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ill effect, being wrote by a private individual to this convention, and thereupon it is resolved, That bis friend and relation, a person who had not the the said James Christie, hy the said letter, hath power, if he had the inclination, and who, fron manifested a spirit and principle altogether inimical regard to his own private interest, and from the to the rights and liberties of America: That the ties of blood (his wife, family and fortune being said James Christie, by insinuating the necessity in this country) cannot be supposed to be active of introducing a military force into this province, in devising measures to crush the liberties there is as manifested an inveterate enmity to the liberties of; and in the most solemn manner your memorialist of this province in particular, and of British Ame. avers, that he never harbored a wish to introduce rica in general. a military force into this province for the purpose
Therefore, resolved, That the said James Christie of enslaving the inhabitants thereof. And your is and ought to be considered as an enemy. 10 Ame. memorialise begs leave to add, tbat be is extremely rica, and that no person trade, deal, or barter sorry that his private opinion should have given with him hereafter, unless for necessaries and pro. any offence; be was far from intending any; he con.
visions, or for the sale or purchase of any part of sidered himself as writing to a friend in confidence, his real or personal estate, of which he may be at and had no expectation or wish, that such private this time seized or possessed. opinions would ever appear in public, or be pro ductive of any public measures whatever.
Resolved, That the said James Christie be ex.
pelled and banished this province forever, and that T'bat the said committee having referred all fur. he depart this province before the first day of ther proceedings on your memorialist's case to the September next. gentlemen delegated by this province to the con.
Resolved, Thai the said James Christie deposite tinental congress, and they having referred the
in the hands of this convention, or into the hands same to the consideration of this convention, obliges of such person or persons as they shall appoint, your memorialist to make this application, bumbly the sum of five hundred pounds sterling, to be to request that this honorable convention will consider your memorialist's case, and discharge all charges and expenses incurred or to be incurred
exper:ded occasionally towards his proportion of your memorialist and his securities from the said
for the defence of America, during the present obligation, and also grant permission to your me.
contest with Great Britain; the overplus, if any, morialist to depart the province with all con
after a reconciliation shall happily be effected, to venience, without molestation in person or pro.be restored to the said James Christie. perty.
Resolved, That no punish sent be in Bicted on the Your memorialist, relying on the wisdom and
said James Christie, other than wbat is now directhumanity of this honorable convention, most cheer.
ed by this convention. Nully submits his case to their decision, bumbly praying,
Resolved, That the five hundred pounds sterling
is to be paid in sterling, or other money at par. Tbat the blessings of peace and tranquility may be restored to every part of the British empire; Resolved, that the resolutions of the committee thet the rights and privileges of America may be of Baltimore county are, by the determinations of established on a firm and lasting basis, and a speedy this convention superseded, and that therefore the and honorable reconciliation take place between said Jumes Christie may negociate bis bills of exthe parent state and her colonies, is the sincere change; and that he may assign, or he, or any perwish of your memorialist.
son for him, may collect the debts due to him, in JAMES CHRISTIE, jun.
the same manner as other persons may negociate Baltimore, Jaly 27, 1775.
tlicir bills of exchange, assign or collect their debts. And upon reading the letter of the said James Signed, by order of the convention, Cbristie therein referred to, dated the 22d of Fe.
G. DUVALL, clerk. bruary, 1775, to Gabriel Christie, lieut. colonel of the 60th regiment, in which the said Christie re. The speech of Edmund Bunke, esq. on moving his presented the inhabitants of that town as con.
