« 前へ次へ »
whilst even the lower ranks in the country tries so different in climate and temperature. were proud to have it twining round the There is no doubt, however, that it has been humble porch, or embowering the casements long naturalized in Switzerland, as it now of their low.roofed cottages. That it must grows wild among the rocks, particularly in have been introduced, and in general cultiva. the neighbourhood of Chiavenna, and the tion, long before Gerarde's time, however, is warm vales bordering upon the fertile plains evident, from his stating, that “ Master Lyle of Lombardy. The name is certainly Arabian ; would bave it to grow wild among us, wbich yet Dioscorides cousiders it derived from the however it did noi," he says, as far as he Greek, ion signifying viola, and isasme, odor, or could understand.
smell, and when thus compounded marking From its being found in many hot climates, the fine odour of its flowers. it has been supposed a uative of the torrid In botanical arrangement it is of the class zone, or tbe countries bordering on it; if so, DI ANDRIA MONOGYNIA, and of the order its early introduction bere is proved by the Sepiariæ. The calyx has the periantb one botanical fact of its being now so wellinured to leafed, tubulated, oblong; the mouth five our climate as to flower, and tbrive extremely toothed, upright, permanent. The corolla is well, and to bear the most inclement winters, one petalled, salver shaped, tubi.cylindric, though it has never yet been known to prolong; whilst the border is five parted and duce its fruit or berry with us.
Aat. The stamen has two short filaments, It is something extraordinary that a shrub, the anthers are small, and lie within the tube o elegant in its form, so fragrant in its of the corolla. The pistil has a roundish odour, and so susceptible of poeticalembellish. germ, and a styliform style, which is the ment and of moral allegory, and at the same length of the stamen. The stigma is bifid ; time so well known in the reign of Elizabeth, the pericarp, in those countries where the should have escaped the notice of the Avonian fruit comes to perfection, has an oval berry, poet; yet it seems totally to bave been over. with two cells or capsules, and sinooth on the looked by kim, although it would have afforded outside. The seeds are always two; these are so many elegant similies and sewiimental refer
ovate oblong, and are flat on one side and ences. Though no natural historian bas given
convex on the other. us any absolute facts as to its date of in
It has been stated as a general observation, troduction, yet Parkinson, who wrote soon
that the shape varies as to acuteness or obtuseafter Gerarde, is of opioion that it was first
ness in the different specimens; and that the brought from Syria to Spain, and from Spain | berry is in some simple, in others dicoccous. 10 England; if so, we shall perhaps not err
The essential character can only be noticed in much in fixing it about the later end of the
this country with respect to the flower, which fourteenth century, when the Black Prince
has the corolla salver shaped; the other dismarched with his army into Spain from Gas
tinctive marks are on the fruit. cony, aud when the marriage of two of Ed.
There are no less than seventeen different ward's sons with the daughters of Spain pro- l species of this shrub; the principal of which duced a frequent intercourse between the two
are the Arabian, Cape, Azorian, Auriculate, countries; though it is not impossible that it
Italian yellow, yellow Indian, Spanish or Catamay have been ipiroduced as far back as the time lonian, and our common white jeseamine, &c. of the crusades, by our own steel-clad koights The Arabian is a most beautiful variety, who, on their return from Palestine, mgh and has flowers more odoriferous than any have been anxious to decorate the bowers other. It is a native of the East in general, of tbeir strait-laced dames with so sweet a and is now frequent in the West Indies. In floweret.
th East In ies it is used as a personal perIt is a curious fact that the great Linnæus | fume, the females of all raoks stringing its should bave fallen into the error of supposing | sweetly-smelling Avwers for vecklaces. With that ludia and Switzerland were the native us it tas been cultivated since the close of habitats of this elegant shrub, two coun the seventeenth century, or perhaps the middle
of it, having been reared with sedulous at. || bardy plant, merely requiring shelter from tention in the Royal Garden at Hamptov || very severe frosts, though in general when Court; but being lost by some accident, in trained to a south wall, a mat and some hot the reign of William, the only specimen in compost laid to the stem is sufficient. It is Europe was then in the garden of th- Grand a beautiful shrub for cultivation, as its leaves Duke of Tuscany, who was so selfish for many are of a lucid green, and remain all the year; years as to refuse permission for either layers | but its branches are very slender, and always or cuttings to be taken from it. This paltry require training, as they of en run to a length conduct was, however, soon punished by our of twenty feet. If judiciouly treated, it flowers botanical Millar, procuring a plant from lodia, from May to November; the corolla is of a and who, with a liberality beyoud that of a clear while, and the flowers terminate in loose Grand Duke, gave every facility of spreading bunches at the end of the branches. it through the kingdom, so ihat there are now The common yellow jessamine was some many specimens of it in England, with both years ago much cultivated; but the powers double avd single flowers. Of late years also have no scent; it bas notbing particular to it sprtads much in Italy, and it was a species recommend it, and its suckers are so numerous of traffic for the poor travelling Italians to and fruitful, that if once introduced into a garbring specimens for sale, but these being ge den, it is extremely difficult to eradicate, or nerally grafted upon the common stocks were even to keep within due bounds. worth but little. The method used bere by The Spanish, or Cataloniau jessamine, was our florists is always by layers or cuttings; certainly brought from Spain to this country; the first method is the best, as the branch, and as it bears a very great resemblance to our when prepared, is easily bent, and must be in common white jessamine, that similitude may serted into a soft rich earth in a hot-bed o have giveu rise the opinion that we had no tan. The layers formed in spring will al. jessamine until introduced from Spain ; howways be ready for transplantation in autumo, ever, we cannot help incliniug to the opinion when they should be moved to the bark stove, that we are judebted for it to our crusades, parthough a moderate degree of heat is sufficient ticularly as its five cleft corolla may have been afterwards.
