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of the people only, do, in this public manner, ins and whose aim is to trample upon all the rights of behalf of ourselves, and with the approbation, co humanity, would be sufficient to give the coward sent, and authority of our constitutenis, unanimously courage, and anima:e to the greatest feats in arms declare our willingness to concur in a vote of the the most supine and indolent.--Surely then, wbile congress, declaring the United Colonies free and America, the asylum of happiness and freedom, is independent states; provided, the forming the go-infested with a foe, whose sole aim is to rifle her vernmeat and the regulation of the internal police sons of every enjoyment that can render life desira. of this colony, be always reserved to the people of ble, you will be ready in arms to defend your coun. the said colony. And we do further call upon the try, your liberty, your wives, your children and nations of Europe, and appeal !o the Great Arbiter possessions, from rapine, abuse and destruction. and governor of the empires of the world, to wit.
From this grand and noble purpose, so worthy ness for us, that this declaration did not originate of the virtuous and brave, and we hun bly trust, so in ambition, or in an impatience of lawful authority, pleasing to Almighty God, you have had your but that we were driven to it in obedience to the
delegates assembled in council for several years first principles of nature, by the oppressions and
pust. For this, in April 1775, you arrayed your. cruelties of the aforesaid king and parliament of
selves in arms, defeated and put 10 flight that band Great Britain, as the only possible measure that of Britons, who, uninjured and unoffended, like was left us to preserve and establish our liberties, robbers and murderers, dared to assault your peace. and 10 transmit them inviolate to posterity. ful mansions; and for this, we trusi, you will be at Signed, by order of the conference,
all times ready to spend your blood and treasure. THOMAS MÄKEAN, president.
In addressing you upon the important subject of STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY. your own defence, should we attempt a narration In the house of representatives, January 26, 1777. of the causes of your danger; the many petitions Ordered, That the following address be printed, you have presented, praying but for peace, liberty
and a copy thereof sent to each minister of the and safety, and to avoid the necessity of shedding gospel within this state, to whom it is recommend the blood of your fellow men, and the unexampied ed to read the same the next Lord's day after he indignity and contempt with which those petitions shall receive it, to his people, immediately after were treated, it would be undeservedly to impeach the religious exercises of the day are over. And you of inattention to your own safety. also that a copy thereof be sent to the commar.d.
Let it suffice then to say, That when every other ing officer of each company of the militia while method taken by you was productive of nothing they are under arms, for the purpose of recruiting but insults; and that Aames in your houses, murders
on your persons, and robberies upon your property,
were returned in answer to your peaceable, bumble Friends and countrymen-When a people, within and dutiful petitions. reach of the highest temporal happiness human
When the force of Britain, with that of her allies, nature is capable of, are in danger of having it
was collected and drawn into exertion, to reduce wrested from them by an enemy whose paths are marked with blood, and an insupportable load of you from ease and afluence to slavery and vassilage,
the congress of the United States, despairing other. misery, which succeeding generations must bear
wise to es'ablish your safety upon principles which through painful centuries of time, is offered in.
would render it durable, made that declaration by stead of it, to rouse the brave, invite the generous, which you became independent of Great Britain, quicken the slow, and awaken all to a sense of
and in which character alone you can be secure and their danger, is a measure as friendly as it is im.
But as the increasing power and opulence of the The danger of having your towns, your families, United States are now the dread and envy of those your fruitful fields, and all the riches and blessings whose avaricious and ambitious minds had laid a derived from the industry and wisdom of your plan for the monopoly and enjoyment of them, a venerable ancestors, who may justly be ranked large army is necessary for your defence; and the among the most virtuous and brave men that the congress have therefore determined upon eighty. world ever produced, ravished from you, and eight battalions, of which fifteen are to be raised possessed by a banditti whom no laws can controul, by this state. The militia who have been marcher!
TO THE PEOPLE OY MASSACHUSETTS BAY.
to aid the srny under the conduci of t at man determined as to the justice of those acts, and whose fortitude, virtue and patience, is perhaps must have seen them founded on despotism, and without example (and w'io hourly, without any replete with slavery; but they do not tell you that reward but the approbation of his own mind) is their sovereign has the least intention to repeal any risquing his all in your cause, will soon be on their 'one of those acis; surely then a revision of them return; the enemy, angry at the chastisement jestly can never restore your freedoin, or in the least given them for their unprovoked cruelties to our alleviate your burdens. brethren in the Jersies, are watching an opportunity to return the blow.