resolutions for conciliation with the colonies, March cerned in measures, in his opinion, treasonable and
22, 1775. rebellious, and that a number of soldiers would I hope, sir, that, notwithstanding the austerity keep them very quiet, the same was considered by of the chair, your good nature will incline you to
some degree of indulgence towards buman frailty, from being blown about by every wind of fashiona. You will not think it unnatural, that those who ble doctrine. I really did not think it safe, or have an object depending, which strongly engages manly, to have fresh principles to seek upon every their hopes and fears, should be somewhat inclined fresh mail which should arrive from America. to superstition. As I came into the house full of anxiety about the event of my motion, I found, to
At that period, I had the fortune to find myself my infinite surprise, that the grand penal bill, by
in perfect concurrence with a large majority in this
bouse. which we had passed sentence on the trade and
Bowing under that high authority, and sustenance of America, is to be returned to us from penetrated with the siarpness and strength of that lhe other house.* I do confess I could not help early impression, I have continued ever since, with• looking on this event as a fortunate omen. I look out the least deviation, in my original sentiments.
Whether this be owing to an obstinate perseve. upon it as sort of Providential favor, by which we are put once more in possession of our deliberative rance in error, or to a religious adherence to what capacity, upon a business so very questionable in appears to me truth and reason, it is in your equity its nature, so very uncertain in its issue. By the
to judge. return of this bill, which seemed to have taken its Parliament, sir, having an enlarged view of obfright forever, we are at this very instant nearly as jects, made, during this interval, more frequent free to choose a plan for our American government, changes in their sentiments and their conduct, than as we were on the first day of the session. If, sir, could be justified in a particular person upon the we incline to the side of conciliation, we are not at contracted scale of private information. But all embarrassed (unless we please to make our though I do not hazard any thing approaching to selves so) by any incongruous mixture of coercion a censure on the motives of former parliaments to and restraint. We are therefore called upon, as all those alterations, one fact is undoubted, that unit were by a superior warning voice, again to attend der them the state of America has been kept in to America; to attend to the whole of it together; continual agitation. Every thing administered as and to review the subject with an unusual degree remedy to the public complaint, if it did not pro. of care and calmness.
duce, was at least followed by, an heightening of
the distemper; until, by a variety of experiments, Surely it is an awful subject; or there is none so that important country bas been brought into her on this side of the grave. When I first had the
present situation; a situation, wbich I will not honor of : seat in this house, the affairs of that miscall, which I dare not name; which I scarcely continent pressed themselves upon us, as the most know how to con rebend in the terms of any important and most delicate object of parliamentary description. attention. My little share in this great deliberation oppressed me. I found myself a partaker in a
In this posture, sir, things stood at the beginning very high trust; and having no sort of reason to of the session. About that time a worthy memrely on the strength of my natural abilities for the ber, of great parliamentary experience, who, in the proper execution of that trust, I was obliged to year 1766, filled the chair of the American comtake more than common pains, to instruct myself mittee with much ability, took me aside; and in every thing which relates to our colonies. I lamenting the present aspect of the politics, told was not less under the necessity of forming some me things were come to such a pass, that our fixed ideas, concerning the general policy of the former methods of proceeding in the house would British empire. Something of this sort seemed to be no longer tolerated. That the public tribunal be indispensable, in order, amidst so vast a fluctua. (never too indulgent to a long and unsuccessful tion of passions and opinions, to concenter my opposition) would now scrutinize our conduct with thoughts; to ballast my conduct; to preserve me unusual severity. That the very vicissitudes and
shiftings of ministerial measures, instead of con. *The act to restrain the trade and commerce o victing their authors of inconstancy and want of the provinces of Massachusetts Bay and New. Hampshire, and colonies of Connecticut and Rhode system, would be taken as an occasion of charging Island, and Providence Piantation, in North Amefus uith a pre determined discontent, which nothing rica, to Great Britain, Ireland, and the British could satisfy; whilst we accused every measure of islands in the West.Indies; and to prohibit such provinces and colonies from carrying on any fishery vigour as cruel, and every proposal of lenity as on the banks of Newfoundland and other places weak and irresolute. The public, he said, would thereis mentioned, under certain conditions and limitations.
