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they are returned to their duty; so, I find taxes arel At a very full meeting of the delegates from the df. to be the reward of obedience; and the Americans, ferent counties in the colony and dominion of Vir. who are considered to bave been in open rebellion, ginia, begun in Williamsburg, the first day of are to be rewar-led by acquiescing to their mea August, in the year of our Lord 1774, and continu. sures. When will be the time when America ought ed by several adjournments to Saturday the 6th of to have heavy taxes laid upon it? The honorable the said month, the following association was unani. gentleman (Mr. Rigby) tells you, that that time mously resolved upon and agreed to. will be when the Americans are returned to peace
We, his majesty's dutiful and loyal subjects, the and quietness. The hon. gentleman tells us also, that we have a right to tax Ireland; however I may to represent them at a general meeting in the city
delegates of the freeholders of Virginia, deputed agree with him in regard to the principle, it would
of Williamsburg, avowing our inviolable and unnot be policy to exercise it; I believe we have no
shaken fidelity and attachment, to our most more right to tax the one than the other. I believe America is wrong in resisting against this country, all our friends and fellow subjects in Great Britain
gracious sovereign, our regard and affection for with regard to legislative authority. It was an old
and elsewhere, protesting against every act or opinion, and I believe a very true one, that there
thing, which may have the most distant tendency was a dispensing power in the crown, but when.
to interrupt, or in any wise disturb his majesty's ever that dispensing power was pretended to be
peace, and the good order of government, within exercised, it was always rejected and opposed to the utmost, because it operated to me, as a subject, maintain and defend, at the risque of our lives and
this his ancient colony, which we are resolved to as a detriment to my property and liberty; but, sir,
fortunes, but at the same time affected with the there has been a constant conduct practised in this
deepest anxiety, and most alarming apprehensions, country, consisting of violence and weakness; I
of those grievances and distresses by which his wish those measures may not continue; nor can I
majesty's American subjects are oppressed, and think that the stamp-act would have been submitted
having taken under our most serious deliberation, to without resistance, if the administration had not the state of the whole continent, find that the prebeen changed; the present bill before you is not
sent unhappy situation of our affairs is chiefly tanti to what you want; it irritates the minds of the
occasioned by certain ill-advised regulations, as people, but does not correct the deficiencies of
well of our trade as internal policy, introduced by that government,
several unconstitutional acts of the British parlia. Sir Gi bere Eliot arose to answer Mr. C. Pos, ment, and at length, attempted to be enforced by which he did in a very masterly manner, by stating the hand of power; solely inf'renced by these imthat there was not the least degree of absurdity in
portant and weighty considerations, we think it an taxing your own subjects, over whom you have indispensable duty, which we owe to our country, declared you had an absolute right; though that ourselves, and latest posterity, to guard against tas should, through necessity, be enacted at a time such dangerous and extensive mischiefs, by every when peace and quietness were the reigning syslem
just and proper means. of the times; you declare you have that right, where is the absurdity in the exercise of it?
If, by the measures adopted, some unhappy con. Sir Richard Sutton read a cony of a letter, rela. sequences and inconveniences should be derived
to our fellow subjects, whom we wish not to injure tive to the government of America, from a governor
in the smallest degree, we hope and flatter oure in America, to the board of trade, shewing that, at the most quiet times, the dispositions to oppose
gelves, that they will impute them to their real the laws of this country were strongly ingrafted in cause—the hard necessity to which we are driven. them, and that all their actions conveyed a spirit That the good people of this colony may, on so and wish for independence. If you ask an Ameri- trying an occasion, continue steadfastly directed can who is his master? he will tell you he has none, to their most essential interests, in hopes that they nor any governor but Jesus Christ. I do believe will be influenced and stimulated by our example it, and it is my firm opinion, that the opposition to the greatest industry, the strictest economy, and to the measures of the legislature of this country, frugality, and the execution of every public virtue, is a determined prepossession of the idea of total nersuaded that the merchants, manufacturers, and independence.