considered by these warlike enthusiasts as The Azorian jessamine has a native babitat being symbolical of tbe five wounds of our which comes nearer to the temperature of our
blessed Redeemer. climate, and is therefore with us a pretty
Illustrations of the Graphic Art ;
EXEMPLIFIED BY SKETCHES FROM THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AT PARIS.
(The first Priut in this Month's Number ought to have been inserted in No. XXVIII. and the Print in that Number
of a CHEVALIER ON HORSEBACK, refers to the first Criticism of the present Month.)
FRANCOIS DE MONCADE. letters; he is kuown in the history of his time,
This sketch is nothing more than a study both by his actions and his writings. His of a portrait on horseback. Francois de Mon physioguomy is indicative of the excellence of cade was not only a soldier, but also a man of both, and possesses all the wisdon of gravity.
He is on horseback like a soldier upon his A LADY WITH HER DAUGHTER. march, and he is thus sketched in an easy The portrait of the Lady, in this piece, is Blyle, without stiffness or study, and without the handsomest; the head is done in such a any forcible tuin of expression. The head is way as not to mark any particular labour; tranquil, but the features, thougb common, there is scarcely any shade, so ibat the demibave an air of uobility. More a plain soldier tints give all the vecessary effect, and that than a hero, he seems merely a ve eran grown effect is complete. The character of goutleold in arms; and all the costume is of a co. ness and of amenity, is well preserved ; it is no temporary date, according to the judicious longer the fresliness of early youth, it is not custom of the great portrait painters. The even beauty, but it is that of a young mother iron of his armour is must correctly coloured. who arrived at thirty years of age,
afier passing Aa anecdote has been mentioned respecting through all the peaceful details and daily cares this portrait. It is said tbat Van Dyk, dis of an easy establishment, has acquired an satistied with his work, was complaining to a babjtual and becoming senile. The right hand friend of his ill success; the friend did not is a little defective in design; and the dress is answer him, but merely took away the armour that of the fashion of the times, even to the which Van Dyk had before him as a model. || details of embroidery and jet bullone, nothing The painter i ben proceeded in his work, and is omitied. The air of this female (like that having only bis owo imagination to direct him, ll of her husband, which will be noticed in anhe soon became content with it.--Painting is other place) is simple; in short, they seem nothing but an art, and art is nothing but made, the one for tbe other, and may be called imagination, says the French critic; and thus
a well assorted couple. la composition from the palm of success is nearest to the aim when tbis piciure, the draughtsman ought to observe the point aimed al is farthest out of reach.
the crimson aria chair which unites its dark The foreshortening of the horse is a fine tints with the yellow ochre of the back ground, specimen of skill in drawing; the head is very
without which gradation the transitions of beautiful, the hind paris less so; but there colour would he two strongly contrasted. The lay all the difficulty. The sky, as well as the little girl is not so well modelled as the child ground, are a little too dark, but that is ac- in the other picture which we shall have oc. cording to the Flemish principle of sacrificingcasion to criticise, but her physiognomy is the distances to effect. The ngure is not sufi- l fine, the eyes frolicksome, and the tist exciently lighi, like a figure exposed to open | quisite, although there is rather too much daylight; it looks rather like a cavalier in a light on the right cheek which ibus is brought riding-bouse. The scenery too is less firm, too far forward. The peculiar tint chosen for less historical ihan that of the picture of the child, bowever, has induced the artist to Charles I. engraved by Raphael Morghen; a sacrifice all the effect of the clothes; the satins work of beautiful execution, but in wbich firm are dirty, the linen soiled. All this is a reness aud execution are too much sacrificed to source, a means, perhaps an excuse; bot the graces. The bust of Moncade has also 1) ought never to be a motive, been engraved iu balf-length by Sweiderbæk, and reduced by Dejode, probably to put at the head of his works.