But those commissioners, although they offer
themselves as the ambassadors of peace, and invite A farther draft from the militia would so much you to what they call the mild and gentle govern. burthen the people of this state, that this court ment of Britain, mark their footsteps with blood, cannot think of it without pain and anxiety. We rapine, and the most unesampled barbarities, dishave therefore, being sensible that you need no other tributing their dreadful and savage severity as well stimulous to your duty than having the line of it drawn to the submissive as the obstinate, while neicher for you, directed that a number of men, amount. rank, sex or age, exempts any from the effects of ing to one seventh part of all the male persons, of their brutal passions. six een and upwards, should be immediately engaged in the continental army, upon the encouragement
Should America be overcome by, or submit to given by government-this encouragement we con. Britain, the needy and almost perishing (enant in ceive to be greater than any ever yet given, even Ireland, disarmed and having but little property in to the greatest mercenarios--surely then a people the production of his toil and labor, selling the called to fight, not to support crowns and princi. bread for which his tender infants are suffering, palities, but for their own freedom and happiness, to pay the haughty landlord's rent or insulting col. will readily engage.
lector's tax, would be but a faint resemblance of
your calamity. That the encouragement given might fully answer the designs of government and the expeciation of Society, where no man is bound by other laws the soldiery, this court bave settled the price of than those to which he gives his own consent, is every necess-ry and convenient article of life pro.
the greatest ornament, and tends most of all things duced in this country, and also the price of foreign to the felicity of human nature, and is a privilege gools in a just propor:ion to their prices in the which can never be given up by a people without place from which they are imported, considering their being exceedingly guilty before Him, who is
the bestower of every good and perfect gift. the risque of importation. And nothing is now wanting to give value to the soldier's wages, and stability to our currency, but the vigorous and
We, therefore, for the sake of that religion, for
the enjoyment whereof your ancestors led to this punctual execution and observance of that act, which we hope to see speedily effected by the pub. country, for the sake of your laws and fulure lic virtue and zeal of this people in the cause of felicity, entreat and urge you to act vigorously and
firmly in this critical situation of your couny.their country.
And we doubt not but that your noble exertions, Bit lest some of you should be deceived by the under the smiles of Heaven, will ensure you that misrepresentations of designing men, we must re success and freedom due to the wise man and the mind you that all the pretensions to peace and re patriot. conciliation, so pompously dealt out in the insidious proclamations of the cornmissioners of the king of Above all, we earnestly exhort you to contribute Great Britain, amount to nothing more than an in all within your power to the encouragement of vitation to give up your country, and submit un. those virtues, for which the Supreme Being has conditionally to the government of the British par declared that he will bestow his blessings upon a liament. They tell you that their king is graciously nation, and to the discouragement of those vices disposed to revise all acis which he shall deem in- for which he overturns kingdoms in his wrath; and compatible with your safety. But your good sense that at all proper times and seasons you seek to will lead you to determine, that if he is a prince Hiin, by prayer and supplication, for deliverance worthy to reign over a free people, and a friend to from the calamities of war, duly considering that the rights of mankind, he would long ago Lave without bis powerful aid, and gracious interposis
tion, all your endeavors must prove abortive and out the unanimous consent of which jury, he canVain.
not be found guilty:- Nor can he be comp led to Sent up for concurrence,
give evidence against himself; nor can any man be SAMUEL FREEMAN, speaker. P. T.
jastly deprived of his liberty, excep: by the laws of In council, January 28, 1777.- Read and concurred. the land, or the judgment of bis peers.” JOIN AVERY, D Secry.
1. "That the people have a right to hold them. TO THE PRESIDENT AND COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA. selves, their houses, papers and possessions, free The remonstrance of the subscribers, freemen, a d from search or seizure, and therefore warrants
inhabitants of the city of Philadelphia, now confined without oaths or affirmations first made, affording in the Free Muson's Lodge.
a sufficient foundation for them, and whereby any
officer or messenger may be commanded or require SAXWETK,That the subscribers bave been, by ed to search suspected places, or to seize any person virtue of a warrant, signed in council by George or persons, bis or their properiy not particularly Bryan, vice president, arrested in our bouses, and descried, are contrary to that rigbt, and ought not on our lawful occasions, and conducted to this
to be granted.” place, where we have been kept in close confine. ment, under a strong military gnard, two or more How far these principles have been adhered to, days--that although divers of us demanded of the in the course of this business, we shall go on to messengers, who arrested us, and insisted on hav. shew. ing copies of the said warrani, yet we were not
Upon the examinatich of the said warrant, we find able to procure the same, till this present time, it is, in all respect*, inadequate to these descripbut have remained here unaccused and unheard.tions, altogether unprecedented in this or any free We now take the earliest opportuniiy of laying country, both in its substance, and the latitude
e given our grievances before your body, from whom we to the messengers who were to execute it, and apprehend they proceed, and of claiming to our wholly subversive of the very constitution you proselves the liberties and privileges to which we are fess to support.- The only charge on which it is entitled by the fundamental rul s of justice, by founded, is a recommendation of congress to apour birthright and inheriiance, the laws of the land; prehend and secure all persons who, in their geneand by the express provision of the present con ral conduct and conversation, have evidenced a stitution, under which your board derive their disposition inimical to the cause of America, and power.