other inhabitants of Great Britain, and, above all, After which the bill was committed for Friday that the British parliament will be convinced how next, without a division.
much the true interest of that kingdom must
depend on the restoration and continuance of that, the colonies, we will noi, directly or indirectly,
5thly. We do resolve, that unless American declare, before God and the world, that we will grievances be redressed before the 10th day of religiously adhere to and keep the sanıe inviolate, August, 1775, we will not, after that day, directly in every particular, until redress of all such Ame. or indirectly, export tobacco or any other article rican grievances as may be defined and settled at the whatever, to Great Britain; nor will we sell any general congress of delegates from the different such articles as we think can be exported to Great colonies, shall be fully obtained, or, until this Britain with a prospect of gain, to any person or association shall be abrogated or altered by a ge persons whatever, with a design of putting it into neral meeting of the deputies of this colony, to be his or their power to export the same to Great convened, as is herein after directed. And we do, Britain, either on our own, bis or their account. with the greatest earnestness, recommend this our And that this resolution may be the more effectually association, to all gentlemen, merchants, traders, carried into execution, we do hereby recommend and other inhabitants of this colony, boping that it to the inhabitants of this colony, to refrain from they will cheerfully and cordially accede thereto. the cultivation of iobacco as much as conveniently ist. We do bereby resolve and declare that we may be, and in lieu thereof that they will, as we
resolve to do, apply their attention and industry, will not either directly or indirectly, after the first
to the cultivation of all such articles, as may form day of November next, import from Great Britain,
a proper basis for manufactures of all sorts, which any goods, wares, or merchandizes, whatever,
we will endeavor to encourage throughout this (medicines excepted,) nor will we, after that day, import any British manufactures, either from the colony to the utmost of our abilities. West Indies, or any other place, nor any ar'icle 6thly. We will endeavor to improve our breed whatever, which we shall know, or have reason to of sheep, and increase their number to the uimust believe, was brought into such countries from Great extent, and to this end, we will be as sparing as Britain, nor will we purchase any such articles, so we convenientiy can, in killing of sheep, especially imported, of any person or persons whatsoever, those of the most profilable kind, and if we should except such as are now in the country, or such at any time be overstocked, or can conveniently as may arrive on or before the said first day of spare any, we will dispose of them to our neighbors, November, in consequence of orders already given, especially the poorer sort of people, upon moderate and which cannot now be countermanded in time. terms.
2dly. We will neither ourselves import, nor 7thly. Resolved, that the merchants and others, purchase any slave, or slaves, imported by any per venders of goods and merchandizes within this co. son, after the first day of November next, either lony, ought not to take advantage of the scarcity froin Africa, the West-Indies, or any other place. of goods that may be occasioned by this associa.
tion, but that they ought to sell the same, at the 3diy. Considering the article of tea as the
rates they have been accustorged to for twelve detestable instrument which laid the foundation of
months past, and if they shall sell any such goods the present sufferings of our distressed friends in
on higher terms, or shall in any manner, or by any the town of Boston, we view it with horror, and
device whatever, violate or depart from this resolu. therefore resolve that we will not, from this day,
tion, we will not, and are of opinion that no inha. either import tea of any kind whatever, nor will we bitant of this colony ought, at any time thereafter, use or suffer, even such of it as is now at hand, to
to deal with any such persons, their factors, or be used in any of our families.
agents, for any commodity whatever; and i: is re4Uily. If the inhabitants of the town of Boston, commended to the deputies of the several counties, or any other colony, should, by violence or dire that committees be chosen in each county, by such necessity, be compelled to pay the East-India com- persons as accede to this association, to take ef. pany for destroying any tea, which they have lately, fectual care that these resolves be properly observby their agents, unjustly attempted to force incoled, and for corresponding occasionally with the
general committee of correspondence in the city' 11thly. Resolved, that we think ourselves called of Williamsburg. Provided that, if exchange upon by every principle of humanity and brotherly should rise, such advance may be made in the affection, to extend the utmost and speediest relief prices of goods as shall be approved by the com. to our distressed fellow subjects in the town of mittee of each county.
