accordance with the Word itself, and the year that had passed away had been consequently their power, beyond all one of progress and development, and those of other sects, to regenerate man- was calculated to encourage and stirnu. kind. The meeting was a very happy late the efforts of the members and and profitable one, and the choir ably friends interested in the cause. The contributed to make it so by the per- Church itself, he said, did not progress formance of selections of sacred music. so fast as he could wish, but that he We may add that at a previous gather- supposed was a work of time and of edu. ing of the singers and friends, their cation. The debt upon the building had leader, Mr. Lenton, was presented with a been reduced from £953 in December photographic group of the members of 1874, to £300 in December 1875, mainly the choir as a mark of their esteem, Mr. through the pleasing results of the Harrison kindly singing a few of his bazaar at Easter, which had proved a choicest pieces. The great drawback brilliant success. In speaking of the with the Society at present seems to be day schools he thought he might disthe very inconvenient situation of their miss that part of his address by stating place of worship, but all the members that he was perfectly content to let seem so united, and the confidence be- facts speak for themselves. Since tween them and their esteemed pastor is Christmas nearly 100 new scholars had so great, that we may well look forward been admitted into the school, making to improvement in this as in other a total upon the books at the present respects.

time of over 800 children. This bore

substantial testimony to the high WIGAN. - On Tuesday evening, position of the school as an educational January 11th, the teachers and scholar's institution, and was proof of the soundof the day schools assembled together ness of their teaching. He afterwards for the purpose of presenting to their spoke of the Sunday school, and conhead master and mistress, on the cĪuded by distributing prizes of books occasion of their marriage, a splendid to a number of Sunday school scholars timepiece as a token of their respect who had merited them by regular and of the high estimation in which attendance and good conduct during they were held. Mr. G. Meek, Wigan, the past year. A musical entertainpresided, and after a few prelimi- ment was then very efficiently gone nary remarks, called upon two of through by the Church choir, assisted the scholars, who, on behalf of the by Miss Rogers, and Messrs. W. Davies teachers and scholars, presented Mr. and J. Cotterill, Mr. William Mason and Mrs. Johnson with the timepiece, presiding at the pianoforte. During which bore the following inscription : the evening Mr. Elijah Walmsley, in a “Presented to Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, brief but earnest address, presented to on the occasion of their marriage, by Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, on behalf of the the teachers and scholars of the New members and friends of the Church, a Jerusalem British Schools, Wigan. very beautiful Davenport writing table, January 11th, 1876.” Mr. Johnson in walnut, on the occasion of their very suitably acknowledged the gift on marriage. Mr. Richard Middlehurst behalf of himself and Mrs. Johnson. also presented to Mrs. Johnson on beThe children rendered several songs half of the scholars in her Sunday school during the evening, and a vote of class an ornamental tea chest.—Mr. thanks to the chairman terminated the Johnson returned thanks, and expressed proceedings.

the gratitude of himself and his wife for On Monday evening, February 7th, the very beautiful tokens of their esteem the annual congregational tea party and good-will.- The Rev. P. Ramage, was held, when about 120 persons met of Kersley, also delivered a very able together to enjoy the social beverage. and interesting address, and a very After tea the chair was taken by Mr. pleasant evening was brought to a close John Johnson, who, in the name of the shortly after half-past ten.-On Tuescommittee of the church, welcomed day evening the Sunday school scholars every one to the annual gathering. He and their friends had their annual party. then proceeded at length to review the The customary enjoyments were gone position of the various branches of the through, and a very agreeable evening Church, and said that taken altogether was spent.


Two days before her decease she joined On Christmas-day, 1875, at 6 Apsley when she said, “What could I have

her family in receiving the Holy Supper, Crescent, Bradford, Yorkshire, Mrs Richard Reaney of a daughter (Ruby

done now without the light of the New

Church !" Her end was eminently Hilda Frances).

