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D UBLIN, called by the Saxons been very liable to domestic troubles.

Duflin, by the Welch Dulin, and rebellions, as well as foreign ille and by the Irish Balacleigh, a town vasions, the earl of Wharton, when upon Hurdles, the ground on which lord-lieutenant, obtained thirty-one it stands being soft and quaggy. thousand pounds fterling of queen

It is the capital of Ireland, and Anne, to be applied for building and doubtless very antient, being men-' furnishing an arsenal near this city, rioned by Prolemy ; but we meet with a fufficient quantity of arms with no certain history of it till the and military stores, to be in readiDanih wars, when Saxo Grammati- nefs for opposing all future attempts cus says, it was sadly shattered ; and to disturb the tranquility of that afterwards became subject to Edgar island. king of England. The Norwegians An antient writer, Juscelinus de next got poffeffion of it; and Harold Farnesio, in the life of St. Patrick, so greatly augmented and embellish- tells us, that this city was then noed, after subduing the greater part bly peopled, very pleasantly situated of Ireland, that he is said to have among sweet plains, woods of oak, built Dublin. On the first arrival and fine parks, famous for trade, and of the English in Ireland, they soon well supplied with fish from the river took this city, and gallantly defend- and the sea : and William of Newed it, when it was vigorously attack- burgh long ago observed, that for its ed by Ausculp, prince of Dublin, trade and concourse of merchants, and afterwards by Gothred, king of it even rivalled London. Its fiua. the Illes. A little after this, an Eng- tion is indeed particularly pleasant lith colony was transplanted hither and wholesome, having hills on the from Bristol, by king Henry II. who fouth, plains on the west, and a na-. gave them this city, with all the li- vigable river called the Liffey, runberties and free customs enjoyed by ning through it, and near the mouthBristol. From that time it conti- of which it stands. pued to flourish, and in times of the It is the grand mart and the cena greatest difficulty has given many ter of commerce for the whole kingand ample proofs of its loyalty to dom, especially for the communicathe kings of England, who have al. tion of trade with England; and Ways defended it when attacked by from hence the greater part of the the enemies of that crown. During inland cities and towns are supplied these contests it has been sometimes with goods. The only misfortune forely distreffed, particularly at the of this city is the deficiency of its time of the massacre in 1641; but if harbour, occasioned by the bar at we except some part of the years the mouth of the river Liffey, where 1689 and 1690, when the earl of there are such heaps of fand brought Tyrconnel and the Irish arıny had in by the tides, that it is difficult for poffefliou of it for the abdicated kicg loaded ships to come in, except at James II. it always held out and re- Spring-rides, and even then ships of mained faithful to the English. And great burthen dare not venture in ; as Ireland had from time to time the water on the bar being so hallow, March 1764.


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toll or custom for such goods as But as to the courts of judicature, paid a duty to the city. 'Tis a hand- they are now removed to a sumptusome pile built at the charge of the ous fabric erected for the purpose city in 1683. Besides these, there near Christ church. On the Westis a custom house.

side of the city are two gares, Or. It has fix gates, besides a large mond's-gate and Newgate, which is itone bridge over the Liffey. The the common gaol, both leading to entrance of the city on the East. side St. Thomas, the longest fuburb of is by Dammer-gate, near which the city, where stood in Camden's Itands the king's castle upon a rifing tiine a noble abbey, called Thomasground, well fortified in Camden's court, founded and endowed with time with ditches and towers, pro- large revenues by king Henry II. to vided with a good arsenal, and built atone for the death of Thomas by Henry Loundres, archbilhop, Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, about the year 1220; but, having but now turned into houses and received great damage by a blast of streets. The entrance of the city gunpowder fome years ago, was on the South-lide is by St. Paul'sbeautifully rebuilt, or at least re- gate, and that called St. Nicholas, paired, as are likewise several other which opens into the suburb of St. of the most decayed buildings of the Patrick. The other chief bridges city. In the suburbs, on the East. are, that called Effex, in honour of fide near St. Andrew's church, Hen- the earl of Eflex, when lord lieutesy II. king of England, as Hoveden nan: of Ireland, and Ormond and says, caused a royal palace to be Arran bridges, in honour of the built of smooth wattles, very curi- late duke of Ormond and his son, ouly contrived after the manner of the earl of Acran. this country; and kept his Christ. It was formerly governed by a mas here with the kings and princes provoft ; but in the year 1409, of Ireland.

Henry IV. gave them the privilege The North-gate opens towards of chusing every year a mayor with the bridge, which is arched, and was two bailiffs, and of carrying a gilt built of free-stone by king Joho, who sword before him. Edward VI.changed joined Oustman-town, or, as it is these bailiffs into sheriff's. Charles ll. commonly called, Oxman-tcwn, to gave its mayor the title of lord, with the city : for here the Oultmanni five bundred pounds to support the formerly mentioned, who, Geraldus dignity, and a collar, as a badge of says, came from Norway and the the honour; but this ornament be. Northern islands, fetiled, according ing loft when James II. was in that to our historians, about the year kingdom, William III. gave them 1050. In this suburb stood former another of near one thousand pounds ly the famous church of St. Mary de value. Every third year the city Oufmanby, as it is called in king and its suburbs are surveyed by the John's charter ; and a house of lord-mayor and the twenty-four corBlack Friars, whither the courts of porations or trading companies. judicature were transferred. This is in the year 1646, while they were now called the king's inns, and here fortifying the East-luburbs of Dublin, , the judges and lawyers meer in com- they dug up an aorient fepulchre, millions one week in every term. confifting of eight marble stones, 3

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