Boston, and therefore most earnestly recommend
it to all the inhabitants of this colony, to make 8thly. In order the better to distinguish such such liberal contributions as they can afford; to be worthy merchants and traders, who are well collected and remitted to Boston, in such manner wishers to this colony, from those who may attempt,
as may best answer so desirable a purpose. through motives of self-interest, to obstruct our views, we do bereby resolve, that we will nt, after 12thly, and lastly. Resolved, that the moderator the first day of November next, deal with any of tbis meeting, and, in case of his death, Robert merchant or trader, who will not sign this associa: Carter Nicholas, esquire, be empowered, on any tion, nor until he hath obtained a certificate of his future occasion, that may in bis opinion require its baving done so from the county committee, or any to convene the several delegates of this colony, et three members thereof. And if any merchant, such time and place as he may judge proper; and trader, or other person, shall import any goods or in case of the death or absence of any delegates mercbandize, after the first day of November, it is recommended that another be chosen in bis contrary to this association, we give it as our opi place. nion, that such goods and merchandize should be Peyton Randolph, Meriwether Smith, eith er fortbwiih re-shipped, or delivered up to the Robert C. Nicholas, Charles Broadwater, county committee, to be stored at the risk of the Richard Bland, Thomas Marshall, importer, unless such importer shall give a proper Richard Henry Lee, James Scott, juniors assurance to the said committee, that such goods or George Washington, Isaac Zane, merchandizes shall not be sold within this colony Benjamin Harrison, George Rootes, during the continuance of this association; and if Edmund Pendleton, Thomas Whitings such importer shall refuse to comply with one or Patrick Henry, junior. Lewis Burwell, the other of these terms, upon application and due Southy Simpson, Thomas M. Randolphy caution given to him or her, by the said committee, Isaac Smith,
John Woodson, or any three members thereof, such committee is J. Walker,
Nathaniel Terry, required to publish the truth of the case in the Thomas Jefferson, Micajah Watkins, Gazettes, and in the county where he or she resides, John Tabb,
J. Mercer, and we will thereafter consider such person or per. John Winn,
J. Syme, sons as inimical to this country, and break off every William Cabell, Richard Adame, connexion and all dealings with them.
Samuel Du Val, 9thly. Resolved, That if any person or persons
Frederick Macklin, William Norwell,
John S. Wills, sball export tobacco, or any other commodity, to Henry Tazewell,
John Day, Great Britain, after the 10th day of August, 1775, Henry Beli,
Richard Hardy, contrary to this association, we shall hold ourselves
Williaim Acrill, obliged to consider sucb person or persons as
Joseph Jones, nimical to the community, and as an approver
William Fitzhugto American grievances; and give it as our opinion,
George Brooke, that the public should be advertised of bis conduct,
George Lyne, as in the 8th article is desired.
Henry Pendle on, William Aylett, 10thly. Being fully persuaded that the united Henry Field, junior James Selden, wisdum of the general congress may improve these William Fleming, Charles Carter, our endeavors to preserve the rigbts and liberties Jon Mayo,
Francis Peyton, in British America, we decline enlarging at pre. Robert Bolling, Thomas Walker, sent, but do hereby resolve that we will conform John Banister,
Thomas Pettus, to, and strictly observe, ali such alterations, or Francis Slaughter,
Edmund Berkeley, additions, assented to by the delegates for this Henry King,
James Montague, colony, as they may judge it necessary to adopt, Worrich Westwood, Robert Burton, after the same sball be pablished and made known mes Edmon song Benner Gode, to us.