* Mr. Rose Fuller.
not have patience to see us play the game out with a reasonable proposition, because it had nothing our adversaries; we must produce our hand. It but its reason to reconinend it. On the other would be expected, that those who for many years hand, being totally destitute of all sbarlow of influa had been active in such affairs should shew that ence, natural or adventitions; I was very sure that, they had formed some clear and decided idea of if my proposition were futile or dangerous, if it the principles of colony government; and were were weakly conceived, or improperly timed, there capable of drawing out something like a platform was nothing exterior to it, of power to awe, dazzle, of the ground, which might be laid for future and or delude you. You will see it just as it is, and permanent tranquility.
you will treat it just as it deserves. I felt the truth of what my hon. friend repre
The proposition is peace. Not peace through the Bented; but I felt my situation too. His application medium of war. Not peace to be hurted through might have been made with far greater propriety the labyrinth of intricate and endless negocia. to many other gentlemen. No man was indeed tions. Not peace to arise out of universal discord, ever better disposed, or worse qualified, for such fomented from principle in all parts of the em. an undertaking than myself. Though I gave so
pire. Not peace to depend on the juridical deter. far into his opinion tha: I immediately threw my
Inination of perplexing questions; or the precise thosights into a sort of parliamentary form, I was inarking the shadowy boundaries of a complex go: by no means equally ready to produce them. It verilinent. It is simple peace, sought in its natural generally argues some degree of natural impotence course, and its ordinary haunts. It is peace sought
in the spirit of peace, and laid in principles purely of mind, or some want of knowledge of the world, to hazard plans of government, except from a seat
pacific. I propose, by removing the ground of the
difference, and by restoring the former unsuspect. of autbority. Propositions are made, not only
ing confidence of the colonies in the mother coun. ineffectually, but somewhat disreputably, when the minds of men are not properly disposed for their try, to give permanent satisfiction to your people;
and (far from a scheme of ruling by discord) to reception; and, for my part, I am not ambitious of
reconcile them to each other in the same act, and ridicule; nor absolutely a candidatė for disgrace. by the bond of the very same interest, which recon
Besides, sir, to speak the plain truth, I have in ciles them to Britislı government. general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of pa.
My idea is nothing more, Refined policy ever per government; nor of any politics, in which the has been the parent of confusion, and ever will be plan is to be wholly separated from the execution. so as long as the world endures. Plain good intenBut when I saw that anger and violence prevailed, tion, which is as easily discovered at the first view, every day more and more, and that things were
as fraud is surely detected at last, is, let me say, of bastening towards an incurable alienation of our no mean force in the government of mankind. Ge. colonies, I confess my caution gave way, I felt this nuine simplicity of heart is an healing and cementas one of those few moments in which decorum ing principle. My plan, therefore, being formed yields to an higher duty. Public calamity is a upon the most simple grounds imaginable, may mighty leveller, and there are occasions when any, disappoint some people when they liear it. It has even the slightest, chance of doing good must be nothing to recommend it to the pruriency of curious laid hold on, even by the most inconsiderable per. ears. There is nothing at all new and captivating
in it. It has bothing of the splendor of the pro. To restore order and repose to an empire so
ject, which has been lately laid upon your table great and so distracted as ours, is merely, in the by the noble lord in the blue riband.* it does attempt, an undertaking that would ennoble the
*“That, when the governor, council or assembly, Aights of the highest genius, and obtain pardon or general court, of any of his inajesty's provinces for the efforts of the meanest understanding. vision, according to the condition, circumstances
or colonies in America, shall propose to inake pro. Struggling a good while with these thoughts, by and situation of such province or colony, for condegrees I felt myself more firm. Í derived, at tributing their proporiion to the common defence length, some confidence from what in other cir. (such proportion to be raised urler the authority
of the general couri, or general assembly, of such cumstances usually produces timidity. I grew less province or colony, and disposable by parliamenty enxious even from the idea of my own insignificance; and shall engage to make provision also for the for judging of what you are, by what you ought to tion of justice, in such province or colony, it will
support of the civil governinent, and the administras be, I persuaded myself ihat you would not reject be proper, if such proposal shall be approved by
not propose to fill your lobby with squibbling always imply concession on the one part or on the colony agents, who will require the interposition other. In this state of things I make no difficulty of your mace, at every instant, to keep the peace in affirming that the proposal ought to originate amongst them. It does not institute a magnificent from us. Great and acknowledged force is not auction of finance, where captivated provinces impaired, either in effect or in opinion, by an uncome to general ransom by bidding against each willingness to exert itself. The superior power other, until yon knock down the bammer, and may offer peace with honor and with safety. Such determine a proportion of payments, beyond all the an offer, from such a power, will be attributed to powers of algebra to equalize and settle. magnanimity. But the concessions of the weak The plan, which I shall preg'ime to suggest,
are the concessions of fear. Wben such a one is derives, however, one great advantage from the
disarmed, he is wholly at the mercy of his superior, proposition and registry of that noble lord's pro.