particularly naming some of us--but not suggestWe apprehend, that no man can lawfully be deing the least offence to have been committed by us. prived of his liberty, without a warrant from some It authorises the messengers to search all papers persons having competent authority, specifying an belonging to us, upon a bare possibility, that some. offe ice against the laws of the land, supported by thing political may be found, but without the least oath or affirmation of the accuser, and limiting the ground for a suspicion of the kind. time of bis imprisonment, until he is heard, or le. gally discharged, unless the party be found in the
It requires papers, relative to the sufferings of
the people called Quakers, to be seized, without actual perpetration of a crime. Natural justice, equally with law, declares that the party accused limiting the search to any house, or number of ghould know what he is to answer to, and have an
houses; under color of which, every house in this
city, might be broke open. opportunity of shewing his innocence. These principles are strongly enforced in the ninth and tenih To the persons whom the congress have thought sections of the declaration of rights, which form a proper to seleci, the warrant adds a number of the fundamental and invioiable part of the constitution, inhabitants of the city, of whom some of us are from which you derive your power, wherein it is part; without the least insinuation, that they are deciared:
within the description given by the congress, in
their recommendation. IX. “That, in all prosecutions for criminal of. fences, a man bath a right to be heard by himself It' directs all these matters to be executed (tho'. and his cou'.cil, o demand the cause and nature of of the highest importance to the liberties of the his accusa jon, to be conf onted with the witnesses, people) at the discretion of a set of men, who are to call for evidence in his favor, and a speedy pub. under no qualification for the due execuiion of the lic trial by an impartial jury of the cocoty; with office, and are unaccustomed tolhe forms of execu:
ing civil process; from whence, probably, have pro- with your THEN professions, or your repeated deceeded the excesses and irregularities committed clarations in favor of general liberty. by some of them, in divers instances, by refusing to give copies of the process to the parties arrested,
In the name, therefore, of the whole body of by denying to some of us, a reasonable time to the freemen of Pennsylvania, whose liberties are consider of answers, and prepare for confinement. radically struck at in this arbitrary imprisonment In the absence of others, by breaking our desks, of us, their unoffending fellow-citizens--we demand and other private repositories—and by ransacking
an audience, toat so our innocence may appear, and and carrying off domestic papers, printed books, persecution give place to justice.-—But if, reand o her matters not within the terins of the gardiess of every sacred obligation by which men warrant.
are bound to each other in society, and of that con
stitution by which you protess to govern, which It limits no time for the duration of our im- you bave so loudly magnified for the free spirit it prisonment, nor points at any hearing, which is an breathes, you are still determined to proceed, be absolute requisite to make a legal warrant; but the appeal to the Righieous Judge of all the earth confounds in one warrant, the power to apprehend, for the integrity of our hearts, and the unparalleled and the authority to commit, without interposing tyranny of your measures. a judicial officer between the parties and the mes.
James Pemberton, senger.
Thomas Wharton, Upon the whole, we conceive this warrant, and
Thomas Coombe, the proceedings thereupon, to be far more danger
Edward Pennington, ous in its tendency, and a more flagrant violation
Henry Drinker, of every right which is dear to freemen, than any
Phineas Bond, that can be found in the records of the English
Thomas Gilpin, constitution.
Thomas Pike, But when we consider the use to which this ge.
Owen Jones, jun. neral warrant has been applied, and the persons
Thomas Affleck, upon whom it has been executed, (who challenge
Charles Jervis, the world to charge them with offence) it becomes
William Smith, brokeri of too great magnitude to be considered as the
William Drewet Smith, cause of a few.-It is the cause of every inhabitant,
Thomas Fisher, and may, if permitted to pass into a precedent,
Miers Fisher, establish a system of arbitrary power unknown but
Charles Eddy, in the inquisition, or the despotic courts of the
Israel Pemberton, East.
