most celebrated military authors are reprinted for the use of the young officers, that they may be furnished with every pre-requisite against spring. The ship-carpenters are very busy in getting the rest of the privateers ready, and also other hands to equip them wholly for sailing.
are equal in color and stature, and as well dis- that Joseph would take Benjamin in his arms and cipline. Some of their fathers, grand-fathers, and embrace him, for they are brothers! If Benjamin great-grand-fathers, are to British dust returned, have err'd, let the age and wisdom of Joseph over and in silent repose, while their sons and grand look and obliterate all: let him no longer refrain, sons are struggling for their birth-rights: for they but fail on his neck and kiss him, and let love and As Joseph embraced and traditionally or constitutionally retain the idea of virtue re-unite them. liberty, and with him of old say, "God forbid that owned Benjamin as his brother, and returned his we should sell the inheritance of our fathers!"- money, so let the parent state embrace and own Whether this be believed or not, I don't know; the colonies without fee or reward, and instantly but one thing I know, albeit the king requestetb, the sword on both sides will be sheathed; and then Levertheless, like Naboth, they will resist even Benjamin, as usual, will go and carry corn and unto death.-Blessed be God, we have no Jezebel money to Joseph, and take his superb clothing in to stir up his majesty, for his consort is the best exchange. But if Joseph will yet refrain and not of queens, and as such the Americans extol her be reconciled, Benjamin is determined to clothe majesty daily. Perhaps, my lord, this may be himself with his own wool, and keep his money and viewed as partiality; but I can assure your lord-send his corn to other merchantmen. Let facts, ship, I write from conviction, and not from a my lord, apologize for prolixity; I will conclude partial spirit. If I am charged any where herein now with a few lines. with partiality, as it is most natural and also very fashionable now to act the sycophant where one's interest is, I certainly flatter your lordship (as I fear too many have), for I have no interest nor kindred here, nor hopes of interest for, or reward for any thing of this nature that I have done or can do. But I have immense hopes and views. My time here is very short, and ere long I shall be in a world of spirits, where the most noble, the right bonorable and reverend persons must all appear; "I know not therefore how to give flattering titles unto man: for in so doing my Maker would soon take me away."
The Americans may be led with a hair; but they have too much English blood in them, are too well disciplined, and too numerous to be driven, even by an hundred thousand of the best forces government can raise. Where government can produce one thousand on the continent, America, with as much ease and expense, can produce ten thousand in opposition: for men, women and children are against the proceedings of administration throughout the united colonies to a wounderful majority. The women, both old and young, being greatly irritated at the inflexibility of administration, are not only willing their sons and brothers should turn out in the field, but also declare that they will give them up and theirselves likewise as a sacrifice before they will bow to Pharaoh's task-masters; this makes the raising of troops on the continent very easy. Let a person go into any province, city, town, or county, and ask the females, "Are you willing your sons or brothers should go for soldiers and defend their liberties?" they would severally
answer, “Yes, with all my soul, and if they won't go
I won't own them as my sons, or brothers; for I'll help myself if there should be any need of mine; if I can't stand in the ranks, I can help forward with powder, balls, and provisions," and presently this will appear more pellucid. Last suminer I saw in Philadelphia a company of school-boys, called the Academy company, in their uniforms, with real arms and colors. Upon this, I asked how many such companies were in the city, an for what they were designed; to which I was answered by a gentlewoman, the mother of two of this company, "there are three companies, and as to the design, they are to learn the art or theory of war; and if there should be any occasion for
If, figuratively, two persons may represent both parties in dispute, there is a striking similarity in sacred writ, with which your lordship is perfectly acquainted, and by which I beg permission to mention the following things.
I view both sides, as to their precious blood, as good old Jacob viewed his sons, Joseph and Benjamin, and am equally with him unwilling that either should be slain. If the British troops must be represented by the elder brother, grieved to my very heart I must be to hear that he is sacrificed; and if the American forces may be compared to the younger, I shall equally lament his death.-May God, of his infinite mercy, save both by a speedy accommodation. Benjamin hath repeatedly petition ed Joseph for redress of grievances; but Joseph would not receive his petitions, but made himself strange, and spake roughly unto him, charging him with having and holding unjustly Pharaoh's cup, of which the poor lad is perfectly innocent.-Oh!
Not rendering unto Cæsar the things which be