and he loses forever that time and those chances ject. The idea of conciliation is admissible. First,
which, as they happen to all men, are the strength
and resources of all inferior power. the house, in accepting the resolution moved by the noble lord, has admitted, notwithstanding the The capital leading quastions, on which you menacing front of our address, notwithstanding must this day decide, are these two. First, whe. our heavy bill of pains and penalties, that we do ther you ought to concede; und, secon!ly, what not think ourselves precluded from all ideas of free your concession ought to be. On the first of these grace and bounty.
questions we have gainel (as I have just taken The house has gone farther, it has declared con.
the liberty of observing to you) some ground. But ciliation admissible, previous 10 any submission on
I am sensible that a good deal more is still to be the part of America. It has even shot a good deal done. Indeed, sir, to enable us to determine both beyond that mark, and bas admitted that the com
on the one and the other of these great questions, plaints of our former mode of exerting the right of with a firm and precise judgment, I think it may taxation were not wholly unfounded. That right
be necessary to consider distincily the true nature thus exerted is allowed to have had something re
and the peculiar circumstances of the ohject which prehensible in it; something unwise, or something
we have before us. Because, after all our struggle, grievous; sinee, in the midst of our heat and resent
whether we will or not, we must govern America ment, we of offrselves have proposed a capital according to that nature, and to those circum. alteration; and, in order to get rid of what seemed stances, and not according to our own imaginaso very exceptionable, have instituted u mode that tions; not according to abs'ract ideas of right; by is aliogether new; one that is, indeed, wholly alien no means according to mere general theories of from all the ancient methods and forms of parlia government, the resort of which appears to me, in ment.
o'ir present situation, no better than arrant trilling.
I s'all therefore endeavor, with your leave, to lay The principle of this proceeding is large enough before yo': some of the most material of these cir. for my purpose. The means proposed by the noble cumstances, in as full and as clear a manner as ! lord for carrying his ideas into ex-cution, I think, am able to state them. indeed, are very indifferen. ly suited to the en!; and this I shall endeavor to shew you before I sit down.
The first thing that we have to consider, with But, for the present, I take my ground on the regard :o the na:ure of the object, is the number admitied principle. I mean to give peace. Pue of pe iple in the colonies. Uave taken for some implies reconciliation; and, where there has been yers a good deal of pains on that point. I can by a material dispute, reconciliation does in a manner
no calculation justify myself in placing the number
below two millions of inhabitants of our own bis majesty, and te two houses of pariiament, and Euripean hood and color, besides at leust 500,00 for so long as such provision shall be made accord ingly, to forbear, in respect of such province or others, who form no inconsiderable part of the colony, to levy any dury, lax, or assessnest, or in strength and opulence of the whole. This, sir, is, impose any further duty, tax, or assessmen, excepy i believe, about the true number. There is no such duties as i, may be expedient to continue is, levy or impose for the regulation of commerc; the occasion to exaggerate where plain truth is of so neat produce of the duiies lasi mentioned to be much weight and importance But whether I put carried to the account of such provi ce or calong the present numbers too high or too low, is ? respectively.” Resolutions moved by lord Nort in the comunittee, and agreed to by the boust, 27 natter of little moment. Such is the s'rength Fep. 1775.