Lemuel R.d dicke
Francis Lightfoot Lee, sprerogatives; and however misrepresented, we Burwell Basset, Edwin Gray,
sincerely approve of a constitutional connexion B. Dandridge, Henry Taylor,
with Great Britain, and wish most ardeily a re. Thomas Newton, jun. George Stubblefield, turn of that intercourse of affection and commercial James Holt,
Mann Page, jun. connexion that formerly united both countries, Adiel Miiby,
John Alexander, which can only be affected by a removal of those John Bowdoing C. Carter,
causes of discontent which have of late unhappily
divided us. Peter Presley Thornton, Allen Cocke, Rodham Kenner, Nicholas Faulcon, jun.
It cannot admit of a doubt but that British sub. Thomas Barbour, David Mason,
jects in America, are entitled to the same rights William Bibb, Michael Blow,
and privileges as their fellow subjecis possess in John Morton, William Harwood,
Britain; and therefore, that the power assumed by Peter Poythress, William Langhorne, the British parliament bind merica ly their William Robinson, Richard Lee,
statutes, in all cases whatsoever, is unconstitu. Christopher Wright, Dudley Digges,
tional, and the source of these unhappy differences. Henry Lee,
Thomas Nelson, jun.
The end of government would be defeated by
the British parliament exercising a power over the Robt. Wormeley Carter, Joseph Hutchings.
lives, the property, and the liberty of the American
subject; who are not, and from their local cir. Instructions for the deputies appointed to meet in gene
cumstances cannot, be there represented. Of this ral congress on the part of the colony of Virginia,
nature we consider the several acts of parliament The unhappy disputes between Great Britain for raising a revenue in America, for extending and her American colonies, which began about the tbe jurisdiction of the courts of admiralty, for third year of the reign of his present majesty, and seizing American subjects and transporting them since continually increasing, have proceeded to to Britain to be tried for crimes committed in Amelengths so dangerous and alarming as to excite just rica, and the several late oppressive acts respece. apprehensions, in the minds of his majesty's faithful
ing the town of Boston, and province of the Massa. subjects of this colony, that they are in danger of chusetts-Bay. being deprived of their natural, ancient, constitu. tional, and chartered rights, have compelled them
The original constitution of the American colonies to take the same into their most serious considera. possessing their assemblies with the sole right of
directing their internal polity, it is absolutely tion; and being deprived of their usual and ac.
destructive of the end of their institution that their customed mode of making known their grievances, have appointed us their representatives to consider legislatures should be suspended, or prevented, by what is proper to be done in this dangerous crisis basty dissolutions, from exercising their legislative of American affairs. It being our opinion that the powers. united wisdom of North America should be col.
Wanting the protection of Britain, we have long lected in a general congress of all the colonies, we acquiesced in their acts of navigation restrictire of bate appointed the honorable Peyton Randolph, our commerce, which we consider as an ample esquire, Richard Henry Lee, George Washington, recompense for such protection; but as those acts Patrick Henry, Richard Bland, Benjamin Harrison, derive their efficay from that foundation alone, we and Edmund Pendleton, esquires, deputies to re- have reason to expect they will be restrained, so as present this colony in the said congress, to be held to produce the reasonable purposes of Britaill, with. at Philadelphia on the first Monday in September out being injurious to us. next.