On January 9, at 79 Lisson Grove, the peaceful. The many promises made in wife of Edwin Parr of a son.

the Word to the truly regenerate Chris. On the 4th February 1876, at 6 Tor- tian were to her fresh and precious

. riano Avenue, London, the wife of Mr Thus she died as she had lived, rejoicRobert Jobson of a daughter.

ing in having conjunction with the Lord, On the 7th February 1876, at 4 Law- and association with angelic and heaven ford Road, Kentish Town Road, N.W., ly influences. On Sunday evening, Feb. the wife of Mr Joseph Gallico of a son.

13, her removal was improved by a funeral discourse delivered by Rev. W.

Ray, from John xi. 26, to a deeply Obituary.


attentive congregation. At Bury, on the 18th of January, At Heywood, on the 5th of February, Mrs. Dinah Tomlinson, aged 60 years. Mrs. Sarah Dawson, aged 33 The At various periods of her life she at- deceased was for some time the teacher tended regularly New Church worship of the Girl's School at Heywood, and in Blackburn, Accrington, Heywood, was esteemed for the upright discharge Bury, and Bacup. She was a pattern of the duties of this important office. of meekness, gentleness, patience, and Her marriage separated her from the love. Those who knew her can have no school, and she bas with constant affecdoubt that she has gone to “the rest tion discharged her duties as wife and that remaineth.”

mother. Her departure was by consumpDeparted this life at her residence, tion, which confined her to her room Newcastle-on-Tyne, on Feb. 1, Mrs and to bed only a few weeks. A few Hannah Lynn, aged 76. Our departed days before her removal she said to a friend became sincerely devoted to the friend with whom she was conversing, Christian life in her early days, and “I am astonished at the calm with sought earnestly to carry out and adorn which I look at my departure. I seem the same in all the relative duties she to have no choice between going and was called to fulfil. For nearly 50 years staying. When I think of my children she was a distinguished member of the I sometimes fear it is wrong to be thus Wesleyan Methodist Society, and for a calm.” The experience of our departed long time a class leader. About 15 sister is that of many others of the chil. years since she was led by reading the dren of God, and will doubtless continue tract, “The True Object of Christian to be so. Her friend could only repeat Worship,” to attend the services of the to her the consolatory assurance of our New Jerusalem Church in Percy Street Heavenly Father, “Leave thy motherin this town, and to read and receive the less children to me, I will preserve them Heavenly Doctrines. She rejoiced in alive.” Her departure is a bereavement the light of the new and beautiful truths to her husband, and leaves a blank in she had thus found, and to the end proved her family, but will doubtless be a gain a zealous and consistent member of the to herself. Her love of others and her New Church. At her request she was quiet and unobtrusive attention to the baptized into the faith and life of the duties she was called to fulfil, afford New Dispensation on Whitsunday 1864, abundant assurance that she will find a by the Rev. W. Ray. Being a constant place of useful and happy existence in reader of New Church theology she sur- her Heavenly Father's Kingdom. passed many in intelligent perception, to which she carefully united love and ERRATUM.-In last No., page 57, line practice. As the earthly house of her 4 from the bottom, for compassion read tabernacle declined, her comfort and composition. support in the Divine presence increased.

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“Another parable spake He unto them ; The kingdom of heaven is like unto

leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.”—Matt. xiii. 33.


LEAVEN is putrid dough left over from a former baking. Its use is to set the


of fermentation in fresh dough, and for this purpose its use is very ancient. The process of fermentation consists in a separation or breaking up of the substances acted upon, whereby the impure portions of the food are purged away. This effect is seen to the best advantage in the making of wine and other spirituous liquors. By means of fermentation a thick, muddy liquid is converted into a clear and sparkling one, all the dregs being thrown down during the process. Scientific men are not able to tell us how these effects are produced by means of the introduction of leaven. All that we know is that a very small portion of this substance is capable of causing a very active commotion, and that the result is the decomposition of some of the original substances in the meal or liquor, the formation of new ones of two kinds, and the separation or elimination of the bad from the good. In the case of ne, it is the sugar which is acted upon by the process of fermentation. For the sugar thus passes through