with which populatiua suoots in that part of the
world, that stale the numbers as high as we will., sumewhat different from his. There is, if I mistake whilst the dispute continues, the exaggeration ends. not, a point of view from whence, if you will look Whilst we are discussing any given magnitude, at this subject, it is inpussible that it should not they are grown to it. Whilst we spend our time in make an impression upon you. deliberating on the inode of governing two millions,
I have in my hand two accounts, one a comwe shall find we have millions more to manage. purative state of the export trade of England to Your children do not grow faster from infancy to its colonies, as it stond in the year 1704, and as it manhood, than they spread from families to come stood ia the year 1772. The other a state of the munities, and from villages to nations.
export trde of this country to its colonies alone, I put this consideration of the present and the Is it stood in 1772, compared with the whole trade growing numbers in the front of our deliberation; of England to all parts of the world (the colonies because, sir, this consideration will make it evident included) in the year 1704. They are froin good tos blunter discernment than yours, that no partial, vouchers; the latter period from the accounts on Darrow, contracted, pinched, occasional system will your table, the earlier from an original man'iscript be at all suitable to such an object. It will slew of Daveniant, who first established the inspector. you that it is not to be considered as one of those general's office, which has been ever since his “minima,” which are out of the eye and considera. time so abundant a source of parliamentary informa. tion of the law; not a paltry excresence of the staie; tion. not a mean dependant, who may be neglected with
The export trade to the colonies consists of little damage, and provoked with little danger. It three great branches. The African, which terminat. will prove that some degree of care and caution is ing almost wholly in the colonies, must be put to required in the handling such an object; it will the account of their commerce, the West-Indian shew that you ought not, in reason, to trifle with and the North American. All these are so in:er. so large a mass of the interests and feelings of the
woven, that the attempt to separate them would human race. You could at no time do so without tear to pieces the contexture of the whole; and, if guilt, and he assured you will not be able to do is not entirely desiroy, would very much depreciate long wiih impunity.
the value of all the parts. I therefore consiler But the population of this country, the great and these three deno ninations to be, what in effect growing population, though a very important con
they are, one trade. sideration, will lose much of its weight if not coin The trade to the colonies, taken on the export bined with other circumstances. The commierce of side, at the beginning of this century, that is, in your colonies is out of all proportion beyond the the year 1704, stood thus: numbers of the people. This ground of their com- Esports to North America and the West. merce indeed has been trod some days ago, and Joilies,
€483 265 with great ability, by a distinguished" person at To Africa,
86,665 your bar. This gentleman, after thirty-five years -it is so long since he first appeared at the same
56.,930 place to plead for the commerce of G:eat Britain, has come again before you to plead the same cause, In the year 1772, which I take as a middle year without any other effect of time than that, to the between the highest and the lowest of those lately fire of imagination, and extent of erudition, which laid on your table, the accounts were as follows: even then marked him as one of the first literary To North America, and the West. characters of his age, he has added a consummate Indies,
£4,791,734 kno:vledge in the commercial inierest of his coun- to Africa,
866,398 try, formed by a long course of eniightened and To which if you add the export trade to discriminating experience.
and from Scotland, which had in 1704
364,000 Sir, I should be inexcusable in coming after such a person with any detail, if a great part of the mem.
6,022,132 bers, who now fill the house, had not the misfortune to be absent when he appeared at your bar. Besides,
From five hundred and orld thousands, it has sir, I propose to take the matter at periods of time
grown to six millions; it has increased no less than Mr. Glover.
swelvefold. This is the state of the colony trade,