To obtain a redress of those grievances, without And that they may be the better informed of our which the people of America can neither be safe, sentiments, touching the conduct we wish them to free, nor happy, they are willing to undergo the observe on this important occasion, we desire they great inconvenience that will be derived to them will express, in the first place, our faith and true from stopping all imports whatsoever from Great allegiance to his majesty king George the third, Britain, after the first day of November next, and our lawful and rightful sovereign; and that we are also to cease exporting any commodity whatsoever, determined, with our lives and fortunes, to support to the same place, after the 10th dy of August, him in the legal exercise of all his just rights and 1775. The earnest desire we have, to make ug
quick and fuil payment, as possible, of our debts te onstitutional rights of his majesty's subjects, Great Britain, and to avoid the heavy injury tha whenever they interfere with the plan he has would arise to this country from an earlier adoptio...ormed for oppressing the good people of the of the non-exportation plan, after the people have assachusetts Bay; and therefore, that the executalready applied so much of their labor to the per ing, or allempting to execute, such proclamation, fec:ing of tle present crop, by which means they will justify RESISTANCE and REPAISAL. have been prevented from pursuing other methods of clothing and supporting their families, have
PAILADELPHIA, March 27, 1775. rendered it necessary to restrain you in this article. A speech delivered in CappestER'S HALL, March 16th, of non-exportation; but it is our desire that you before the subscribers, towards a fund for establishcordially co-operate with our sister colonies, in ing manufactories of woolen, cotton and linen, in the general congress, in such other just and proper city of Philadelphia.--Published at the request of methods as they, or the majority, shall deem neces.
the company. sary for the accomplishment of these valuable ends.
GENTLEMEN–When I reflect upon the extent of The proclamation issued by general Gage, in the the subject before me, and consider the small government of the province of the Massachusetts- share of knowledge I possess of it, I confess I rise Bay, declaring it rreason for the inhabitants of that with timidity to speak in this assembly; and it is province to assemble themselves to consider of only because the requests of fellow.citizens in every their grievances, and form associations for their laudable undertaking should always operate with common conduct on the occasion, and requiring the force of commands, that I have prevailed upon the civil magistrates and officers to apprehend all myself to execute the task you bave assigned me. such persons to be tried for their supposed offences,
My business, upon this occasion, is to lay before is ihe most alarming process that ever appeared in
you a few thoughts upon the NECESSITY, POSSIBILITY a British government; that the said general Gage and ADVANTAGES of establishing woolen, cotton, and hath thereby assumed and taken upon himself
linen manufactories among us. pou ers denied by the constitution to our leg:1 sovereign; that he, not having condescended to The NECESSITY of establishing these manufac. disclose by what au hority he exercises such extentories is obvious from the association of the con. sive and unheard of powers, we are at a loss 10 gress, which puts a stop to the importation of Bridetermine whether he intends to justify himself as tish goods, of which woolens, cottons, and linens, the representative of the king, or as the commander always made a considerable part. So large bas in chief of bis majesty's forces in North America. been the demand for these articles, and so very It'he considers himself as acting in the character of necessary are they in this country, that it is imbis majesty's representative, we would remind him, possible for us to clothe ourselves without substitut. that the statute 25th Edward III. has expressed ing some others in their room. I am far from think. and defined all treasonable offences, and that the ing that the non-importation agreement will be se legislature of Great Britain hath declared that no transitory a thing, as some have supposed. The offence shall be construed to be treason but such appearance of a change of measures in England as is pointed out by that statute, and that this was respecting the colonies, does not flow from a con. done to take out of the hands of tyrannical kings,
viction. of their injustice. The same arbitrary and of weak and wicked ministers, that deadly
ministers continue in office, and the same arbitrary weapon which constructive treason had furnished favorites continue to abuse the confidence of our them with, and which had drawn the blood of the sovereign Sudden conversion should be trusted best and honestest men in the kingdom, and that with caution, especially, when they have been the king of Great Britain hath no right, by his pro the liberties of America established at an easy
brought about by jaterest or fear. I shall think clamation, to subject his people to imprisonment, pains, and penalties.
price by a two or three years non-importation
agreement. By union and perseverance in this That, if the said general Gage conceives he is mode of oppusition to Great Britain, we shall af. empowered to act in this manner, as the commander ford a new phenomenon in the bistory of mankind, in chief of his majesty's forces in America, this and furnish posterity with an example to teach odious and illegul proclamation must be considered them that peace, with all the rights of humanity as a plain and full declaration that this despotic and justice, may be maintained by the exertion of ziceroy will be bound by no lan, nor regard the economical, as well as military virtues. We shall,