Scythæ or Cuthites, to their original place of residence, and ascertained their true history, I shall proceed to describe them in their colonies, and under various denominations.


As I have repeatedly mentioned Cushan, or Ethiopia, and it is likely to continually recur again ; I think it will be proper to describe the countries of this name, and the people, who were in like manner denominated : for, to the best of my knowledge, I never yet saw this properly performed. It is well known, that the Ethiopians were Cuthites or Cuseans. 9 Εκ μεν Χες, Χεσαιοι" ετοι Αιθιοπες εισιν. . Chus is the person, from whom the Cuseans are derived. They are the same people, as the Ethiopians. So also says Eusebius : 10 Xes, t& Audiomes. Chus was the person from whom came the Ethiopians. The name is supposed to have been given to this people from their com

o Zonaras. p. 21. Syneellus. p. 47. A.0.0"is, ir nete (Xys) ετι και νυν υπο εαυτων τε και των εν τη Ασια σαντων Χουσαιοι καλενTab. Josephi Antiq. I. 1. c. 6. p. 22. Chron.

Εκ της φυλης το Χαμ Χες ονοματι, Αιθιοψ. Chron. Pasch. p. 36. Ne@gwo úvos Xos T8 Asboros. Malala. p. 18.


p. 11.



plexion; as if it were from abw, and of: but it is not a name of Grecian original. It was a sacred term ; a title of the chief Deity : whence it was assumed by the people, who were his votaries, and descendants. Eustathius tells us, Διος επιOstov Ashof: Æthiops is a title of Zeus. Prometheus was styled Æthiops, who had particular honours among the people of the east. Lycophron styles him, Δαιμων Προμαθευς Αιθιοψ. Prometheus Æthiops, the Dæmon or tutelary Deity. Pliny, speaking of the country, says, that it was first called Ætheria, and then Atlantia : and last of all Æthiopia," a Vulcani filio Æthiope, from Æthiops, the son of Vulcan. Homer speaks of two nations only, which were named Æthiopes.

* Αλλ' ο μεν Αιθιοπας μετεκιαθε τηλοθ' εoντας,

Αιθιοπας, τοι διχθα δεδαιαται, εσχατοι ανδρων,
Οι μεν δυσομενα Υπεριoνος, οι δ' ανιοντος,

Neptune was now visiting the Ethiopians, who reside at a great distance : those Ethiopians, who

"Schol. in Homerum. Odyss. A. v. 22.
12 V. 533. Some read nequavbeus.
13 L. 9. p. 345.

Odyss. I. A. v. 22. Hesychius styles Dionusus. Alsoraids, or Αιθιοπα σαιδα. .


are divided into two nations, and are the most remote of mankind. One nation of them is towards the setting sun ; the others far in the east, where the sun rises. But this is much too limited. For, as the Cuthites got access into various parts of the world, we shall find an Ethiopia in most places where they resided. The Scripture seems to mention three countries of this name. One, and the nearest to Judea, was in Arabia, upon the verge of the desert, near Midian and the Red Sea. This is alluded to by the prophet Habakkuk, where he says that's he saw the tents of Cushan in affliction; and the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble. A second Ethiopia lay above Egypt to the south; and is taken notice of by the prophet Ezekiel, where he is foretelling the destruction of the latter country, and says, that it shall be laid waste from one extreme part to the other. Behold, therefore, I am against thee,

15 Habakkuk. c. 3. v. 7.

16 Ezekiel. c. 29. v. 10. Our version seems to be very faulty, and renders the passage, from the tower of Syene unto the borders of Ethiopia, or Cush. In a former treatise I was under a mistake, from understanding it in this light: but was led to the right interpretation by the version of Xantos Pagninus and Montanus. Migdol, or Magdalum, was a fort not far from Pelusium, at one extremity of the country: Syene was the uttermost city at the other extreme, and stood under the Tropic upon the borders 17 He

and against thy rivers : and I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste and desolate, from Migdol to Syene and the borders of Ethiopia. The third country, styled Ethiopia, comprehended the regions of Persis, Chusistan, and Susiava. rodotus takes notice of Ethiopians about these parts : and the country is mentioned by the prophet Zephaniah, when he speaks of the return of Judah from captivity. 18 From beyond the rivers of Cushan, or Ethiopia, my suppliants, even the daughter of my dispersed shall bring mine offering. The principal rivers to which he referred, were the "Ulai, Kur, Chobar, and Choaspes; all eastern branches of the Tigris, 'near which were the chief places of captivity. Still further east, beyond Carmania, was another region of this name, which by Eusebius is termed *Aibioπία, η βλεπεσα κατα Ινδες, προς Εύρονοτον, the Ethiopia, which looks towards the Indi, to the southeast : and even the Indi themselves, will in the sequel be found to have been Ethiopians. The sons of Chus came into Egypt under the name of Auritæ and Shepherds, as also of Ethiopians. Hence Egypt too inherited that name : δε (Αιγυπτος)-και Αερία, και Ποταμια, και ΑΙΘΙΟΠΙΑ, δια τες εκει Αιθιοπας, σερι ων τσολλοι των παλαιων ισορεσι. This country was called both Aeria, and Potamia, or the River Country; also Ethiopia ; which name it received from some Ethiopians, who settled there ; and of whom many of the very antient writers have spoken. The Cuthites settled at Colchus, the Colchis of the Greeks: in consequence of which it was called Cutaia and Ethiopia. * Jerome, in his Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers,

of Ethiopia. The meaning of the prophet is plain, that the whole length of Egypt, north and south, from Migdol the garrison to Syene, shall be utterly made desolate. Syene stood at the extremity of Pathros, or superior Egypt; Migdol, the fort, was near Daphnæ Pelusiæ, upon the sea. Jeremiah states the chief divisions of the country very accurately, speaking of the Jews who dwelt in the land of Egypt: which dwell at Migdol, and at Tahphanes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros. c. 44. v. 1. See Observations and Inquiries, &c. vol. vi. p. 123.

17 οι δε απ’ ήλια ανατολεων Αιθιοπες, διξοι γαρ δη εσρατευοντο, προσιτεταχατο τοισι Ινδοισι. διαλλασσοντες ειδος μεν εδεν τοισι έτεροισι, φωνην δε και τριχωμα μονον. 1. 7. c. 70. p. 541.

18 Zephaniah. c. 3. v. 10.

19 Upon the banks of the Ulai, or Eulæus, the prophet Daniel had his visions. Even Chaldea was esteemed Ethiopia ; and

21 Exanim

Tacitus, speaking of the Jews, whose ancestors came from Ur in Chaldea, styles them Æthiopum prolein. Histor. I. 5. c. 2.

20 Euseb. Chron. p. 12. he adds, aran Abbotla acos votor, iler εκπορεύεται ο Νειλος ποταμος,

24 Eustath. Comment. in Dionys. v. 241. p. 42. 22 Hieron. de Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis.

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