wonderful changes, being itself converted into alcohol and carbonic acid, and having all its impurities discharged. In the case of dough, it is also the sugar of the meal that is acted upon, which is also converted into alcohol and carbonic acid. But the alcohol is dissipated by the heat of the oven, and the carbonic acid gas remains spread through the substance of the dough in the form of bubbles. Thus the results of fermentation in the case of wine and of bread are opposite. In wine the pure spirit is retained, and the poisonous carbonic acid is thrown off. But in bread the poisonous gas is retained, and the pure spirit is dissipated.

Hence we can see why it was that the sons of Israel were so strictly forbidden to use leavened bread in their acts of worship. Concerning this prohibition we thus read respecting the passover in Exodus

Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses : for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. Ye shall eat nothing leavened ;” (it is repeated) “ in all your habitations ye shall eat unleavened bread” (xii. 19, 20). Again, in Leviticus—“No meat-offering which ye shall bring unto Jehovah shall be made with leaven” (ii. 11). And the same in many other places.

The leavened bread which the Israelites were thus forbidden to use was not, however, the same as the bread we use. Our bread is not, strictly speaking, leavened bread. It is fermented, but the fermentation is not produced by a piece of old putrid dough, nor by any putrid substance whatever. Yeast is a fermenting, but not a rotting, substance.

Leaven corresponds to the falsity of evil. Hence the Lord told His disciples to “ take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.” And it is afterwards said, that “then understood they how that He bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.” (Matt. xvi. 6, 12). Now the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees was the falsity of evil. Falsity is the product of spiritual rottenness. Flour and dough correspond to truth, because bread is made out of them. Good is produced from truth in a corresponding way, namely, by the application to truth of the fire of love. But when love is not applied to truth, then truth becomes like old dough, which goes bad, and is converted into poison and putridity. Hence it is that leaven, which is old putrid dough, corresponds to what is opposite to sound meal. It

corresponds not to the truth which leads to good, but to the falsity which is bred from evil.

For this reason the Apostle also made use of leaven as a representative to describe the destructive effect of the introduction into the church of a little evil and falsity. "Your glorying is not good," said he to the backsliding Corinthians ;“know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened” (1 Cor. v. 6, 7). And he said the same thing to the Galatians, who, although converted to the new church of that day, were still hankering after the old leaven of circumcision and the deeds of the Jewish law. “ Stand fast, therefore,” exclaimed he to these half-and-half Christians ; “stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage. Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. . . . Whosoever of you are justified by the law, Christ is become of no effect to you.

A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump" (Gal. v. 1-9). Such being the infernal character of that which is represented by leaven, how is it that, in the text, the kingdom of heaven seems to be compared to it? We have seen that both the Lord and the Apostle selected this putrifying substance to represent the most hateful things. "The leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy” (Luke xii. 1). “The leaven of Herod” (Mark viii. 15). “The old leaven, the leaven of malice and wickedness” (1 Cor. v. 8). How can a substance in itself so revolting, and in every case where it is mentioned by the Lord and His Apostle so strongly associated with hell, be apparently used as a comparison for the kingdom of heaven? The answer to this question involves us in the consideration of one of the most interesting and beautiful operations of the Divine Providence.

But let us consider the process described in the text. In the first place it is to be noticed that it is not the process of making bread. The woman was not making bread, she was hiding the leaven


her flour. She did not expect to find all her flour leavened, because that would have betrayed the presence of the leaven, which it was her object to conceal. But, before she was aware, the subtle process had completed itself, and all her flour was leavened. In that state it would not be fit to eat, but it would form a powerful representative which the Lord could make use of to describe the production of His kingdom.

We have already seen that meal or flour corresponds to the truth which leads to good. Three” denotes what is complete.

66 Three

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