Samuel Pleasants. What adds further to this alarming stretch of power is, that we are informed the vice president Mason's Lodge, Philadelphia, Sepi. 4th, 1777. of the council, has declared to one of the magistrates of the city, who called on him to enquire into the
N. B The three last subscribers, were first cause of our confinement, that we were to be sent attended by some of those, who executed the geto Virginia OXIEABD.
neral warrant; but after their remonstrance to the
president and council, were arrested by LEWIS Scarcely could we believe such a declaration Nicota, and conducted to the Lodge, by a special could have been made by a person who fills the order to him. second place in the government, till we were this day confirmed in the melancholy truth by three of The foregoing remonstrance was delivered to the subscribers, whom you absolutely refused to Thomas Wharton, jun. president, &c. last evening, hear in person, or by council. We would remind who promised to lay it before council, and send you of the complaints urged by numbers of your. an answer to one of the gentlemen, who delivered selves against the parliament of Great Britain, for it to him this morning; but no answer bas yet been
received. condemning the town of Boston UNHEARD, and we call upon you to reconcile your PRESEat conduct September 5th half past two o'clock, P, M.
hinder you from heading a ligh: infantry company. To the honorable the representatives of the counties of
That I may give you some evidence of my zeal for Nerocastle, Kent and Sussex, in general assembly the good of my country, I must inform you that I
am first lieut, of a light infantry company-and that met, 14th March, 1775. The petition of the inhabitants, freemen of Kent the hon. committee of safety at their late meeting
in Dover, honored me with the appointment of surcounty, most humbly sheweth: That we conceive a well regulated militia, com.geon to the first battalion in our county. I am posed of the gentlemen freeholders and other free. pleased with the public transactions of your pro
vince. Does the conduct of the people at large, nen, to be not only a constitutional right, but the natural strength and most stable security of a free correspond with the transactions of your public as. government, from the exercise of which a wise semblies? Our militia is now completely formed people will not excuse themselves even in time of throughout the government, and it completely dis
graces a man not to enrol.-Of the company I bepeace.
long to, above sixty are in genteel regimentals, with That happily secure in the affectionate protec- light infantry caps, and will soon be fully accou. tion of our mother country, we have for some time tered. In short, I was never so completely new past been carelessly negligent of military art and modelled in so short a time; instead of the careless discipline, and are therefore the more exposed to and secure appearance we made six months ago, the insult and ravages of our natural enemies at you will now find most of us in a regimental dress this unhappy time, when we have lost our inte. with swords upon our thighs. rest in the esteem and affection of our parent state.
Bu: I must conclude with wishing to hear from We, therefore pray your honors to take our case you, and assuring you that I remain, into your most serious consideration, and, by passing
Your affectionate humble servant, an act of assembly establishing a militia throughout
JAS. TILTON. this government, grant us relief in the premises,
Seventh month 27th, 1775. and your petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever
To the committee now sitting at Dover. pray.
Wbereas I understand you have been pleased to Letter from Dr. Tilton to Dr. Elmer, 1775.
advertise without any distinction of age or religion, : I have little more than time to enquire of you all those who refuse to take up arms to appear at whether you ever received the answer I sent to Dover this day, in order to give reasons why they your letter, received soon after I saw you at Phila- don'tį enrol, and I expect I am one of these trangdelphia. I am unwilling to think you either negli. Sressors; and I not being willing to give any offence, gent or forgetful of me, but I am much disposed but to follow after peace with all men-for wiih. to abuse our intermediate friend, Mr. D.-He kept out wbich, no man shall see the Lord. And look. your letter from me I don't know how long, and 1 ing on it as a duty on all Christians to be subtake it for granted has lost mine altogether-thus ject to every law and ordinance of man, for con. you have been deceived and I have been abused science sake, where such laws and ordinances and injured.
are not repugnant to the law of God and their
religious principles, so I, as one who hath re. It would be impertinent to trouble you
ceived favor from God, and one under the obli. dical nonsense now. The important concerns of
gation of keeping his law, will let you know my, our country engage every mind. It will be unne.
several reasons why I am thus delinquent-the cessary for me to comment or enlarge upon the
chief of which is as fillows: Whereas the Lord my arguments offered on either or both sides. I will
God hath been pleased by his Almighty power, to only mention the conclusion which I have drawn deliver my soul from the bondage of sin and death, from them, and the principle upon which I act.
and hath set up his law in my heart, with his strict consider the imposition offered us by Great Britain
command to obey the saine at the risk of the loss as unreasonable, unjust and affrontive; I am, there.
of his kesty favor, which is of more value to ina than fore, determined to resist to the uttermost, trusting all the transitory things of this world, and even my the event to Providence.
life, which, if required, I am ready to ofl'er up a I am informed by the reverend father who sacrifice for his säke-now, this I do not refuse brings you this, that you have taken an active part to do out of any obstinacy or opposition to my in this time of trouble; that physic itself, does 'not countrymen, but because I verily believe God to